Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations. Since 1855, its headquarters has been located on the Quai d'Orsay, 37. "Quai d'Orsay" is used as a metonym for the ministry. Its cabinet minister, the Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs is responsible for the foreign relations of France; the current minister, Jean-Yves Le Drian, was appointed in May 2017. In 1547, secretaries to the King became specialized, writing correspondence to foreign governments, negotiating peace treaties; the four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, became centralized with one becoming first secretary responsible for international relations. The Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, was renamed "Minister of Foreign Affairs" in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794 by the National Convention and re-established with the Directory.
For a brief period in the 1980s, the office was retitled Minister for External Relations. As of 17 May 2017, the ministry is designated the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs and led by Jean-Yves Le Drian. There are multiple services under its authority, along with that of some other ministers. Under the authority of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, that of Cooperation and European Affairs, that of Foreign and European Affairs, there are numerous services directly related to the ministers. Here is a list of those services; the ministers' cabinet The office of cabinets, which gathers a personnel in charge of the administrative and logistics aspects of the three ministers' cabinets The budget control service General inspection of foreign affairs The prospective office The Protocole, upon which the President's protocole cell relies on The Crisis management Department 140 Ministries of Foreign Affairs on the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs website. Official site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official treaty database of France Dictionnaire historique des institutions, mœurs et coutumes de la France, Adolphe Chéruel, L. Hachette et cie, 1855 "Ministries 1700–1870", Rulers.org
2011 French Socialist Party presidential primary
The 2011 French Socialist Party presidential primary was the first open primary of the French Socialist Party and Radical Party of the Left for selecting their candidate for the 2012 presidential election. The filing deadline for primary nomination papers was fixed at 13 July 2011 and six candidates competed in the first round of the vote. On election day, 9 October 2011, no candidate won 50 percent of the vote, the two candidates with the most votes contested a runoff election on 16 October 2011: François Hollande won the primary, defeating Martine Aubry. After the Socialist Party presidential primary of 1995 and the Socialist Party presidential primary of 2006 restricted to active members of the French Socialist Party, the principle of a primary open to all supporters of the Left for the 2012 race for the presidency was approved by the members of the Socialist Party in October 2009; the left-leaning think tank Terra Nova proposed the idea of an open primary for the Socialist Party in 2008, although the idea had been pursued in the previous election cycle by Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg of the Radical Party of the Left, who wrote a letter to the editor on 14 September 2004 for the newspaper Le Monde.
Schwartzenberg introduced a bill on 28 February 2006 in the National Assembly which would have outlined rules for open partisan primaries in French presidential elections. At the beginning of May 2011, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, at that time managing director of the International Monetary Fund, was the opinion polls' clear favorite to become the Socialist Party candidate for the 2012 French presidential election, as well as for winning the presidency itself. There was controversy over the so-called Porschegate affair when he was pictured stepping into a €100,000 Porsche car, giving rise to criticism of his affluent lifestyle and to accusations of "champagne socialism", it seemed certain that he would return to France and bid for the presidency in 2012. However, on 14 May 2011, Strauss-Kahn was arrested in New York on charges of the sexual assault and attempted rape of a hotel room attendant, he was obliged to resign his IMF post and it was accepted at the time that he could not be expected to take any part in the Socialist Party primary.
On 1 July 2011, there came a marked sea-change in Strauss-Kahn's fortunes when he was released on his own recognizance from house-arrest and bail at a court-hearing requested by the prosecution. This followed a letter sent by the New York District Attorney to Strauss-Kahn's defence lawyers disclosing information about the room attendant which appeared to call into question her credibility. Strauss-Kahn's release led to immediate speculation of an eventual return to politics even participation in the primary; the Paris politician and advocate of gender equality Michèle Sabban asked that the primary be suspended to discuss the possibility of Strauss-Kahn's participation. At 13 July 2011, the closing date for nominations, Strauss-Kahn had not declared his candidacy; the charges against Strauss-Kahn were dismissed on 23 August 2011. The prevailing view in the media was that he could not make an immediate return to politics and his chances of being nominated as the 2012 Socialist candidate were dead.
An opinion poll conducted by CSA on 23/24 August showed that 80% of the French people did not want Strauss-Kahn to contest the Socialist candidacy, while a majority further did not want him to play any part in the forthcoming presidential election or to participate in any eventual Socialist government. On 18 September 2011, in a televised interview, Strauss-Kahn confirmed he would not be a candidate and would not play any role in the Socialist primaries. Nominations for the candidacy were opened on 28 June 2011 and closed on 13 July 2011, with first round election to take place on 9 October 2011 and potential second round election on 16 October 2011. Unlike previous Socialist Party primaries, this was the first primary to be open to the general public. In order to participate to the open primary, voters had to meet the following conditions: be registered in the French electoral lists before 31 December 2010; the following candidates participated in the open primary: The six candidates participated in three televised debates on 15 September, 28 September and 5 October 2011.
In the first round election day, around 2,700,000 voters cast their ballots: Hollande won 39 percent of the vote, followed by Aubry with 30 percent and Montebourg at 17 percent. Former presidential candidate Royal came in fourth place with 7 percent of the vote. On 9 October 2011, after the first results of the first round, Manuel Valls called his voters to cast their ballots in favor of François Hollande. On 14 October 2011, Arnaud Montebourg did not instruct his voters how to vote, although he explained he would cast his ballot for Hollande. François Hollande and Martine Aubry contested a runoff election on 16 October 2011, after a televised debate held on 12 October 2011. 2,900,000 voters participated to the second round: François H
Cholet is a commune of western France in the Maine-et-Loire department. It was the capital of military Vendée. In 1906 the population was 16,554, 54,632 in 2006. Cholet stands on an eminence on the right bank of the Moine, which used to be crossed by a bridge from the fifteenth century, it is about 50 km southeast of Nantes. The town owes the rise of its prosperity to the settlement of weavers there by Édouard Colbert, count of Maulévrier, a brother of the great Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it became an estate of Gabriel François, Count de Rougé and Marquess of Cholet, who developed the city and its economy. The main commercial mall being built this year is named after him: The "Arcades Rougé". During the early years of the French revolutionary wars, the town found itself at the heart of the counter-revolutionary struggle in the Vendée, culminating in October 1793 with the Battle of Cholet, won by the republicans and followed by a period of brutal government repression. Cholet was the departure of Stage 5 in the 2008 Tour de France.
It is scheduled to host a Team Time Trial stage in the 2018 Tour de France. According to the Jan 10th 1885 edition of Corbett's Herald, a temporary theatre had collapsed on an audience of 1000, causing 150 fatalities. A public garden occupies the site of the old castle. Megalithic monuments are numerous in the neighborhood. A textile museum exists to conserve the traditional machines used to create the famous handkerchiefs made in this town, as well as the techniques used to make them and the oral and local history associated with the industry. There are granite quarries in the vicinity of the town; the chief industry is the manufacture of linen and linen handkerchiefs, carried on in the neighboring communes on a large scale. Woolen and cotton fabrics are produced, bleaching and the manufacture of preserved foods are carried on. Cholet is the most important center in France for the sale of fat cattle and pigs, for which Paris is the chief market. Cholet Aérodrome serves Cholet; the Gare de Cholet railway station offers regional services towards Angers.
SO Cholet is based in the commune. Cholet Basket is based in the commune. Stage 3 of the 2018 Tour de France started and finished in Cholet Cholet is twinned with: Oldenburg, Germany since 1985 Dorohoi, Romania Solihull, United Kingdom Dénia, Spain Sao, Burkina Faso – cooperation Araya, Lebanon Pierre-De Saurel Regional County Municipality – twinning of the communauté d'agglomération Gilbert Prouteau (1917-2012, poet and film director. François Morellet, painter and light artist Antoine Rigaudeau, basketball player Communes of the Maine-et-Loire department INSEE commune file This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cholet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 267. Official website
Saint-Herblain is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France. It is the largest suburb of the city of Nantes, lies adjacent to its west side; the commune is named after the 7th-century AD Saint Hermeland and confessor under the Frankish king Chlothar III. In 2008, 0,36% of the children attended the bilingual schools in primary education; the school network in Breton Diwan has opened a college in the first in the area. The Gare de Basse-Indre-Saint-Herblain railway station is served by regional trains between Nantes and Saint-Nazaire. Saint-Herblain has town twinning and cooperation agreements with: Communes of the Loire-Atlantique department INSEE commune file Official Web site
University of Nantes
The University of Nantes is a French university, located in the city of Nantes. In addition to the several campuses scattered in the city of Nantes, there are two satellite campuses located in Saint-Nazaire and La Roche-sur-Yon; the University is attended by 34,500 students. More than 10% of them are international students coming from 110 countries; the University of Nantes was ranked between 401-500th in the Times Higher Education of 2016. On a national scale and regarding the professional insertion after graduation, the University of Nantes oscillates between the ranks 3rd and 40th out of 69 universities depending on the field of studies. Among its noticeable alumni are French Agriculture minister and Government spokesperson Stéphane Le Foll and the former Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault; the current University was founded in 1970 under the terms of the 1968 law which reformed French higher education. This newly established institution replaced the former University of Nantes, founded in the early 1960s.
This itself was a re-establishment of the original University of Nantes, established by papal bull in 1460 but was abolished during the French Revolution. The university of Brittany is found by Bertrand Milon on April 4, 1460, at the initiative of the duke François II of Brittany under the form of a papal bull of the Pope Pie II given to Sienne; this embodies the wish of François II to affirm his independence towards the French king, while near the duchy in Angers in 1432, Poitier in 1432 and Bordeaux in 1441, some universities are created. Found under the structure of a studium generale, this university can teach all traditional disciplines: Arts, Theology and Medecin; the number of students between the end of the 15th century and during the two following centuries reach a thousand or 1500, according to the highest estimates. The first attempt to move the university of Nantes to Rennes takes place at the end of the 16th century. French king, Henry IV wants to punish Nantes, a ligueuse ville pour its support of the duke of Mercoeur.
The university receives an order from the king by a letter of August 8, 1589 to mouve to Rennes, a city remains loyal to the monarchy. The institution is however not moved because of financial issue. A new letter of September 5, 1591 from the king reiterate the order of transfer, but again without application. On April 1598, a last king's letter stabilise the situation by confirming the establishment of the university in Nantes. Since 2004, the University has followed the LMD European system that divides the post-secondary education in 3 degrees: the Licence, the Master and the Doctorat; each course provides credits according to the European Credit Transfer System developed by the European Commission and a certain number of credits will allow a student to obtain their degree. For instance, the first post-secondary education degree, the Licence, can be obtained with 180 ECTS accumulated within 3 years. A full year gives 60 ECTS while a semester gives 30 ECTS. Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Psychology Faculty of Science and Technology Faculty of Law and Political Science Department of History, Art History and Archaeology Department of Humanities and Languages Department of Languages - International Language Centre Department of Sociology Department of Science and Technology of Physical Activities and Sports Institute of Geography and Regional Planning of Université de Nantes Institute of Economics and Management - Institute of Business Administration Institute for Research and Education in French as a Foreigh Language Institute of Teacher Training Institute of Preparation for General Administration Observatory of Earth and Planetary Sciences Institute of Technology of Nantes Institute of Technology of La Roche-sur-Yon Institute of Technology of Saint-Nazaire School of Engineering - École Polytechnique de Nantes The University offers the students to practice more than 50 different sports, whether it is for competitive or recreational purposes.
The University provides adapted training to athlete students and participates in national and international competitions in the following disciplines: athletics, badminton, French boxing, hockey, judo and sailing. In 2011, the University was one of the first French universities to create a quidditch team. 3,500 places on residence are available each year. These places are distributed by the CROUS on a social status basis taking into account the yearly income of the student's parents or legal representative, the number of siblings remaining under the parents' responsibility and the distance between the University and the student's place of residence. There are two types of residences: The traditional ones gather 9 m² single bedrooms in a building with common bathrooms and kitchens at each floor; the renovated ones with individual furnished apartments going from 13 to 18m². The CROUS from Nantes manages the different student restaurants on campus as well as the meals they offer. Most of the restaurants are open for lunch and dinner from Monday to Friday and offer a complete meal at a price regulated on a yearly basis.
For the academic year of 2013-2014, the price of a meal was set at €3.15. La Chantrerie La Lombarderie Le Grill CHANZY Le Restaurant Oniris Chantrerie Le Restaurant Universitaire de la Fleuriaye Le Ricordeau Le Rubis Le Tertre Heinlex Gavy La Courtaisière The University has partnerships with 397 institutions in 60 different countries worldwide; the majority of these partnerships are located in Europe. Each year, more than 1,000 students go abroad to study in one of those partner institutions
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande is a French politician who served as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017. He was the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008, President of the Corrèze General Council from 2008 to 2012. Hollande served in the National Assembly of France twice for the department of Corrèze's 1st constituency from 1988 to 1993, again from 1997 to 2012. Born in Rouen and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hollande began his political career as a special advisor to newly elected President François Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman, he became a member of the National Assembly in 1988 and was elected First Secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997. Following the 2004 regional elections won by the Socialists, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but resigned as First Secretary and was elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as President of the General Council of Corrèze in 2008.
In 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the primary election to select the Socialist Party presidential nominee. During his tenure, Hollande legalised same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. 344, reformed labour laws and credit training programmes, withdrew French combat troops present in the Afghanistan military intervention and concluded a EU directive through a Franco-German contract. Hollande led the country through 2016 Nice attacks, he was a leading proponent of EU mandatory migrant quotas and NATO's 2011 military intervention in Libya. He sent troops to Mali and the Central African Republic with the approval of the UN Security Council in order to stabilise those countries, two operations seen as successful; however his support of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen drew controversy among his left-wing electoral basis. Under his term, France became the most toured country in the world, known as a nation of open markets, regulatory efficiency, rule of law and limited governmental intervention.
Paris hosted the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Hollande's efforts to attract the 2024 Summer Olympics to the city were successful. Notwithstanding, with unemployment up to 10% as of December 2016 and domestic troubles over his tenure due to terrorism, he faced spikes and downturns in approval rates making him one of the most unpopular French Presidents in history. On 1 December 2016, he announced he would not seek re-election in the 2017 French presidential election. François Hollande was born on 12 August 1954 in Rouen, his mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert, was a social worker, his father, Georges Gustave Hollande, is a retired ear and throat doctor who "ran for local election on a far right ticket in 1959." The name "Hollande" meant "one from Holland" – it is found in Hollande's ancestral land, Hauts-de-France, it is speculated to be Dutch in origin. The earliest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller; when Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a exclusive suburb of Paris.
He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, receiving his baccalaureate in 1972 graduated with a bachelor's degree in Law from Panthéon-Assas University. Hollande studied at HEC Paris, graduated in 1975, attended the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he did his military service in the French Army in 1977. He chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. Hollande lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 as a university student. After graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit. Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party, he was spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to run in legislative election of 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, the leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party.
Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round. He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party; as the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995. Former party leader Lionel Jospin resumed his position, selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman.
Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997 returning to the National Assembly. That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of F