Jules Eugène Louis Jouvet was a French actor and theatre director. Overcoming speech impediments and sometimes paralyzing stage fright as a young man, Jouvet's first important association was with Jacques Copeau's Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier, beginning in 1913. Copeau's training included a varied and demanding schedule, regular exercise for agility and stamina, pressing his cast and crew to invent theatrical effects in a bare-bones space, it was there Jouvet developed his considerable stagecraft skills makeup and lighting. These years included a successful tour to the United States. While influential, Copeau's theater was never lucrative. Jouvet left in October 1922 for the Comédie des Champs-Élysées. In December 1923 he staged his single most successful production, the satire Dr. Knock, written by Jules Romains, his characterization of the manipulative crank doctor was informed by his own experience in pharmacy school. It became his standby. Jouvet began an ongoing close collaboration with playwright Jean Giraudoux in 1928, with a radical streamlining of Giraudoux's 1922 Siegfried et le Limousin for the stage.
Their work together included the first staging of The Madwoman of Chaillot in 1945, at the Théâtre de l'Athénée, where Jouvet served as director from 1934 through his death in 1951. Jouvet starred in some 34 films, including two recordings of Dr. Knock, once in 1933 and again in 1951, he was professor at the French National Academy of Dramatic Arts. He had a heart attack while at his beloved Théâtre de l'Athénée and died in his dressing room on 16 August 1951. Jouvet is buried in the Montmartre Cemetery in Paris; the Athénée theatre now bears his name. Disney Pixar paid homage to Jouvet by basing the appearance of the character Anton Ego in Ratatouille on him. French-Argentine actor Maurice Jouvet was his second nephew. British actor Peter Wyngarde says that Jouvet is his uncle, but Jouvet's immediate family tree does not confirm this. 1931: original production of Judith, written by Jean Giraudoux, at the Théâtre Pigalle 1935: original production of The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, written by Jean Giraudoux, starring Jouvet as Homer starring Madeleine Ozeray, at the Athénée in Paris 1947: directed the première of Jean Genet's The Maids at the Athénée in Paris on 17 April.
1951: directed the première of Jean-Paul Sartre's The Devil and the Good Lord at the Théâtre-Antoine in Paris on 7 June. Louis Jouvet on IMDb Louis Jouvet at the Internet Broadway Database Louis Jouvet at Find a Grave Full text of English-language Jouvet biography online
The Trojan War Will Not Take Place
The Trojan War Will Not Take Place is a play written in 1935 by French dramatist Jean Giraudoux. In 1955 it was translated into English by Christopher Fry with the title Tiger at the Gates; the play follows the convention of the classical unities. Within the framework of the Iliadic myth of the Trojan War, Giraudoux criticizes diplomacy and the behaviour of the national leaders and intellectuals who brought about World War I and the lead-up to World War II; the play takes place the day before the outbreak of the Trojan War inside the gates of the city of Troy. It follows the struggle of the disillusioned Trojan military commander Hector, supported by the women of Troy, as he tries to avoid war with the Greeks. Hector's wife Andromache is pregnant, this reinforces his desire for peace. Along with his worldly-wise mother Hecuba, Hector leads the anti-war argument and tries to persuade his brother Paris to return Paris's beautiful but vapid captive Helen to Greece. Giraudoux presents Helen as not the epitome of destiny itself.
She claims that she can see the future by seeing what is coloured in her mind, she sees war. For Hector, Helen means only destruction, but for the other Trojan men, led by the poet Demokos, she represents an opportunity for glory. The peace agreement Hector negotiates with the visiting Greek commander Ulysses, is no match for Demokos' deliberate lies, at the end of the play, the seer Cassandra's cynical prediction that war cannot be avoided has been proven right. La guerre de Troie n'aura pas lieu was translated into English as Tiger at the Gates by Christopher Fry, in The Drama of Jean Giraudoux, vol. 1. La guerre de Troie n'aura pas lieu was first performed on 21 November 1935 in Paris at the Théâtre de l'Athénée in a production by Louis Jouvet with Jouvet as Hector, the role of Helen played by Madeleine Ozeray; the translation by Christopher Fry was first presented on 3 October 1955 in New York City by the Playwrights' Company with a British cast starring Michael Redgrave as Hector, Leueen MacGrath as Cassandra, Barbara Jefford as Andromache.
In 1956 this production was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Play. Michael Redgrave was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play, Diane Cilento was nominated for Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play, it won the New York Drama Critics Circle award for Best Foreign Play. 1n 1957 David Sarvis directed the The San Francisco Actor's Workshop production of Tiger at the Gates. Tiger at the Gates became an episode of "Play of the Week" in the US, going out on February 8, unrelated, was that same year an "ITV Play of the Week" in Britain, adapted by William Bast and airing 25 October. Robert Redford appeared in "Tiger at the Gates" during the 1959 season of the Bucks County Playhouse, in New Hope, Pennsylvania; the principals were Frances Reid. Other players included Anne Diamond, Richard Durham, Renie Riano, Arthur Anderson, Richard Longman, Samuel Kressen, Louise Fletcher, it was directed by Aaron Frankel. A Broadway revival at the Vivian Beaumont Theater in 1968, starring Philip Bosco as Hector, ran for 44 performances.
List of plays with anti-war themes Tiger at the Gates at the Internet Broadway Database La guerre de Troie n’aura pas lieu
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
Sceaux is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.7 km from the center of Paris. Sceaux is famous for the Château de Sceaux, set in its large park, designed by André Le Nôtre, measuring 2 km2; the original château was transformed into a School of Agriculture during the Revolution and lost much of its luster. It was demolished at the beginning of the 19th century following its sale by the French government. Sceaux castle was built by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance to Louis XIV and purchased by Louis' illegitimate son, the duke of Maine in 1699, his duchesse held court in a glittering salon at Sceaux in the first decades of the eighteenth century. The present château, rebuilt between 1856 and 62 in a Louis XIII style, is now the museum of Île-de-France open for visits. Housing costs are high, higher than in many districts of Paris with streets facing the Parc de Sceaux. Sceaux is one of the richest cities of France, according to the INSEE. Sceaux is served by three stations on Paris RER line B: Sceaux and Parc de Sceaux.
The latter station is located at the border between the commune of Sceaux and the commune of Antony, on the Antony side of the border. It is close to Paris-Orly Airport. Sceaux is connected to the A86 motorway; the commune offers a developed network of buses which are used by the Scéens. The commune has the following primary schools: Public preschools/nurseries: des Blagis, du Centre, Clos-Saint-Marcel, du Petit-Chambord Public elementary schools: des Blagis, du Centre, Clos-Saint-Marcel One private preschool and elementary school: Écoles maternelle et élémentaire Sainte-Jeanne-d’ArcSceaux hosts two cités scolaires, combined junior high schools and public high schools/sixth-form colleges, the lycée Marie Curie and the lycée Lakanal; the lycée Marie Curie was named after the famous scientist, married in, lived in, was interred in Sceaux with her husband Pierre Curie. The lycée Lakanal was named after a French politician, an original member of the Institut de France, Joseph Lakanal and has remained one of the most prestigious and hardest schools of Île-de-France.
The school offers a middle school and ranked "classes préparatoires" undergraduate training. Famous French scientists and writers have graduated from lycée Lakanal, such as Nobel Prize winners Maurice Allais, Jean Giraudoux, Alain-Fournier and Frédéric Joliot-Curie. There is a public vocational senior high, Lycée des métiers Florian. There is Externat Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc; the Faculté Jean Monnet, the college of Law and Management of University of Paris-XI, the Institut Universitaire de Technologie of this university are located in Sceaux. The Bibliothèque municipale de Sceaux is the communal library. Sceaux is home to one active national theater, the théâtre des Gémeaux, located in the quartier des Blagis, part of the "Scène Nationale" network of the major theaters in France; the théâtre des Gémeaux attracts viewers from all over Paris. Its main event is the Spring dance festival with an international program of the highest quality; the commune has a small movie theater, the Trianon, where international movies are released in their respective language and subtitled in French.
The theater is known for showing independent films and hosting special events. In 2006, a debate revolving around ecology was organized and Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth was shown. Various music events take place at Sceaux; the classical Music Festival established by Alfred Loewenguth in 1969, takes place in the Orangery built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart for the Marquis de Seignelay in 1686, in the Park at Sceaux. The Park houses an open air opera every summer at the end of June; the Parc de Sceaux was the location of Madonna's Parisian first visit with her Who's That Girl World Tour 29 August 1987, breaking the record of 131.000 people. In the classic French O-Level textbook series for English-speaking pupils, Le Francais d'Aujourd-hui, the Bertillon family move out to Sceaux from inner-city Paris during the course of the book's main narrative; the Parc de Sceaux is home to a population of red squirrels estimated to number between 100 and 120. Royal Leamington Spa Brühl Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department Ligne de Sceaux The works of Maxime Real del Sarte INSEE Sceaux official website
Electra (Giraudoux play)
Electra is a two-act play written in 1937 by French dramatist Jean Giraudoux. It was the first Giraudoux play to employ the staging of Louis Jouvet. Based on the classic myth of antiquity, Electra has a tragic force, without losing the spirit and sparkling humor that made Jean Giraudoux one of the most important playwrights of the mid twentieth century. Électre was translated into English as Electra in 1955 by Winifred Smith, again in 1964 by Phyllis La Farge and Peter H. Judd.Électre was first performed on 13 May 1937 in Paris at the Théâtre de l'Athénée in a production by Louis Jouvet. Agamemnon, The King of Argos, had sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia to the gods. In revenge, his wife, assisted by her lover, killed him on his return from the Trojan War. Orestes, the son was banished, but the second daughter Electra was allowed to remain: "She does nothing, says nothing, but she is there". As the play opens, Aegisthus wants to marry her to the palace gardener in order to deflect towards "the house of Théocathoclès anything that might cast an unfortunate light on the house of Atreus."
Electra, with the assistance of her dominated brother Orestes, who has returned from banishment, relentlessly seeks the murderer of her father, while feeling an implacable hatred for her mother. Electra and Orestes themselves are destroyed by the curse that follows the house of Atreus. Giraudoux's play is a rewriting of the myth, taken from an epic passage in Homer's Odyssey, it had been rendered in tragedies by Aeschylus and Euripides in the 5th century BC. With many anachronistic changes, including the role of the bourgeois couple as a burlesque reflection of the tragic couple, Elektra is another example of the timelessness of the tragedy. Written in 1937, it would in effect be a "bourgeois tragedy", according to Jean Giraudoux himself; this is the main theme of the play. Electra comes from the Greek Elektra which means "light". Electra is there to illuminate the truth. Thanks to her presence, many characters will reveal "their" truth, such as Agathe in Act II, 6. In addition and Aegisthus declare themselves throughout the play.
The character of the beggar helps restore the truth. It is he who explains how the story unfolds, who recounts the murder of Agamemnon, that of Aegisthus and Clytemnestra; the last scene shows Electra, in restoring the truth and dispossessed, decimating the city. The splendor of this truth was too violent; the last line, "It has a beautiful name, Narses, it is called the dawn" ends the play on a delicious note of ambiguity. Electra; as mentioned it is the central character. Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, she hates her mother who killed her father with the help of her lover Aegisthus, now Regent to the throne, she awaits the arrival of Orestes in revenge. Orestes. Electra's brother, he was young exile and returned to his family by appearing as a mere alien. Clytemnestra. Mother of Electra and Orestes, Agamemnon's widow and lover of Aegisthus, queen of Argos. Aegisthus. Regent, he holds the power in the city of Argos; the play begins on the consequences of his ideas: Electra married the gardener, thus deter the Gods of their views on the line of Atreus.
The Chairman. Second President of the court, he opposes Aegisthus. Agatha. President's wife, she is young and pretty, decides to deceive her husband; the gardener. Future husband of Electra, he looks after the garden of the palace, he belongs to the same family as the President. The Eumenides. Girls at the beginning of the play, they grow several years in a few hours, they are related to justice. The Beggar. Enigmatic character:. Narses. Friend of the Beggar. A young man A master The Butlers A groomsman Beggars Renee Devillers: Electra Gabrielle Dorziat: Clytemnestra Madeleine Ozeray: Agatha Raymone: Women Narses Martha Herlin: Fury Monique Mélinand: Fury Pezzani Denise: Fury Vera Perez: Little Fury Nicole Fitted Berny: Little Fury Clairette Fournier: Little Fury Louis Jouvet: The Beggar Pierre Renoir: Aegisthus Romain Bouquet: President Paul Cambo: Orestes Alfred Adam: The Gardener John Deninx: the young man Robert Bogar: Captain Maurice Castel: best man Julien Barrot: butler René Belloc: butler Andre Moreau: beggar Electra at the Internet Off-Broadway Database literary Comments: major scenes in the play
Ondine is a play written in 1938 by French dramatist Jean Giraudoux, based on the 1811 novella Undine by the German Romantic Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué that tells the story of Hans and Ondine. Hans is a knight-errant, sent off on a quest by his betrothed. In the forest he meets and falls in love with Ondine, a water-sprite, attracted to the world of mortal man; the subsequent marriage of people from different worlds is, of course, folly. By turns comic and tragic, Ondine is considered by some to be Giraudoux's finest work; the play opens in a fisherman's hut near a lake in the forest. Outside a storm rages. Here live his wife Eugenie, and here lives Ondine whom the old couple found as a baby at the edge of the lake, brought up in place of their own daughter, mysteriously snatched away as an infant. Auguste is upset; as Auguste rages, the wind, the King of the Ondines himself peer in at the windows mocking Auguste. Evidently this is not unusual—the old couple are well aware that Ondine is “not like anyone else”.
A knight-errant, Hans von Wittenstein zu Wittenstein, arrives seeking shelter. He is welcomed and while he is in the midst of telling Auguste and Eugenie about his betrothed, the princess Bertha, Ondine appears. On seeing Hans she says, “How beautiful he is!” In spite of taunts from Ondine's sister naiads, against the advice of Auguste, Hans falls in love with Ondine. All thought of Bertha, his “dark angel”—the woman who sent him off on his quest—is banished. Ondine in turn swears eternal love for Hans; the Old One warns her, “The man will deceive you. He will abandon you.” Ondine does not believe him. He gives a final warning “You will remember our pact.” Ondine reluctantly agrees. Act two opens in the great hall of the king's palace, it is. The Lord Chamberlain, who needs to arrange an entertainment for the day's ceremonies, is in conference with the director of the royal theater, the trainer of the seals, the Illusionist. Soon they are joined by several ladies of the court; the Illusionist says. As to what they would like to see, everyone is curious to see what will happen when Hans and the embittered Bertha meet after avoiding each other for three months.
The Illusionist says. Bertram objects asking, “Why are we doing this evil thing?” The Chamberlain cynically replies, “Sooner or it would have to happen. That's life.” They all watch as the inevitable events unfold. Hans and Bertha meet. Bertha manipulates Hans with guilt; the Illusionist gives the spectators a further glimpse into the future showing them the scene when Hans realizes that he married the wrong woman. Bertha intimately knows the Wittenstein family history, she plays the lute, she recites, she illuminates manuscripts—she is the perfect woman; when Bertha asks Hans what Ondine does that might advance her husband's interests at court, he replies, “Oh, she swims. Occasionally.” Continuing the play-within-a-play structure, the Illusionist presents the remaining events of the day in scenes which the astonished participants themselves watch from behind the pillar. The Chamberlain just has time to prepare Ondine for her reception with the king. Ondine is advised not to mention the wart on the king's nose.
Ondine tactlessly mentions that the Chamberlain's hand is damp and interrupts him to talk to Bertram with whom she establishes a rapport. At the king's reception Ondine cannot take her eyes off Bertha, she accuses Bertha of trying to steal Hans from her. The King says, “Bertha only wants to be your friend.” Ondine replies, “You are mistaken! Bertha is a hypocrite, she flatters you constantly. Has she dared to speak to you about...the wart on your nose?” In panic, the Chamberlain clears the room. Ondine is alone with the king; the king asks, “Who are you, Ondine?” Ondine explains everything and says that she weeps because “they are trying to take Hans away from me.” But what if they did, the king asks. “would that be such a misfortune?” Ondine answers, “Oh yes. If he deceives me, he will die.” The king says, “Men have been known to survive such things.” “Not this one,” Ondine replies. The Illusionist has one more scene. Bertha is revealed to be not the long lost daughter of Auguste and Eugenie; when Bertha refuses to acknowledge her true parents, the king banishes her.
She leaves sobbing but, at Ondine's urging, is soon forgiven. After the events of this disastrous day, Ondine laments, “Oh, how difficult it is to live among you, where what has happened can never again not have happened. How terrible to live where a word can never be unspoken and a gesture can never be unmade.” Act three takes place in the courtyard of castle of the Wittenstein. Five years have passed. Hans has deceived Ondine with Bertha, Ondine has long since vanished, it is the morning of the day of the marriage of Hans. But Hans is troubled, he tells Bertha, that she should have married a man full of joy. He complains, "Oh Bertha, how she lied to me, that woman!" Bertha points out. You must forget her." Hans remembers the day that Ondine left and asks, "But why does she proclaim to the world that she deceived me with Bertram?" In addition to being preoccupied with Ondine, Hans is worried because the servants are starting
Christopher Fry was an English poet and playwright. He is best known for his verse dramas, notably The Lady's Not for Burning, which made him a major force in theatre in the 1940s and 1950s. Fry was born as Arthur Hammond Harris in Bristol, the son of Charles John Harris, a master builder who retired early to work full-time as a licensed Lay Reader in the Church of England, his wife Emma Marguerite Fry Hammond Harris. While still young, he took his mother's maiden name because, on tenuous grounds, he believed her to be related to the 19th-century Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry, he adopted Elizabeth Fry's faith, became a Quaker. After attending Bedford Modern School, where he wrote amateur plays, he became a schoolteacher, working at the Bedford Froebel Kindergarten and Hazelwood School in Limpsfield, Surrey. In the 1920s he met the writer Robert Gittings. Fry gave up his school career in 1932 to found the Tunbridge Wells Repertory Players, which he ran for three years and starring in the English premiere of George Bernard Shaw’s A Village Wooing in 1934.
As a curtain raiser, he put on a revised version of a show he wrote when he was a schoolboy called The Peregrines. He wrote the music for She Shall Have Music in 1935, his play about Dr. Thomas John Barnardo, the founder of children's homes, toured in a fund-raising amateur production in 1935 and 1936, including Deborah Kerr in its cast, his professional career began to take off when he was commissioned by the vicar of Steyning, West Sussex, to write a play celebrating the local saint, Cuthman of Steyning, which became The Boy With A Cart in 1938. It would be put on professionally in 1950 with the young Richard Burton in his first starring role. Tewkesbury Abbey commissioned his next play, The Tower, written in 1939, seen by the poet T. S. Eliot, who became a friend and is cited as an influence. In 1939 Fry became artistic director of Oxford Playhouse. A pacifist, he was a conscientious objector during World War II, served in the Non-Combatant Corps. After the War he wrote a comedy, A Phoenix Too Frequent, produced at the Mercury Theatre, Notting Hill Gate, London, in 1946, starring Paul Scofield.
The show is a comedy, based upon Petronius's tale of the Ephesian widow, the false heroics of Dynamene's mourning of her husband in his tomb, her reawakening to the joy of life by a handsome officer who enters the tomb to rest on a course of duty. The Firstborn was produced at the Oxford Playhouse in 1948; the plot is that of Egypt in the throes of a threatening conflict between master and slave, with Moses denouncing his privileges as an Egyptian-reared soldier and finding new responsibility as a leader of his people. The play was produced by actress Katharine Cornell and featured two songs specially written for the play by Leonard Bernstein. In 1948 he wrote a commission for the Canterbury Festival, With Angels. Fry was commissioned to write a play by Alec Clunes, manager of the Arts Theatre in London; the result, The Lady's Not for Burning, was first performed there in 1948, directed by the actor Jack Hawkins. Due to its success, it transferred to the West End for a nine-month run, starring John Gielgud and featuring Richard Burton and Claire Bloom among the cast.
It was presented on Broadway in 1950, again with Burton. The play marked a revival in popularity for poetic drama, most notably espoused by T. S. Eliot, it is the most performed of all his plays and inspired British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to declaim, "You turn if you want to — the lady’s not for turning," at the Conservative Party conference in 1980. In 1950 Fry adapted a translation of Jean Anouilh’s Invitation to the Castle as Ring Round the Moon for director Peter Brook, he wrote Venus Observed, produced at the St James's Theatre by Laurence Olivier. A Sleep Of Prisoners followed in 1951, first performed at St Thomas' church in Regent Street, London, in 1951 and touring with Denholm Elliott and Stanley Baker; the Dark is Light Enough, a winter play starring Katharine Cornell and Edith Evans in 1954, was third in a quartet of "seasonal" plays, featured incidental music written by Leonard Bernstein. The production featured Tyrone Power, Lorne Greene and Marian Winters. Christopher Plummer had an understudy role.
This play followed the springtime of The Lady's Not For the autumnal Venus Observed. The quartet was completed in 1970 with A Yard Of Sun, representing summer, his next plays were translations from French dramatists: The Lark, an adaptation of Jean Anouilh’s L'Alouette, in 1955. Although Fry lived until 2005, his poetic style of drama began to fall out of fashion with the advent of the Angry Young Men of British theatre in the 1950s. Despite working for the cinema in the 1960s, he continued to write plays, including Curtmantle for the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1962, A Yard of Sun – the fourth in his seasonal quartet – at the Nottingham Playhouse in 1970. Curtmantle's plot deals with his conflict with Thomas Becket. A Yard of Sun is set just after World War II at the time of the famous annual horse race Palio di Siena in the streets of Siena. After the success of his post-war plays Fry bought Trebinshwn, a fine Regency house in Breconshire; when living there he used to walk over the hill behind the house, the Allt, to Llansantffraed church, where the 17th century poet Henry Vaughan is buried, Vaughan's poetry was a strong influ