click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jean Joseph Marie Amiot

Jean Joseph Marie Amiot was a French Jesuit missionary in Qing China, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Joseph Marie Amiot was born at Toulon, he was sent in 1750 as a missionary to China. He soon spent the remainder of his life at Beijing, he was a correspondent of the Académie des Sciences, official translator of Western languages for the Qianlong Emperor, the spiritual leader of the French mission in Peking. He died in Peking two days after the departure of the British Macartney Embassy, he could not meet Lord Macartney, but exhorted him to patience in two letters, explaining that "this world is the reverse of our own". He used a Chinese name. Amiot made good use of the advantages which his situation afforded, his works did more than any before to make known to the Western world the thought and life of the Far East, his Manchu dictionary Dictionnaire tartare-mantchou-français was a work of great value, the language having been quite unknown in Europe. In 1772 he translated The Art of War, one of the most influential war strategy and tactics treatises in military history, written around the 6th century BCE and attributed to General Sun Tzu, into French.

The first successful translation to English would not be achieved before another 138 years, in 1910. His other writings are to be found chiefly in the Mémoires concernant l'histoire, les sciences et les arts des Chinois; the Vie de Confucius, the twelfth volume of that collection, was more complete and accurate than any predecessors. Amiot tried to impress mandarins in Beijing with Rameau's harpsichord piece Les sauvages, a suite, reworked as part of Rameau's opera-ballet Les Indes galantes. Amiot was the first European to comment on the Chinese yo-yo. Amiot was the first European to ship free-reeded instruments from the orient to Europe; the introduction of the sheng was to set off an era of experimentation in free-reeded instruments that would lead to the invention of the harmonica. Catholic Church in China François Noël Jesuit China missions This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Amiot, Jean Joseph Marie". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.

Ching Wah LAM, "A Highlight of French Jesuit Scholarship in China: Jean-Joseph-Marie Amiot's Writings on Chinese Music", CHIME, Journal of European Foundation for Chinese Music Research, Leiden, 2005, 16-17: 127-147. Jim LEVY, "Joseph Amiot and Enlightenment Speculation on the Origins of Pythagorean Tuning", "THEORIA, University of North Texas Journal of Music Theory", Denton, 1989, 4: 63-88

Pot Luck (Ramsey Lewis album)

Pot Luck is an album performed by the Ramsey Lewis Trio, recorded in 1963 and released on the Argo label. Allmusic awarded the album 2 stars. All compositions by Ramsey Lewis except as indicated "Andaluza" - 3:20 "Look-A-Here" - 4:00 "Arrivederci Roma" - 5:35 "I Gave My Love a Cherry" - 4:45 "Loch Lomond" - 3:20 "We Blew It, Again!" - 5:10 "Nature Boy" - 3:15 "I Remember the Starlight" - 6:10 "Shenandoah" - 4:08 "Swamp Girl" - 2:00 Ramsey Lewis - piano Eldee Young - bass Issac "Red" Holt - drums

Commissioner (film)

Commissioner is a 1994 Indian Malayalam-language action crime thriller film produced by M. Mani, written by Ranji Panicker, directed by Shaji Kailas, it stars Suresh Gopi as Police Commissioner Bharath Chandran IPS. The film stars Ratheesh, Vijayaraghavan, M. G. Soman, Rajan P. Dev, Ganesh Kumar, Bheeman Raghu, N. F. Varghese, Karamana Janardanan Nair, Maniyanpilla Raju and Kollam Thulasi in pivotal roles; the background score was composed by Rajamani and the cinematography was by Dinesh Baboo. The film follows Commissioner Bharath Chandran's investigation into the murder of Justice Mahendran, it leads him to confront the corrupt villain, Mohan Thomas, a Delhi-based businessman, involved with illegal businesses such as money laundering, illegal drug trade, counterfeit money operations. It has a cult film status among Keralite audiences for Gopi's performance and Ranji Panicker's dialogues.. The Telugu dubbed version Police Commissioner broke several collection records in Andra Pradesh and Telangana.

Commissioner was a major commercial success. In terms of box office gross, it was the highest grossing Malayalam film of the year; the sequel Bharath Chandran I. P. S. was released in 2005. It was directed by Ranji Panicker himself, it was a blockbuster and ran for 100 days like its prequel. In 2012, a crossover film The King & the Commissioner, starring Mammootty and Suresh Gopi, with the characters from The King and Bharath Chandran I. P. S. Was released, but it was panned by critics and audiences alike. The movie opens with Kozhikode city police commissioner Bharathchandran, an honest but brash cop, busting a gold smuggling racket in. Bharath has an issue with authority and breaths fire each time he encounters a political arm bender, such as Kunju Moideen Sahib, whose gang was involved in the bust, but it his mentor and guardian angel I. G. Balachandran, evidently shielding him from the wrath of the political brass; the story takes a break from Bharathchandran to introduce the main antagonist Mohan Thomas, a Delhi based business tycoon, with strong political clout and a clear sociopathic agenda.

It is revealed that Mohan Thomas had entrusted Sahib with the gold, confiscated by Bharathchandran and is in fact the kingpin heading an unholy nexus of politicians and various officials including two high ranking cops, Rajan Felix, I. G. Vigilance and Menon, A. I. G. who are involved in criminal activities like instigating communal riots and large scale distribution of counterfeit currency. Bharathchandran and Mohan Thomas are set on a collision course when Mohan and Co. brutally murder Justice Mahendran, chairman of the Poovanthura commission, possessing evidence that could incriminate Rajan Felix and Menon, for their direct involvement in communal riots at Poovanthura. Bharathchandran is not only assigned to investigate the homicide but made police commissioner of Thiruvananthapuram city. Assisted by ASP Prasad Menon and ASP Mohammed Iqbal, two dynamic but brash officers, Bharathchandran tries to solve the mystery, but soon to hit a dead-end; until Bharathchandran's fiancée Indu, a lawyer, tips him off about the news clip on an assault on a drunk police constable Gopinathan (Maniyanpilla Raju, coincidentally the security for Justice Mahendran.

In an attempt to take Sahib in, while he was in college results in a massive riot as well as a standoff with Rajan Felix, who tries to save Sahib by trying to take him into his custody claiming previous charges. The only clue, left with Bharathchandran and crew are based on Vattapara Pithamparan's, a trade union leader, that Sahib had attacked Gopinath because of Gopinath's comment on counterfeit currency. With this vital clue Bharathchandran unearths more dirt on Mohan Co.. Further Bharathchandran arrests Srilatha Varma, Mohan's legal advisor and mistress, but is brutally murdered in a hotel elevator by Wilfred Vincent Baston, a Goan hitman, who had murdered Justice Mahendran. Bharathchandran is successful in nabbing Antony Ignatius Pimento, Wilfred's right-hand man and zeroes in on Wilfred, he stages a coup by arresting both Rajan Felix and Menon, who are brutally tortured to reveal details on their alliance with Mohan Thomas and sheds light on their agenda. Iqbal is killed brutally in an attempt to arrest Wilfred Vincent Baston.

This enrages Bharathchandran, who brutally kills Wilfred and Mohan Thomas at an outhouse by torching the whole house, thus taking law into his own hands Suresh Gopi as City Police Commissioner Bharathchandran I. P. S Ratheesh as Mohan Thomas Shobana as Advocate Indu Vijayaraghavan as ASP Mohammad Iqbal I. P. S. K. B. Ganesh Kumar as ASP Prasad I. P. S M. G. Soman as IG Balachandran Nair I. P. S. Rajan P. Dev as IG Rajan Felix I. P. S. N. F. Varghese as AIG Menon I. P. S. Bheeman Raghu as Wilfred Vincent Bastin Baiju as Sunny Thomas Ravi Vallathol as K. M. Varghese Karamana Janardanan Nair as Justice Mahendran Chithra as Advocate Sreelatha Varma Maniyanpilla Raju as Constable Gopinathan "Gopi" Augustine as Vattappara Peethambaran Priyanka as Susheela Kollam Thulasi... Home Minister Thikkurissi Sukumaran Nair... Kunjurama Kurup Sathaar... Rural SP Bobby I. P. S. K. P. A. C. Sunny... Kunju Moideen Sahib Sadiq... Police Officer Ranji Panicker... Journalist Biju Pappan... Goonda Ragini... Achamma Varghese T. S. Krishnan... Henchman The film was released as a Vishu release in

Baltimore railroad strike of 1877

The Baltimore railroad strike of 1877 involved several days of work stoppage and violence in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1877. It formed a part of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, during which widespread civil unrest spread nationwide following the global depression and economic downturns of the mid-1870s. Strikes broke out along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on July 16, the same day that 10% wage reductions were scheduled. Violence erupted in Baltimore on July 20, with police and soldiers of the Maryland National Guard clashing with crowds of thousands gathered throughout the city. In response, President Rutherford B. Hayes ordered federal troops to Baltimore, local officials recruited 500 additional police, two new national guard regiments were formed. Peace was restored on July 22. Between 10 and 22 were killed, more than 150 were injured, many more were arrested. Negotiations between strikers and the B&O were unsuccessful, most strikers quit rather than return to work at the newly reduced wages.

The company found enough workers to replace the strikers, under the protection of the military and police, traffic resumed on July 29. The company promised minor concessions at the time, enacted select reforms that year; the Long Depression, sparked in the United States by the Panic of 1873, had extensive implications for US industry, closing more than a hundred railroads in the first year and cutting construction of new rail lines from 7,500 miles of track in 1872 to 1,600 miles in 1875. 18,000 businesses failed between 1873 and 1875, production in iron and steel dropped as much as 45 percent, a million or more lost their jobs. In 1876, 76 railroad companies went bankrupt or entered receivership in the US alone, the economic impacts rippled throughout many economic sectors throughout the industrialized world. In mid-1877, tensions erupted in stoppages and civil unrest across the nation in what would become known as the Great Railroad Strike or the Great Strikes. Violence began in Martinsburg, West Virginia and spread along the rail lines through Baltimore and on to several major cities and transportation hubs of the time, including Reading and Shamokin, Pennsylvania.

In the worst case, rioting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania left 124 injured. Much of the city's center was burned, including more than a thousand rail cars destroyed. What began as the peaceful actions of organized labor attracted the masses of discontented and unemployed workers spawned by the depression, along with others who took opportunistic advantage of the chaos. In total, an estimated 100,000 workers participated nationwide. State and federal troops followed the turmoil as it spread along the rail lines from city to city, beginning in Baltimore, where the movement of troops itself provoked a violent response that required federal intervention to quell. In early July 1877, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad announced it would reduce the wages of all workers by ten percent. One hundred miles would constitute a day's work, crews would not receive allowances for time spent on delays at stations. Various meetings of railroad employees followed, a committee was formed to meet with officers of the railroad.

They appealed to the vice president, Mr. King. Most workers accepted the reduction in pay, but the firemen and those who ran the freight trains resolved to stop work in protest; the number of unemployed along the line was so great, owing to the ongoing economic problems, that the company had no difficulty replacing the absent strikers. In response, the strikers resolved to occupy portions of the rail line, to stop trains from passing unless the company rescinded the wage cuts. On July 16, the day the reduction was to go into effect, about 40 men gathered at Camden Junction, 3 miles from Baltimore, stopped traffic. Newspapers reported a meeting held by rail workers who were sympathetic to the strike, which by that day included brakemen and engineers as well as firemen; that same day in Baltimore, hundreds of manufacturing workers declared a strike, the box-makers and sawyers walked out, demanding a ten percent increase in wages. Newspaper reports counted 140 of the union's 180 members. Tin can makers in the city had been striking for higher wages for a week at this point, their number amounted to 800, while not more than 100 can makers in the city remained at work according to reports by The Sun.

At around 2:00 am on July 17, the first act of violence in Baltimore emerged. According to the newspaper reports the following day, a westbound train was thrown from the tracks at a switch in a suburb south of the city; the switch had been locked by an unknown person. The engine caught fire, the engineer and the fireman aboard were injured; that afternoon violence broke out in Martinsburg, West Virginia, between workers and militia guarding a train, prompting the governor of West Virginia to appeal to the President for aid. Strikers occupied stations at Maryland. Newspaper reports counted 400–500 men who had joined the rail strike, in Martinsburg, 75 trains with 1,200 rail cars sat idle; that day, The Sun reported the situation in the city: One by one the shops have become wholly or silent, many men in South Baltimore, are without work or the means of providing for their families. This state of affairs is confined not alone to railroad shops, but to other workshops, a great deal of distress exists among the workingmen of all kinds.

On July 18, the railroad strikers i

Dottorato di ricerca

The dottorato di ricerca is the highest Italian academic degree, the equivalent of a Ph. D; the term dottore is used in Italy to refer to any person with a university Laurea: thus, a person with a Laurea Magistrale uses the title "dottore magistrale" and a person with a Laurea uses the title of "dottore". Those unfamiliar with the Italian university system or the Italian use of titles should note that a "dottore" or "dottoressa" in an Italian context does not hold a Ph. D. Holders of the dottorato acquire the title of dottore di ricerca abbreviated to "Dott. Ric." or "Ph. D." The dottorato is a recent addition to the Italian academic landscape, having been instituted in 1980. According to the Bologna Process, Italy fits the framework since the adoption, in 1999, of the so-called 3+2 system; the first degree is the Laurea. Selected students can complete their studies in the following step: two additional years of specialization which leads to the Laurea Magistrale. After 1999, the Laurea corresponds to a Bachelor's Degree while the "Laurea Magistrale" corresponds to a Master's Degree.

Only the Laurea Magistrale grants access to that last 2 to 5 years. However, it is now established that there is just a unique five-year degree Laurea Magistrale a ciclo unico for programmes such as Law, Music and a few others, six-years degree for Medicine and Surgery and Dentistry; the title for MA/MSc/MFA/MD/MJur/MEd graduate students is dottore. This title is not to be confused with the PhD and Post-MA graduates, whose title is Dottore di Ricerca; the Italian Master's Degree should not be confused with Italian "Masters" that are one-year specialistic courses which guarantee a more practical education but do not give access to further levels of studies. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program was Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name "Diploma di Perfezionamento". Further, the research doctorates or PhD in Italy were introduced with law and Presidential Decree in 1980, referring to the reform of academic teaching and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.

Hence, the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy called Schools of Excellence such as Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies still keep their reputed historical "Diploma di Perfezionamento" PhD title by law and MIUR Decree. The Superior Graduate Schools in Italy or Scuola superiore universitaria have “Diplomi di Perfezionamento “, which are equivalent to “Dottorati di Ricerca”.: Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa - Legge n. 308/1986 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento “SANT’ANNA”, Pisa - Legge N. 41/1987 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Alta Scuola Europea di Scienze Religiose Fondazione per le Scienze Religiose Giovanni XXIII, Bologna -D. M. Murst 19.10.1999 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Scuola Internazionale di Alti Studi della Cultura Fondazione collegio s. Carlo, Modena - D. M. Murst 4.5.1998 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Societa’ Internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo Latino, Fondazione Ezio Franceschini, Firenze - D.

M. 3.4.2001 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento, Firenze - D. M. 9.10.2001 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati. Trieste - D. M. Murst 24.2.1993 Diploma di Doctor Philosophiae: European University Institute, Fiesole/Firenze - Legge N. 352/1986 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Istituto di scienze farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Milano - D. M. MIUR 11.11.2008 Dottorato in Studi Storici: Università degli Studi S. Marino - D. M. Murst 11.6.1990 and scambio Note 16.7.1999 in vigore dal 28.11.2000 Dottorato in Ingegneria Gestionale: Università degli Studi S. Marino - D. M. Murst 11.6.1990 and scambio Note 16.7.1999 in vigore dal 28.11.2000 Diplomi di Perfezionamento: Fondazione Internazionale per gli studi superiori di Architettura, Scuola Superiore Europea di Architettura Urbana - Napoli - D. M. MIUR 14 Luglio 2006 Application procedure for recognizing international PhD as italian Dottorato di Ricerca Associazione dottorandi e dottori di ricerca italiani Ministero dell'università e della ricerca List of PhD Webpages of main italian Universities from Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca

Keenjhar Lake

Keenjhar Lake called Malik Lake is located in Thatta District of Sindh the province of Pakistan. It is situated about 36 kilometres from the city of Thatta, it is the second-largest fresh water lake in Pakistan and an important source of drinking water for Thatta District and Karachi city. Through the construction of a bund on the eastern side, it is said that the lake was formed by the union of two lakes: Sonehri and Keenjhar. Keenjhar Lake has been declared a wildlife sanctuary, it provides a favorable habitat of winter migratory birds like ducks, flamingos, waders, egrets, terns and gulls. It has been observed as a breeding area of the black-crowned night heron, the cotton pygmy goose, purple swamphen, pheasant-tailed jacana. Keenjhar Lake is a popular tourist resort. Many people from Karachi and Thatta visit to enjoy picnics, swimming and boating; the famous folklore of Noori Jam Tamachi, a fisherwoman, is connected to the lake. There is a shrine in the middle of the lake marking Noori's grave, visited by devotees.

Indus Basin Project List of lakes in Pakistan Kalri Lake Water Sports Project, official site Keenjhar Lake travel guide from Wikivoyage