Leipzig University, in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university in Germany. The university was founded on December 2, 1409 by Frederick I, Elector of Saxony and his brother William II, Margrave of Meissen, comprised the four scholastic faculties. Since its inception, the university has engaged in teaching and research for over 600 years without interruption. Famous alumni include Leibniz, Leopold von Ranke, Friedrich Nietzsche, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, Tycho Brahe, Georgius Agricola, Angela Merkel and the nine Nobel laureates associated with the university; the university was modelled on the University of Prague, from which the German-speaking faculty members withdrew to Leipzig after the Jan Hus crisis and the Decree of Kutná Hora. The Alma mater Lipsiensis opened in 1409, after it had been endorsed by Pope Alexander V in his Bull of Acknowledgment on, its first rector was Johann von Münsterberg. From its foundation, the Paulinerkirche served as the university church.
After the Reformation, the church and the monastery buildings were donated to the university in 1544. In order to secure independent and sustainable funding, the university was endowed with the lordship over 9 villages east of Leipzig, it kept this status for nearly 400 years. As many European universities, the university of Leipzig was structured into colleges responsible for organising accommodation and collegiate lecturing. Among the colleges of Leipzig were the Small College, the Large College, the Red College, the College of our Lady and the Pauliner-College. There were private residential halls; the colleges had jurisdiction over their members. The college structure was abandoned and today only the names survive. During the first centuries, the university grew and was a rather regional institution; this changed, during the 19th century when the university became a world-class institution of higher education and research. At the end of the 19th century, important scholars such as Bernhard Windscheid and Wilhelm Ostwald taught at Leipzig.
Leipzig University was one of the first German universities to allow women to register as "guest students". At its general assembly in 1873, the Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein thanked the University of Leipzig and Prague for allowing women to attend as guest students; this was the year that the first woman in Germany obtained Johanna von Evreinov. Until the beginning of the Second World War, Leipzig University attracted a number of renowned scholars and Nobel Prize laureates, including Paul Ehrlich, Felix Bloch, Werner Heisenberg and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. Many of the university's alumni became important scientists. Under Nazi rule many Jews' degrees were cancelled. Noteworthy Nazis, such as Max Clara taught at the university and were appointed to positions with great authority; the university was kept open throughout World War II after the destruction of its buildings. During the war the acting rector, Erich Maschke, described the continuation of the university in a memo on May 11, 1945, announcing the vote for a new rector: Since 4 December 1943 a fixed determination not to abandon the Leipzig University in the most difficult hour of its more than five-hundred-year history has bonded the professors with each other and with the students.
The special task of repairing the damage caused by air attacks has now broadened out to the more general duty to save the continuity of our university and preserve its substance, at the least its indestructible kernel, through the crisis that has now reached its fullest stage. After the destruction of most of the buildings and the majority of its libraries, this kernel is represented by the professoriate alone; this is. By the end of the war 60 per cent of the university's buildings and 70 per cent of its books had been destroyed; the university reopened after the war on February 5, 1946, but it was affected by the uniformity imposed on social institutions in the Soviet occupation zone. In 1948 the elected student council was disbanded and replaced by Free German Youth members; the chairman of the Student Council, Wolfgang Natonek, other members were arrested and imprisoned, but the university was a nucleus of resistance. Thus began the Belter group, with flyers for free elections; the head of the group, Herbert Belter, was executed in 1951 in Moscow.
The German Democratic Republic was created in 1949, in 1953 for Karl Marx Year the University was renamed by its government the Karl Marx University, Leipzig after Karl Marx. In 1968, the damaged Augusteum, including Johanneum and Albertinum and the intact Paulinerkirche, were demolished to make way for a redevelopment of the university, carried out between 1973 and 1978; the dominant building of the university was the University Tower, built between 1968 and 1972 in the form of an open book. In 1991, following the reunification of Germany, the University's name was restored to the original Leipzig University; the reconstruction of the University Library, damaged during the war and in the GDR secured, was completed in 2002. With the delivery of the University Tower to a private user, the university was forced to spread some faculties
The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, Alsace within France, majority German speaking; the Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention; the ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it. The Confederation was dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers member states Austria and Prussia; the War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine; the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein; the German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty; the states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were: Anhalt-Bernburg Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen Austrian Empire Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Hesse Hohenzollern-Hechingen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg Hesse-Homburg Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866.
The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation. The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Ass
Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, theologian and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, Weimar Classicism. Like Lessing and Schleiermacher, in many respects, Herder was a Spinozist. Born in Mohrungen in Kingdom of Prussia, Herder grew up in a poor household, educating himself from his father's Bible and songbook. In 1762, as a youth of 17, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, about 60 miles north of Mohrungen, where he became a student of Immanuel Kant. At the same time, Herder became an intellectual protégé of Johann Georg Hamann, a Königsberg philosopher who disputed the claims of pure secular reason. Hamann's influence led Herder to confess to his wife in life that "I have too little reason and too much idiosyncrasy", yet Herder can justly claim to have founded a new school of German political thought. Although himself an unsociable person, Herder influenced his contemporaries greatly. One friend wrote to him in 1785, hailing his works as "inspired by God."
A varied field of theorists were to find inspiration in Herder's tantalizingly incomplete ideas. In 1764, now a clergyman, Herder went to Riga to teach, it was during this period. In 1769 Herder continued on to Paris; this resulted in both an account of his travels as well as a shift of his own self-conception as an author. By 1770 Herder went to Strasbourg; this event proved to be a key juncture in the history of German literature, as Goethe was inspired by Herder's literary criticism to develop his own style. This can be seen as the beginning of the "Sturm und Drang" movement. In 1771 Herder took a position as head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg under Count Wilhelm von Schaumburg-Lippe. By the mid-1770s, Goethe was a well-known author, used his influence at the court of Weimar to secure Herder a position as General Superintendent. Herder moved there in 1776. Towards the end of his career, Herder endorsed the French Revolution, which earned him the enmity of many of his colleagues. At the same time, he and Goethe experienced a personal split.
Another reason for his isolation in years was due to his unpopular attacks on Kantian philosophy. In 1802 Herder was ennobled by the Elector-Prince of Bavaria, which added the prefix "von" to his last name, he died in Weimar in 1803 at age 59. In 1772 Herder published Treatise on the Origin of Language and went further in this promotion of language than his earlier injunction to "spew out the ugly slime of the Seine. Speak German, O You German". Herder now had established the foundations of comparative philology within the new currents of political outlook. Throughout this period, he continued to elaborate his own unique theory of aesthetics in works such as the above, while Goethe produced works like The Sorrows of Young Werther – the Sturm und Drang movement was born. Herder wrote an important essay on Shakespeare and Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker published in 1773 in a manifesto along with contributions by Goethe and Justus Möser. Herder wrote that "A poet is the creator of the nation around him, he gives them a world to see and has their souls in his hand to lead them to that world."
To him such poetry had its greatest purity and power in nations before they became civilised, as shown in the Old Testament, the Edda, Homer, he tried to find such virtues in ancient German folk songs and Norse poetry and mythology. After becoming General Superintendent in 1776, Herder's philosophy shifted again towards classicism, he produced works such as his unfinished Outline of a Philosophical History of Humanity which originated the school of historical thought. Herder's philosophy was of a subjective turn, stressing influence by physical and historical circumstance upon human development, stressing that "one must go into the age, into the region, into the whole history, feel one's way into everything"; the historian should be the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, history a science as "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit". Herder gave Germans new pride in their origins, modifying that dominance of regard allotted to Greek art extolled among others by Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.
He remarked that he would have wished to be born in the Middle Ages and mused whether "the times of the Swabian emperors" did not "deserve to be set forth in their true light in accordance with the German mode of thought?". Herder equated the German with the favoured Dürer and everything Gothic; as with the sphere of art he proclaimed a national message within the sphere of language. He topped the line of German authors emanating from Martin Opitz, who had written his Aristarchus, sive de contemptu linguae Teutonicae in Latin in 1617, urging Germans to glory in their hitherto despised language. Herder's extensive collections of folk-poetry began a great craze in Germany for that neglected topic. Herder was one of the first to argue that language contributes to shaping the frameworks and the patterns with which each linguistic community thinks and feels. For Herder, language is'the organ of thought'; this has been misinterpreted, however. Neither Herder nor the great philosopher of language, Wilhelm von Humboldt, argue that language determines thought.
Language is both the means and the expression of man's creative capacity to think togethe
A whispering gallery is a circular, elliptical or ellipsoidal enclosure beneath a dome or a vault, in which whispers can be heard in other parts of the gallery. Such galleries can be set up using two parabolic dishes. Sometimes the phenomenon is detected in caves. A whispering gallery is most constructed in the form of a circular wall, allows whispered communication from any part of the internal side of the circumference to any other part; the sound is carried by waves, known as whispering-gallery waves, that travel around the circumference clinging to the walls, an effect, discovered in the whispering gallery of St Paul's Cathedral in London. The extent to which the sound travels at St Paul's can be judged by clapping in the gallery, which produces four echoes. Other historical examples are the Gol Gumbaz mausoleum in Bijapur and the Echo Wall of the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. A hemispherical enclosure will guide whispering gallery waves; the waves carry the words so that others will be able to hear them from the opposite side of the gallery.
The gallery may be in the form of an ellipse or ellipsoid, with an accessible point at each focus. In this case, when a visitor stands at one focus and whispers, the line of sound emanating from this focus reflects directly to the focus at the other end of the gallery, where the whispers may be heard. In a similar way, two large concave parabolic dishes, serving as acoustic mirrors, may be erected facing each other in a room or outdoors to serve as a whispering gallery, a common feature of science museums. Egg-shaped galleries, such as the Golghar Granary at Bankipore, irregularly shaped smooth-walled galleries in the form of caves, such as the Ear of Dionysius in Syracuse exist; the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur, India. The Golghar Granary in Bankipore, India; the Victoria Memorial in Kolkata. St Paul's Cathedral in London is the place where whispering-gallery waves were first discovered by Lord Rayleigh c. 1878. The library of Dollar Academy in Scotland; the entrance gallery of the Aston Webb Great Hall at the University of Birmingham.
Hamilton Mausoleum in Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland. The Berkeley, Wetherspoons pub in Bristol; the Battle House Hotel in Mobile, Alabama has a whispering arch in the front lobby Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal Grand Central Terminal in New York City: the gallery in front of the Oyster Bar restaurant The Mapparium at The Mary Baker Eddy Library in Boston, Massachusetts allows visitors to enter the interior of a reflecting surface forming a nearly complete sphere A whispering gallery can be found on the main floor of the Museum of Science and Industry Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol. Salt Lake Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, Utah The rotunda at San Francisco City Hall. Curved stone benches on either side of the Smith Memorial Arch in Fairmount Park, Pennsylvania. Centennial fountain in front of Green Library at Stanford University in California; the rotunda of the Texas State Capitol and the Missouri State Capitol. Gates Circle, New York; the Whispering Arch in St. Louis Union Station Charles Stover Bench, Central Park, New York, New York Waldo Hutchins Bench, Central Park, New York, New York Barossa Reservoir, South Australia.
Cathedral of Brasília in Brazil. Martello towers; the Echo Wall in the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. Masjed-e Imam in Esfahān, Iran. Basilica of St. John Lateran, Rome. Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral The Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, Sverdlovsk Oblast. Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey. St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City. Monument to the Negev Brigade in Beersheba, Israel; the Salle de Cariatides in the Louvre, France. The Treasury of Atreus, Greece Secret's Chamber in El Escorial in Madrid, Spain; the Whispering Gallery in the Alhambra in Granada, Spain. Cleopatra's Bath in the Siwa Egypt. Ear of Dionysius cave in Sicily. Meštrović Pavilion in Zagreb, Croatia Royal BC Museum in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Sacred Heart Cathedral, New Zealand The Town Ball, New Zealand The Whispering Arch in Görlitz, Germany. Piazza Mercanti, Milan street Whispering walls, Italy The term'whispering gallery' has been borrowed in the physical sciences to describe other forms of whispering-gallery waves such as light or matter waves.
Acoustic mirror Parabolic loudspeaker Room acoustics Whispering-gallery wave Ear of Dionysius: visiting information and sounds of this cave. Grand Central Station: visiting information and sounds of the whispering gallery. St Paul's Cathedral: visiting information and sounds of the whispering gallery
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system, described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism, rejecting the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism. Schopenhauer was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Eastern philosophy, having arrived at similar conclusions as the result of his own philosophical work. Though his work failed to garner substantial attention during his life, Schopenhauer has had a posthumous impact across various disciplines, including philosophy and science, his writing on aesthetics and psychology influenced thinkers and artists throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges and Samuel Beckett.
Schopenhauer was born on 22 February 1788, in the city of Danzig on Heiligegeistgasse, the son of Johanna Schopenhauer and Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, both descendants of wealthy German-Dutch patrician families. Neither of them were religious,; when Danzig became part of Prussia in 1793, Heinrich moved to Hamburg—a free city with a republican constitution, protected by Britain and Holland against Prussian aggression—although his firm continued trading in Danzig where most of their extended families remained. Adele, Arthur's only sibling was born on 12 July 1797. In 1797 Arthur was sent to Le Havre to live for two years with the family of his father's business associate, Grégoire de Blésimaire, he seemed to enjoy his stay there, learned to speak French fluently and started a friendship with Jean Anthime Grégoire de Blésimaire, his peer, which lasted for a large part of their lives. As early as 1799, Arthur started playing the flute. In 1803 he joined his parents on their long tour of Holland, France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Heinrich gave his son a choice – he could stay at home and start preparations for university education, or he could travel with them and continue his merchant education. Arthur deeply regretted his choice because he found his merchant training tedious, he spent twelve weeks of the tour attending a school in Wimbledon where he was unhappy and appalled by strict but intellectually shallow Anglican religiosity, which he continued to criticize in life despite his general Anglophilia. He was under pressure from his father who became critical of his educational results. Heinrich became so fussy that his wife started to doubt his mental health. In 1805, Heinrich died by drowning in a canal by their home in Hamburg. Although it was possible that his death was accidental, his wife and son believed that it was suicide because he was prone to unsociable behavior and depression which became pronounced in his last months of life. Arthur showed similar moodiness since his youth and acknowledged that he inherited it from his father.
His mother Johanna was described as vivacious and sociable. Despite the hardships, Schopenhauer seemed to like his father and mentioned him always in a positive light. Heinrich Schopenhauer left the family with a significant inheritance, split in three among Johanna and the children. Arthur Schopenhauer was entitled to control of his part, he invested it conservatively in government bonds and earned annual interest, more than double the salary of a university professor. Arthur spent two years as a merchant in honor of his dead father, because of his own doubts about being too old to start a life of a scholar. Most of his prior education was practical merchant training and he had some trouble with learning Latin, a prerequisite for any academic career, his mother moved, with her daughter Adele, to Weimar—then the centre of German literature—to enjoy social life among writers and artists. Arthur and his mother were not on good terms. In one letter to him she wrote, "You are unbearable and burdensome, hard to live with.
Arthur left his mother, though she died 24 years they never met again. Some of negative opinions of the philosopher about women may be rooted in his troubled relationship with his mother. Arthur lived in Hamburg with his friend Jean Anthime, studying to become a merchant. After quitting his merchant apprenticeship, with some encouragement from his mother, he dedicated himself to studies at the Gotha gymnasium in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, but he enjoyed social life among local nobility spending large amounts of money which caused concern to his frugal
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political and educational thought, his Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. Rousseau's sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was important to the development of preromanticism and romanticism in fiction, his Emile, or On Education is an educational treatise on the place of the individual in society. Rousseau's autobiographical writings—the posthumously published Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, the unfinished Reveries of a Solitary Walker —exemplified the late-18th-century "Age of Sensibility", featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that characterized modern writing. Rousseau befriended fellow philosophy writer Denis Diderot in 1742, would write about Diderot's romantic troubles in his Confessions.
During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophers among members of the Jacobin Club. He was interred in 1794, 16 years after his death. Rousseau was born in Geneva, at the time a city-state and a Protestant associate of the Swiss Confederacy. Since 1536, Geneva had been the seat of Calvinism. Five generations before Rousseau, his ancestor Didier, a bookseller who may have published Protestant tracts, had escaped persecution from French Catholics by fleeing to Geneva in 1549, where he became a wine merchant. Rousseau was proud. Throughout his life, he signed his books "Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Citizen of Geneva". Geneva, in theory, was governed "democratically" by its male voting "citizens"; the citizens were a minority of the population when compared to the immigrants, referred to as "inhabitants", whose descendants were called "natives" and continued to lack suffrage. In fact, rather than being run by vote of the "citizens", the city was ruled by a small number of wealthy families that made up the "Council of Two Hundred".
There was much political debate within Geneva, extending down to the tradespeople. Much discussion was over the idea of the sovereignty of the people, of which the ruling class oligarchy was making a mockery. In 1707, a democratic reformer named Pierre Fatio protested this situation, saying "a sovereign that never performs an act of sovereignty is an imaginary being", he was shot by order of the Little Council. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's father, was not in the city at this time, but Jean-Jacques's grandfather supported Fatio and was penalized for it; the trade of watchmaking had become a family tradition by the time of Rousseau's father, Isaac Rousseau. Isaac followed his grandfather and brothers into the business, except for a short stint teaching dance as a dance master. Isaac, notwithstanding his artisan status, was well educated and a lover of music. "A Genevan watchmaker", Rousseau wrote, "is a man. In 1699, Isaac ran into political difficulty by entering a quarrel with visiting English officers, who in response drew their swords and threatened him.
After local officials stepped in, it was Isaac, punished, as Geneva was concerned with maintaining its ties to foreign powers. Rousseau's mother, Suzanne Bernard Rousseau, was from an upper-class family, she was raised by a Calvinist preacher. He cared for Suzanne. In 1695, Suzanne had to answer charges that she had attended a street theater disguised as a peasant woman so she could gaze upon M. Vincent Sarrasin, whom she fancied despite his continuing marriage. After a hearing, she was ordered by the Genevan Consistory to never interact with him again, she married Rousseau's father at the age of 31. Isaac's sister had married Suzanne's brother eight years earlier, after she had become pregnant and they had been chastised by the Consistory; the child died at birth. The young Rousseau was told a romantic fairy-tale about the situation by the adults in his family—a tale where young love was denied by a disapproving patriarch but that prevailed by sibling loyalty that, in the story, resulted in love conquering all and two marriages uniting the families on the same day.
Rousseau never learnt the truth. Rousseau was born on 28 June 1712, he would relate: "I was born dying, they had little hope of saving me", he was baptized on 4 July 1712, in the great cathedral. His mother died of puerperal fever nine days after his birth, which he described as "the first of my misfortunes", he and his older brother François were brought up by their father and a paternal aunt named Suzanne. When Rousseau was five, his father sold the house that the family had received from his mother's relatives. While the idea was that his sons would inherit the principal when grown up and he would live off the interest in the meantime, in the end the father took most of the substantial proceeds. With the selling of the house, the Rousseau family moved out of the upper-class neighborhood and moved into an apartment house in a neighborhood of craftsmen—silversmiths and other watchmakers. Growing up around craftsmen, Rousseau woul
The Fichtel Mountains, form a small horseshoe-shaped mountain range in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. They extend from the valley of the Red Main River to the Czech border, a few foothills spilling over into the Czech Republic, they continue in a northeasterly direction as the Ore Mountains, in a southeasterly direction as the Bohemian Forest. The Fichtel Mountains contain an important nature park, the Fichtel Mountain Nature Park, with an area of 1,020 square kilometres; the first person to write about the Fichtel Mountains, Matthias of Kemnath reported in 1476: Ein bergk, weitt, wolbekant ligt in Beiern, gnant der Fichtelberg. In descriptions of the border in 1499 and 1536, the mountain, now called the Ochsenkopf was called Vichtelberg, it is mentioned in old documents: around 1317 the lords of Hirschberg were enfeoffed inter alia with the walt zu dem Vythenberge. By the 14th century iron ore was being extracted in the St. Veith Pit on the southern foot of the mountain. Vyth → Veit → Fichtel.
High-profile local history and name researchers have still not had the last word. Together with the Thuringian Forest, Thuringian Highland and Franconian Forest the Fichtel forms a major natural region called the Thuringian-Franconian Highlands; the Fichtel Mountains lie between the towns of Weiden. In the west there is a good transport link to the nearby city of Bayreuth, whilst in the east, in the Egerland, communication is still limited, a legacy of the Iron Curtain; the Hof–Weiden autobahn provides a good north-south link, however. The county town in the heart of the Fichtel is Wunsiedel with its famous rock labyrinth. Other main settlements are Marktredwitz, Arzberg, Röslau, Weißenstadt, Kirchenlamitz and Tröstau, Further to the southeast and south are Bischofsgrün, Mehlmeisel, Neusorg, Kemnath, Erbendorf and Fuchsmühl, in the west are Weidenberg, Creußen, Goldkronach and Bad Berneck, in the northwest are Gefrees, Zell im Fichtelgebirge, Weißdorf, Münchberg, in the north Selb and Hof; the boundary between the Franconian dialect in the north and west and the Bavarian and Upper Palatine dialects in the east and south runs diagonally through the Fichtel from northeast to southwest.
This language border does not coincide with the administrative boundary of Upper Franconia and the Upper Palatinate, for example, Bavarian is spoken in the Upper Franconian district of Wunsiedel. Moreover, there are descendants of those who, after the Second World War came from Bohemia, Moravia and East Prussia into the Fichtel Mountains, who make up a significant percentage of the population; the highest mountain in the Fichtel is the Schneeberg at 1,053 metres. Other major summits are the Ochsenkopf, the Steinwald, the Kösseine, the Großer Waldstein and the Großer Kornberg. Geomorphologically the Fichtel Mountains are a horseshoe-shaped massif consisting of several linked ridges, hence the term Fichtel Mountain Horseshoe; the most important are the: High Fichtel with the Schneeberg, Ochsenkopf and Kösseine massif, Northern ridge of Waldstein including the mountains of Großer Waldstein and Kornberg Southern section with its Steinwald and Reichsforst forests and the Kohlberg mountain Inner Fichtel Plateau.
To the northeast the Fichtel transitions into the Elster Mountains and the Ore Mountains, to the southeast is the Upper Palatine Forest, the Bohemian Forest and the Bavarian Forest. To the northwest is a clear geological divide with the Franconian and Thuringian Forests. To the southwest it descends to the morphologically different Franconian fault-block landscape. In early times the Fichtel was known as the'navel of Germany' or the'wellspring of Europe' because four important rivers rise here and flow in four different directions of the compass: to the north flows the Saxon Saale to the east flows the Eger and its tributary, the Röslau to the south two headstreams of the Naab: the Fichtelnaab in the centre and the Haidenaab to one side to the west the White MainNumerous moors and marshes, which are now protected, are valuable water collectors; the European watershed from the North Sea to the Black Sea runs over these mountains. The highest mountain is the Schneeberg at 1,051 metres. Rivers rising from the Fichtelgebirge are the White Main, the Saxon Saale, the Ohře and the Fichtelnaab which joins the Waldnaab.
Major towns on the edge of the mountain region are Hof. While the mountains dip away to the north and the south, they form a steep slope in the west where the Red Main forms the boundary of the mountains; the Ochsenkopf is the second highest mountain of the Fichtel range, at 1,024 metres. There are two chair-lifts to the summit, one from Bischofsgrün in the north and one from Fleckl in the south; the "Asenturm" is an observation tower on the summit with a restaurant attached. The following are the highest and best-known mountains in the Fichtel (listed alphabetically with heights in metres above sea level: Geologically the Fichtel massif consists of granite; the history of its orogeny begins in the Precambrian Eon about 750–800 million years ago. From that time only the truncated uplands of the o