Jeans are a type of pants or trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth. The term "jeans" refers to a particular style of trousers, called "blue jeans", which were invented by Jacob W. Davis in partnership with Levi Strauss & Co. in 1871 and patented by Jacob W. Davis and Levi Strauss on May 20, 1873. Prior to the Levi Strauss patented trousers, the term "blue jeans" had been long in use for various garments, constructed from blue-colored denim."Jean" references a type of sturdy cloth made with a cotton warp and wool weft. Jean cloth can be cotton as well, similar to denim. Designed for miners, modern jeans was popularized as casual wear by Marlon Brando and James Dean in their 1950s films The Wild One and Rebel Without a Cause, leading to the fabric becoming a symbol of rebellion among teenagers members of the greaser subculture. From the 1960s onwards, jeans became common among various youth subcultures and subsequently young members of the general population. Nowadays, they are one of the most popular types of specialty trousers in Western culture.
Historic brands include Levi's, Wrangler. Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa, Nîmes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, may be the origin of the word "jeans". In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes, meaning "from Nîmes". Genoa's jean fabric was a fustian textile of "medium quality and of reasonable cost" similar to cotton corduroy for which Genoa was famous, was "used for work clothes in general"; the Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. Nîmes's "denim" was coarser, considered higher quality, was used "for over garments such as smocks or overalls". Nearly all indigo, needed for dyeing, came from indigo bush plantations in India until the late 19th century, it was replaced by indigo synthesis methods developed in Germany. By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.
This is seen in a series of genre paintings from around the 17th century attributed to an artist now nicknamed The Master of the Blue Jeans. The ten paintings depict impoverished scenes with lower-class figures wearing a fabric that looks like denim; the fabric would have been Genoese jean, cheaper. Genre painting came to prominence in late 16th century, the non-nobility subject matter in all ten paintings places them among others that portray similar scenes. Dungaree was mentioned for the first time in the 17th century, when it was referred to as cheap, coarse thick cotton cloth colored blue but sometimes white, worn by impoverished people in what was a region of Bombay, India a dockside village called Dongri; this cloth was "dungri" in Hindi. Dungri was used for manufacturing of cheap, robust working clothes. In English, the word "dungri" became pronounced as "dungaree"; the term jeans appears first in 1795, when a Swiss banker by the name Jean-Gabriel Eynard and his brother Jacques went to Genoa and both were soon heading a flourishing commercial concern.
In 1800 Massena's troops entered Jean-Gabriel was entrusted with their supply. In particular he furnished them with uniforms cut from blue cloth called "bleu de Genes" whence derives the famous garment known worldwide as "blue jeans". Levi Strauss, as a young man in 1851, went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In 1853, he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. Jacob Davis was a tailor who bought bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co. wholesale house. In 1872, Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets; the copper rivets were to reinforce the points of stress, such as pocket corners and at the bottom of the button fly. Levi accepted Davis's offer, the two men received US patent No. 139,121 for an "Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings" on May 20, 1873. Davis and Strauss experimented with different fabrics. An early attempt was a bottom-weight fabric. Finding denim a more suitable material for work-pants, they began using it to manufacture their riveted pants.
The denim used was produced by an American manufacturer. Popular legend incorrectly states that it was imported from France. A popular myth is that Strauss sold brown canvas pants to miners dyed them blue, turned to using denim, only after Davis wrote to him, added rivets. Strauss' jeans were sturdy trousers worn by factory workers, miners and cattlemen throughout the North American West. During this period, men's jeans had the fly down the front, whereas women's jeans had the fly down the left side; when Levi Strauss & Co. patented the modern, mass-produced prototype in the year 1873, there were two pockets in the front and one on the back with copper rivets. The jeans were redesigned to today's industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets. Fewer jeans were made during World War II, but'waist overalls' were introduced to the world by US soldiers, who sometimes wore them off duty. By the 1960s, both men's and women's jeans had the zipper down the front. Historic photographs indicate that in the decades before they became a staple of fashion, jeans fit quite loosely, much like a pair of bib overalls without the bib.
G 161-71 is a red dwarf star, located in constellation Hydra at 13.5 parsecs from Earth. Reid, I. Neill. "Meeting the Cool Neighbors. II. Photometry of Southern NLTT Stars"; the Astronomical Journal. 123: 2822–2827. ArXiv:astro-ph/0202460. Bibcode:2002AJ....123.2822R. Doi:10.1086/339700. Scholz, R.-D.. "Search for nearby stars among proper motion stars selected by optical-to-infrared photometry. III. Spectroscopic distances of 322 NLTT stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 442: 211–227. ArXiv:astro-ph/0507284. Bibcode:2005A&A...442..211S. Doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053004. Table1.dat. Kirkpatrick, J. D.. "Further Defining Spectral Type "Y" and Exploring the Low-mass End of the Field Brown Dwarf Mass Function". The Astrophysical Journal. 753: 156. ArXiv:1205.2122. Bibcode:2012ApJ...753..156K. Doi:10.1088/0004-637X/753/2/156
Aquil Hashim Adbullah was the first African-American male to qualify for the Summer Olympics in the sport of rowing. He was the first African-American rower to win the Diamond Sculls race at the Henley Royal Regatta in 2000, he was the first African-American male to win a rowing national championship in 1996, when he won the single sculls competition. He attended George Washington University, he co-authored a book with Chris Ingraham titled Perfect Balance in 2001, after his failure to qualify for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Abdullah won the silver medal in the single sculls at the 1999 Pan-American Games. In 2000 he missed qualifying for the Summer Olympic Games in Australia by 0.33 of a second. He was the single sculls winner in the 2002 United States national rowing championship. Abdullah won the Diamond Sculls race at the Henley Regatta in 2000, he defeated Simon Goodbrand by two-thirds of a boat length. Abdullah was a member of the U. S. 2001 World Championship Rowing Team. Abdullah paired with US Navy Officer Henry Nuzum for the 2004 Qualified Olympic Small Boat Trials in Windsor, NJ.
Their qualifying time was 6:23.59. Abdullah and Nuzum were the first American men to qualify for the Olympic final in double sculls for twenty years. At the 2004 Summer Olympics and Nuzum finished sixth in their race, 3.93 seconds slower that the bronze medal pace. Abdullah was born in Washington, DC, on June 20, 1973. Abdullah resides in Boston, where he works as a software engineer, he attended Woodrow Wilson High School in Northwest Washington, D. C.. Woodrow Wilson is the only public school in DC with a rowing program, he began rowing in his senior year. He took a rowing scholarship to George Washington University and attended from 1992-1996, he majored in physics. He plays the saxophone, he was born with the name Aquil ibn Michael X. Shumate; when his father, Michael Shumate, converted to Islam when Aquil was 6, he changed his last name to Abdullah. However, he is now Catholic. Abdullah worked with a program in Boston named Mandela Crew. Mandela Crew is a program aimed at exposing minority youths from Roxbury to the sport of rowing