Jeet Kune Do, or "The way of the intercepting fist" in Cantonese, abbreviated JKD, is a hybrid philosophy of martial arts influenced by the personal philosophy and experiences of martial artist Bruce Lee. Lee founded the system on July 9, 1967, referring to it as "non-classical", suggesting that it is a formless form of Chinese Kung Fu. Unlike more traditional martial arts, Jeet Kune Do is not fixed or patterned and is a philosophy with guiding ideas. Named for the Wing Chun concept of interception or attacking when one's opponent is about to attack, Jeet Kune Do's practitioners believe in minimal effort with maximum effect and extreme speed. On January 10, 1996, the Bruce Lee Foundation decided to use the name Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do to refer to the martial arts system which Lee founded, it is referenced in the screenplay of the 1973 Warner Brothers film Enter the Dragon, when Lee is asked, "What's your style?", he replies, "My style?... You can call it the art of fighting without fighting." Lee believed that kata forms and martial art tournament matches alike were "organised despair".
He believed that in order to "fully express oneself, one must" "have no limitations". His system was new, included all possible forms of strikes: attacks to the groin, finger jab to the eye as well as biting; the name Jeet Kune Do was said by Lee to be just a name, he referred to it as "the art of expressing the human body" in his writings and in interviews. Through his studies Lee came to believe that other styles had become too unrealistic, he called martial art competitions of the day "dry land swimming". He believed real combat was spontaneous, a martial artist cannot predict it, but only react, a good martial artist should "be like water"—move fluidly without hesitation; when Lee began researching various fighting styles, he called it Jun Fan Gung Fu. Not wanting to create another style which would share the limitations that all styles had, he instead described the process which he used to create it: I have not invented a "new style," composite, modified or otherwise, set within distinct form as apart from "this" method or "that" method.
On the contrary, I hope to free my followers from clinging to patterns, or molds. Remember that Jeet Kune Do is a name used, a mirror in which to see "ourselves"... Jeet Kune Do is not an organized institution. Either you understand or you don't, and, that. There is no mystery about my style. My movements are simple and non-classical; the extraordinary part of it lies in its simplicity. Every movement in Jeet Kune Do is being so of itself. There is nothing artificial about it. I always believe. Jeet Kune Do is the direct expression of one's feelings with the minimum of movements and energy; the closer to the true way of Kung Fu, the less wastage of expression there is. A Jeet Kune Do man who says Jeet Kune Do is Jeet Kune Do is not with it, he is still hung up on his self-closing resistance, in this case anchored down to reactionary pattern, is still bound by another modified pattern and can move within its limits. He has not digested the simple fact. Again let me remind you Jeet Kune Do is just a name used, a boat to get one across, once across it is to be discarded and not to be carried on one's back.
JKD as it has survived since—if one views it "refined" as a product, not a process—is what was left at the time of Lee's death. It is the result of the lifelong martial arts development process. Lee stated his concept does not add more and more things on top of each other to form a system, but rather selects the best thereof; the metaphor Lee borrowed from Chan Buddhism was of filling a cup with water, emptying it, used for describing Lee's philosophy of "casting off what is useless". He used the sculptor's mentality of beginning with a lump of clay and removing the material which constituted the "unessentials"; the dominant or strongest hand should lead because it would perform a greater percentage of the work. Lee minimized the use of other stances except. Although the On-Guard position is a formidable overall stance, it is by no means the only one. Lee acknowledged, he felt the dynamic property of JKD was what enabled its practitioners to adapt to the constant changes and fluctuations of live combat.
He believed these decisions should be made within the context of "real combat" and/or "all out sparring" and that it was only in this environment that a practitioner could deem a technique worthy of adoption. Lee believed that real combat was dynamic. Circumstances in a fight change from millisecond to millisecond. Thus, he believed, pre-arranged patterns and techniques are not adequate in dealing with such a changing situation; as an antidote to this line of thought, Lee once wrote an epitaph which read:'In memory of a once fluid man and distorted by the classical mess.' The "classical mess" in this instance was what Lee thought of the "not too alive way of the classical kung fu styles". The following are principles, he felt them universal combat truths that were self-evident, would lead to combat success if followed. Familiarity with each of the "four ranges of combat", in particular, is thought to be instru
Miley is a feminine given name. It was the 278th most popular name given to baby girls born in the United States in 2007, the first year that the name or any of its variants appeared in the top 1,000 names given to baby girls, rose to 128th in popularity in 2008, though it dropped back down to 189th place in 2009 and to 217th place in 2010, its popularity is attributed to the fame of actor and songwriter Miley Ray Cyrus, whose name originated as a childhood nickname given to her by her father because she was so "smiley." Cyrus played Miley Stewart on her sitcom Hannah Montana. Mylee, a variant spelling, was ranked as the 556th most popular name given to baby girls born in the United States in 2007 and the 433rd most popular name in 2008 and had dropped to 853rd place in 2009 and 944th place in 2010. Variant Mylie was ranked as the 861st most popular name for baby girls born in the United States in 2007 and 836th in 2008, but was not ranked in the top 1,000 in 2009 or 2010. Miley was used as a masculine given name for a character named Miley Byrne played by Mick Lally in the Irish drama series Glenroe.
The Cleveland Institution of Engineers is a regional engineering institution in the Teesside region of England. It aims to serve the regional scientific and engineering community through a wide range of technical lectures and visits and by acting as the professional body for materials scientists and engineers; the CIE is one of the oldest institutions of its kind in the world and has been in continuous existence since it was founded in 1864. It is affiliated to the Institute of Materials and Mining and a founder members of the Cleveland Scientific Institution The Cleveland Institution of Engineers is the oldest Institution of its kind in the World, it was founded in 1864 by a small group of Engineering pioneers from the Steel and Railway Industries of the Cleveland area. The first meeting was held in the home of the first secretary, Thomas Whitwell, on 21 September 1864 and the motion was carried that:- "A society be formed, the object of which shall be meeting together at regular intervals, of the Engineers of the Cleveland District for the furtherance of the Science of Engineering" 42 members of the Engineering community joined the Institution at the outset with a membership fee of one Guinea.
The Institution was instrumental in the industrial and academic growth of the area, in helping to set up the Constantine College, now Teesside University. Throughout both World Wars and the Depression, the Institution continued to provide a regular programme of lectures and scientific excursions and to this day provides the Engineering and Scientific community of the Teesside area with a wide and varied lecture programme on all aspects of engineering. From 1864 until 1942 the proceedings of the institution's technical meetings were published. Copies of the complete series of proceedings and the institution's minute books until 2001 are kept at the Teesside Archives in Middlesbrough. In the 2013/2014 session the institution celebrated its 150th anniversary, with the main events taking place in the autumn of 2014. To mark the occasion a stained glass window with the institution's emblem was unveiled in St Cuthbert's Church in Marton, Middlesbrough during a dedication service on 23 November 2014, led by the Very Reverend Paul Ferguson, Bishop of Whitby.
St Cuthbert's churchyard contains the vaults of the Vaughan families. In the last half of the nineteenth century, industry in Cleveland developed at a rate never again repeated. In 1830 the Stockton-Darlington railway had been extended to Middlesbrough and the port established to ship coal. During the 1850s there grew an iron industry based on the accessible deposits of phosphoric ironstone in the Cleveland Hills, a fledgling engineering industry stimulated by the demands of the burgeoning railway network and the ironworks themselves; the Durham coalfield was a source of excellent coking coals and the railway provided affordable bulk transport. Large scale production of steel from local ironstone via the Bessemer converter was made possible by development of the Thomas-Gilchrist process at Bolckow and Vaughan's works in Middlesbrough and Eston in 1878-79. Conditions were thus ideal for the rapid growth of a thriving engineering industry supported by cheap, locally produced iron and steel. Labour was attracted from all parts of the country and Middlesbrough grew becoming a municipal borough in 1853, a parliamentary borough in 1867 and in 1888 a county borough.
It was in this period of rapid industrial development and municipal growth that the Cleveland Institution of Engineers was formed, on 15 September 1864, at a meeting of seven local industrialists at Thomas Whitwell's residence in Church Row, Stockton-on-Tees. The chief promoters of the Institution were Jeremiah Head articled to Robert Stephenson in Newcastle. "They had studied together and when they found themselves working in the Cleveland district, they were anxious to draw to themselves kindred spirits to discuss engineering problems as they presented themselves for solution." Thus began The Cleveland Institution of Engineers which since that time has been an important forum on Teesside for the presentation and discussion of industrial problems and developments. The three chief promoters at the formation of the Institution each served as Secretary and Vice President in its early years and each one subsequently became President: Jeremiah Head from 1871 to 1874. In August 1878 in the second year of his presidency Thomas Whitwell was accidentally killed by scalding steam at W Whitwell and Company's Thornaby Ironworks and a brilliant career was extinguished.
Thomas Wrightson served as President for a second time in the 1914 session, the fiftieth anniversary of the Institution's founding. Throughout most of the twentieth century the name Head Wrightson signified a major engineering manufacturer and contractor trading internationally and based on Teesside. Although, unlike his brothers Arthur and Howard, Jeremiah Head was not a direct partner in the Head Wrightson organisation he had married Rebecca Ingram Wrightson, Thomas Wrightson's sister. By 1868 the principal partners in the enterprise were Arthur Head and Thomas Wrightson and Arthur Head was appointed chairman when the business became a limited liability company in 1888. On Arthur Head's re
Richard Barrie Dobson was an English historian, a leading authority on the legend of Robin Hood as well as a scholar of ecclesiastical and Jewish history. He served as Professor of Medieval History at the University of Cambridge from 1988 to 1999. Dobson was born on 3 November 1931 in Stockton-on-Tees; as his father worked for the Great Western Railway of Brazil his spent his early years in South America. The family returned to England and he spent his boyhood living in Mickleton, North Riding of Yorkshire, he was educated at an independent school in Barnard Castle, Teesdale. Following his schooling, he was called up to the British Army as part of National Service, he saw active service during the Malayan Emergency. Upon completion of his National Service, in 1951 he matriculated into Wadham College, University of Oxford, he graduated with a first-class Bachelor of Arts degree. He joined Magdalen College, where he completed a Doctor of Philosophy degree, his thesis was titled The Priory of Durham Priory in the Time of John Wessington, Prior 1416–1446 and was completed in 1962.
Dobson lectured in medieval history at the University of St Andrews from 1958 to 1964. He joined the University of York as a history lecturer in 1964, he rose through the ranks in his department becoming a reader and professor of history in 1977. In 1984, he was appointed deputy vice-chancellor and thereby becoming the second most senior academic of the university. In 1988, he moved to the University of Cambridge to take up the post of Professor of Medieval History, he became a fellow of Christ's College. He held a number of senior positions outside of university, he was president of the Surtees Society from 1987 to 2002, president of the Jewish Historical Society of England from 1990 to 1991 and of the Ecclesiastical History Society from 1991 to 1992. He was one of the founding members of the York Archaeological Trust in 1972. From 1990 to 1996, he was the trust's chairman. Dobson died on 29 March 2013 at his home in York aged 81 years, his funeral service was held at the York Unitarian Chapel on 16 April.
Dobson married Narda Leon in 1959. They had met at the University of Oxford. Together they had two children. Dobson was elected to the fellowship of a number of learned societies: the Royal Historical Society in 1972, the Society of Antiquaries in 1979, the British Academy in 1988; the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190 Rymes of Robyn Hood: An Introduction to the English Outlaw ‘The Northern Provinces in the Later Middle Ages’, Northern History, xlii, 51. Obituary - The Telegraph Obituary - The Times Obituary - The Guardian
Sandhar Technologies Limited or Sandhar Group or Sandhar, is an Indian multinational and a global manufacturer of automotive components. The company was founded in 1987 by Jayant Davar has 3 subsidiaries and 10 joint venture with 41 factories all over the world. 1987-90: The company was founded in 1987 by Jayant Davar and started supplying sheet metals for Hero Honda motorcycles and received technical assistance from Honda Lock to manufacture lock systems for the motorbikes. 1990-95: It started producing mirrors and door handles for Honda cars thanks to technical assistance received from Honda Lock and up to the date it is the only supplier for Honda cars. 2000-05: The company starts investing in Zn, Al die casting and tools and dies. 2006-10: Enters in the field of wheel assembly production such as handle bar, spools for seatbelt retractors and PDC products. 2011-16: The business expanded to manufacture plastic injection moulding seatbelts eventually set up a research unit Gurugram. 2016-18: Thanks to joint venture with Whetron and Jinyoung, the company has started to manufacture automotive electronic products.
In December 2017 the company entered into joint venture with Daeshin Machinery Ind. Co. Ltd. By the end of 2018, the company announced a joint venture with Kwangsung Corporation Ltd. Rep Korea to manufacture sunvisor, cargo screen, black-Out tape, glove box & several other blow-moulded products. 2019: The company has entered into Joint Venture with Winnercom Co. Ltd. and Hanshin Corporation of Rep Korea, Subsidiaries: Sandhar Tooling Pvt. Ltd. Sandhar Strategic Systems Pvt. Ltd. Sandhar Technologies Barcelona S. L. including step down subsidiaries at Mexico, Poland & Breniar. Joint Ventures: Sandhar Hansung Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Indo Toolings Pvt. Ltd. Sandhar ECCO Green Energy Pvt. Ltd. Sandhar Daewha Automotive Systems Private Limited Sandhar Amkin Industries Private Limited Sandhar Whetron Electronics Private Limited Kwangsung Sandhar Technologies Private Ltd. Jinyoung Sandhar Mechatronics Private Limited Winnercom Sandhar Technologies Private Limited Sandhar Hanshin Automotive Private LimitedTechnical Collaboration: Jinyoung Electro-Mechanics Co.
Limited, Korea Honda Lock Manufacturing Company Limited, Japan Whetron Electronics Co. Ltd. Taiwan Automotive Security Systems - Locking, Latches/Hinges, Door Handles. Plastic moulded parts and accessories for the passenger and utility vehicles
The Huacaybamba Province is one of eleven provinces of the Huánuco Region in Peru. The capital of this province is the city of Huacaybamba. North: Marañón Province East: Leoncio Prado Province South: Huamalíes Province West: Ancash Region One of the highest peaks of the district is Kuntur Marka at 4,400 m. Other mountains are listed below: The province is divided into four districts, which are: Canchabamba Cochabamba Huacaybamba Pinra The people in the province are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Quechua is the language which the majority of the population learnt to speak in childhood, 20.45% of the residents started speaking using the Spanish language. Kinwaqucha Mamaqucha