Jeong Yakyong / Jung Yak-Yong simply known as ‘Dasan’, was born on the 16th day of the 6th lunar month, 1762, in Gwangju county, Gyeonggi province, died there on the 22nd day of the 2nd lunar month, 1836. He was one of the greatest thinkers of the Joseon period, wrote influential books about philosophy and theories of government, held significant administrative positions, was a close confidant of King Jeongjo, was noted as a poet, his philosophical position is identified with the Silhak school, his concerns are better seen as explorations of Neo-Confucian themes. He spent 18 years in exile in Gangjin, South Jeolla province, from 1801 until 1818, on account of his membership of the Southerners faction, because of the Catholic faith of his elder brother, his clan originated in South Jeolla Province. At birth he was given the courtesy title Gwi’nong, he was known by the ja Miyong and Songbu 美庸). Korean Catholics sometimes claim that he was baptized with the name John Baptist, but there is no documentary proof of this.
Dasan's father was Jeong Jae-won. His eldest brother Yak-hyeon was the son of a first wife, while Jeong Yak-jong, Yak-jeon, Yakyong were the sons of their father's second wife, Suk-in from the Haenam Yun 尹 family. There was one daughter from this second marriage. Four other daughters were born of a third marriage. Dasan's father's family traced their descent back to Jeong Ja-geup who in 1460 first took a government position under King Sejo. Eight further generations followed his example. Jeong Si-yun and his second son Do-bok were the last of the line, since the Southerners’ faction to which the family belonged lost power in 1694. Si-yun retired to a house in Mahyeon-ri to the east of Seoul in 1699, to be Dasan's birthplace, his eldest son, Do-tae was Dasan's direct ancestor. The Southerners remained excluded from official positions until a brief period that began during the reign of King Jeongjo, when Dasan's father was appointed magistrate of Jinju county, thanks to his strong links with the powerful Chae Je-gong, who rose until he was appointed third state councillor in 1788.
In 1762, the execution of Crown Prince Sado by his father the king so shocked Jeong Jae-won that he withdrew from official life and returned to his home in Mahyeon-ri. This explains the courtesy name Gwi’nong his father gave Dasan, born in the same year; as a result, Dasan grew up receiving intense intellectual training from his now unoccupied father. The source of Dasan's intellectual interests can be traced to the influence of the great scholar Udam Jeong Si-han of the same clan, who taught Jeong Si-yun and was the main teacher of Dasan's ancestor Jeong Do-tae as well as his brother Do-je. One of the most significant thinkers in the next generation was the philosopher-scholar Seongho Yi Ik and he saw Udam as the authentic heir of Toegye Yi Hwang. Jeong Do-je transmitted the teachings of Udam to the next generations of the family and so they were passed to Dasan's father and Dasan himself. Dasan's mother was descended from the family of the famous Southerner scholar-poet Gosan Yun Seon-do. Yun's great-grandson Gongjae Yun Du-seo, well known for his skills as a painter, was Dasan's maternal great-grandfather.
He and his elder brother were close to Seongho Yi Ik and his brothers, are credited with reviving the study of the Six Classics, as well as the thought of Toegye. By the age of 6, Dasan's father was impressed by his powers of observation. By the age of 9 he had composed a small collection of poems. In 1776, Dasan was married to Hong Hwabo of the Pungsan Hong clan, the daughter of a royal secretary; when he was 15, Dasan was introduced to the writings of Seongho Yi Ik by one of his descendants, Yi Ga-Hwan and his brother-in-law Yi Seung-hun and he was impressed, resolving to devote his life to similar studies. In 1783, Dasan passed the chinsagwa. In 1784 the king was impressed by the “objectivity” of Dasan's replies to a set of questions he had formulated; this was the start of an close relationship between the king and Dasan. After the promotion of Chae Je-gong in 1788, Dasan took top place in the daegwa in 1789 and was offered a position in the Office of Royal Decrees, together with 5 other members of the Southerner faction.
This alarmed members of the opposing ‘Old Doctrine’ faction, who soon realized the extent to which the Southerners were being influenced, not only by the Practical Learning introduced to China from Europe, but by Roman Catholicism itself. In 1784, Yi Byeok, a scholar who had participated in meetings to study books about the Western Learning, starting in 1777, talked with Dasan about the new religion for the first time in 1784 and gave him a book about it. Whatever his own response may have been, there is no proof
Lee San, Wind of the Palace
Yi San known as Lee San, Wind of the Palace, is a 2007 South Korean historical drama, starring Lee Seo-jin and Han Ji-min. It aired on MBC from September 17, 2007 to June 16, 2008 on Mondays and Tuesdays at 21:55; the series was directed by Lee Byung-hoon, who produced the award-winning television series Dae Jang Geum. Lee Seo-jin and Han Ji-min received recognition for their performances at the MBC Drama Awards. Yi San dramatizes the life of the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty. Jeongjo is remembered in Korean history for his sympathy with the plight of the common man, in spite of his own pampered upbringing as royalty; the drama begins with the King's early years, during which he befriends two children working in the Palace who are expelled. King Yeongjo seals Jeongjo's father, Crown Prince Sado, in a rice storage chest with no food or water because he fears that the crown prince is planning a coup. Jeongjo wants to save his father, with the help of his friends Seong Song Yeon and Park Dae Su, begs King Yeongjo to forgive the Crown Prince.
The drama skips forward to Jeongjo's adult years when he and his friends re-establish contact with each other. Throughout, Jeongjo's position as Crown Prince is threatened by palace intrigues; the Crown Prince, begins to fall in love with one of his childhood friends, Seong Song Yeon, whose father, a palace artist, died when she was young. The story follows Yi San's rise to power, his assumption of the kingship, the labyrinthine palace intrigues that he must guard against from the No-ron Faction. While the show does deviate from the historical record in a number of ways, its representation of court life during the Joseon Dynasty appears to be based on contemporary sources. Yi San/King Jeongjo — the main protagonist in the series, he is the only son of Crown Prince Lady Hyegyeong. Kind and generous, he makes frequent trips under disguise to see how the common people are doing; the series spans from San's childhood at the age of eleven, when Crown Prince Sado is being executed, to about 40 years when San himself reigned as king.
It was during the beginning of the series when San met Park Dae Su. In episode 1, he disguises himself as a junior eunuch and sneaks into the courtyard where his father was imprisoned in a rice chest. With the help of Dae Su and Song Yeon, he manages to obey his father's last wish; the friendship that developed as a result would last the entire series. The plot fast-forwards ten years, when San is Crown Prince of Korea. San is a filial child who loved his father unconditionally despite the opposition, never denied his father's innocence, which caused him to get into trouble several times, he never bore a grudge against King Yeongjo, his grandfather, despite Yeongjo's sometimes unfair and harsh treatment towards him. San loved his grandfather deeply. Loyal to his subjects and people, he hates it when someone risks their own life for his, always tries to protect them instead. While he is still Crown Prince, he falls in love with Song Yeon who became his source of comfort and warmth; when he becomes king, Song Yeon, is made his concubine.
Although San tries to hide it, he never liked the other concubines his mother brought in and hardly spend time with them like he did with Song Yeon, only doing so once in a while out of a sense of duty as a King, a fact which he is bitter about. San likes practicing martial arts with the Royal Guards and traveling incognito in order to feel the experience of the people; when doing so, he adopts the pseudonym Yi Mu-Duk. He suffered severe heartbreak when Song Yeon passes away. While he gravely misses and thinks of her every day, he continued to keep his promise to her that he will withstand everything and be a good king, he is implied to be together with Song Yeon again in their afterlife, where he is at peace and happy to spend the rest of eternity with the woman he loves. Titles: Yi San, 이 산, Wangsesun Cheoha, 왕세손 저하, Chusang Cheona, 주상 전하 Pseudonym: Yang Mu-Duk, 양 무덕Seong Song-yeon/Ui-bin Seong — King Jeongjo's love interest, she thus has a fondness for art. Orphaned at a young age with a baby brother to take care of, she was taken in by a relative who helped her become a palace maid so that she, could gain a standing in the palace.
When she was 11, she entered the palace and her relative sent her baby brother, Seong Song Wook, to the family of a local physician, kind enough to adopt him. On her first night in the palace Song Yeon met San, trying to get to the rice chest that held his father. Dae Su, trying to escape the palace, while she was obtaining food for the older palace maids. Sadly and Dae Su were caught and kicked out of the palace. Angry at her, the relative that helped her enter the palace refused to take her in, so Dae Su's uncle, senior eunuch Park Dal Ho, took her in and raised her with Dae Su. However, enemies of the prince forced them all to flee the capital, they fled promising. This they do, Song Yeon enters the Bureau of Painting, which keeps records of events by painting them, as a Damo; the promise of returning to the palace is not fulfilled until Song Yeon paints a Kirin for an ambassador from Qing China. Curious to learn more about her, San realized it was Song Yeon, he visits her home where he finds Dae Su and his uncle.
From on, the t
A grave is a location where a dead body is buried. Graves are located in special areas set aside for the purpose of burial, such as graveyards or cemeteries. Certain details of a grave, such as the state of the body found within it and any objects found with the body, may provide information for archaeologists about how the body may have lived before its death, including the time period in which it lived and the culture that it had been a part of. In some religions, it is believed; the formal use of a grave involves several steps with associated terminology. Grave cutThe excavation. Excavations vary from a shallow scraping to removal of topsoil to a depth of 6 feet or more where a vault or burial chamber is to be constructed. However, most modern graves in the United States are only 4 feet deep as the casket is placed into a concrete box to prevent a sinkhole, to ensure the grave is strong enough to be driven over, to prevent floating in the instance of a flood. Excavated soilThe material dug up.
It is piled up close to the grave for backfilling and returned to the grave to cover it. As soil decompresses when excavated and space is occupied by the burial not all the volume of soil fits back in the hole, so evidence is found of remaining soil. In cemeteries this may end up as a thick layer of soil overlying the original ground surface. Burial or intermentThe body may be placed in a coffin or other container, in a wide range of positions, by itself or in a multiple burial, with or without personal possessions of the deceased. Burial vaultA vault is a structure built within the grave to receive the body, it may be used to prevent crushing of the remains, allow for multiple burials such as a family vault, retrieval of remains for transfer to an ossuary, or because it forms a monument. Grave backfillThe soil returned to the grave cut following burial; this material may contain artifacts derived from the original excavation and prior site use, deliberately placed goods or artifacts or material.
The fill may be mounded. Monument or markerHeadstones are best known, but they can be supplemented by decorative edging, foot stones, posts to support items, a solid covering or other options. Graveyards were established at the same time as the building of the relevant place of worship and were used by those families who could not afford to be buried inside or beneath the place of worship itself. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of the name of the deceased, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe this was accompanied with a depiction of their family coat of arms. Graveyards have been replaced by cemeteries. Burial at sea Cenotaph Christian burial Church monuments Cremation Crypt Dolmen Eco-Burial Funeral pyre Funerary art God's Acre Gravedigger Islamic burial Jewish burial Mass grave Mausoleum Monumental inscription Necropolis Premature burial Pyramid Tomb Tophet Tumulus Turn in one's grave War grave Media related to Graves at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Grave at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of grave at Wiktionary
Crown Prince Sado
Crown Prince Sado was born Prince Jangheon, the second son of the Korean king Yeongjo. Due to the prior death of his older half-brother Crown Prince Hyojang, the new prince was the probable royal heir; however Prince Sado was not given an opportunity to reign. At the age of 27, he was executed by order of his father, died of starvation by being confined in a rice chest, his father gave him the posthumous title Sado, meaning "Thinking of with great sorrow." Lady Hyegyeong, Sado's wife, wrote a memoir in 1805 detailing their life together. She records that the prince suffered a severe illness during 1745, where he lost consciousness. Although he recovered, the tense relationship between Sado and King Yeongjo led to him experiencing severe anxiety whenever in his father's presence; when Sado came of age at 15, his father appointed him regent, giving him the power to make decisions on administrative matters. Lady Hyegyeong describes King Yeongjo as perpetually dissatisfied with whichever course of action Sado chose.
Yeongjo did not permit Sado to visit the ancestral tombs until as late as 1756, nor was he allowed to attend auspicious court events. Yeongjo always made sure to chastise his son in front of a large crowd, either of ladies-in-waiting or eunuchs; as a result, Sado formed a strong bond with his sister Princess Hwahyeop, disfavoured by their father. When she died in 1752, Sado was reported to have grieved intensely. In 1752, Sado read. Whilst reading, he hallucinated. Henceforth, Sado was terrified of thunder and refused to touch any object engraved with the characters of the book. Sado took a secondary consort, with whom he had a son in 1754. Terrified of his father's anger, Sado forced her to take abortive medicines, but the child was born safely anyway. Arrangements for Yeongbin's delivery and housing were made by Lady Hyegyeong. Sado had another son with Yeongbin from whom the first emperor of Korea was descended. In 1757, King Yeongjo's legal mother and wife died within a month of each other. Sado had been close to both of them and their deaths led to a marked deterioration in his mental health and relationship with his father.
As a way of dealing with his frustration and rage, Sado beat his eunuchs. In the same month as the burial of Queen Jeongseong, Sado walked into his chambers holding the severed head of a eunuch whom he had killed, forcing the ladies-in-waiting and his wife to view it. After this, he killed palace staff to release his emotions, as well as assaulting and raping many ladies-in-waiting. Lady Hyegyeong reported Sado's issues to Royal Noble Consort Yeong, but begged her not to speak to anyone of the matter, as she feared for her own safety if Sado discovered she had told someone. By 1758, a previous phobia of Sado's regarding clothing became intensively problematic. Late in 1757, Sado took another secondary consort, a lady-in-waiting to his grandmother, so his relations with her were considered to breach the incest taboo; when Yeongjo found out, he berated his son and Sado jumped down a well, but a guard pulled him out. Lady Hyegyeong had, by this point, managed to have Pingae hidden in the home of Sado's sister, Princess Hwawan.
On his birthday in 1760, Sado suffered a burst of outrage at his parents, berating Royal Consort Yeong, as well his own son, two daughters. After this, Sado threatened Princess Hwawan, demanding that she use her influence over King Yeongjo to move palaces and allow Sado to visit the springs at Onyang, he threatened to kill her. Sado was physically violent toward his wife, which necessitated Lady Hyegyeong to avoid court events to hide the bruises. In 1761, Sado beat Pingae in a fit of rage, he left her on the floor. Lady Hyegyeong prepared her body for the funeral rites, but, on his return, Sado said nothing about Pingae's death. In summer 1762, an altercation with an official at court enraged Sado; as revenge, he threatened to kill the official's son and attempted to sneak through a water passage to the upper palace. He failed to find the son and, confiscated clothing and items belonging to him. Rumours that Sado had attempted to enter the upper palace to kill King Yeongjo spread around the court.
Fearing for the safety of her grandchildren, Royal Consort Yeong begged Yeongjo to deal with Sado. By court rules, the body of a royal could not be defiled and, under the then-common practice of communal punishment, Sado's wife and son could face death or banishment if he were executed as a criminal; as a solution, Yeongjo ordered Sado to climb into a wooden rice chest on a hot July day in 1762. According to Lady Hyegyeong's memoirs, Sado begged for his life before getting into the chest, though he attempted to get out again. Along with her children, Lady Hyegyeong was taken back to her father's house on the same day. After two days, King Yeongjo had the chest containing Sado tied with rope, covered with grass, moved to the upper palace. Sado responded from inside the chest until the night of the seventh day. Yeongjo restored him to the position of crown prince. During the 19th century, there were rumors that Prince Sado had not been mentally ill, but had been framed. Sado's death remains an issue of debate as to whether his death was a retribution for his actual misconduct or if he was t
Hwaseong is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. It has the largest area of farmland of any county in Gyeonggi Province. Seoul Subway Line 1 passes through Hwaseong. On November 27, 2007 the city was chosen as the site for the future Universal Studios South Korea theme park. Set to open in 2016, it will be the world's largest Universal Studios theme park, being larger than all the other four combined; the US$3.1 billion park is expected to create at least 58,000 new jobs. In 2014, the project was put on hold; the plan was restarted in 2015, K-Water was chosen as a business partner. Universal Studios South Korea is projected to open in 2021. Hwaseong city is located in the western area of the Korean Peninsula; the temperatures in winter are low along the coast since it is located in the lower plains and close to the Yellow Sea, where the water is shallow. Additionally, Siberian air flows directly into the western flatlands of the Korean peninsula, making several areas colder. Hwaseong is populated by 49% male South Korean citizens, 46% South Korean females, 5% foreign residents.
With 236,241 homes, there are on average 2.8 people per registered place of residence in the city. With the exceptions of Byeongjeom 2-dong, Dongtan 2-dong and Dongtan 3-dong, there is a larger number of males than females in every division of the city. Administrative divisions Hwaseong has 9 townships and 13 neighborhoods; each eup and myeon is further divided into villages. In October 2014, Namyang-dong was downgraded to an eup- the first case in South Korea. "Hwaseong is old name of Suwon'Hwaseong' castle built by king Jeonjo of Yi dynasty. West area called Namyang, East area called new city of Byeongjeom and Dongtan 1 new city. East side new city is under construction as Dongtan 2 city with 300,000 population smart city including SRT Dongtan high speed rail station, Ease side of Gyeongbu expressway in the Hwaseong East area started operation since December 2017. West Hwaseong is segrated by Seohae expressway from Ansan to Pyeongtaek port. Many special products are sold in the Hwaseong area that are different from other regions of Gyeonggi-do.
There are many facilities. Additionally and dairy products are available. Hangwa is made by local companies as a specialty. Flower: Forsythia Tree: Ginkgo Bird: Pigeon Cha Bum-kun, South Korean football player Cho Yong-pil, South Korean pop singer Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Weihai, China Wujiang District, Jiangsu, China Phú Thọ Province, Vietnam List of cities in South Korea Geography of South Korea Bongdam Joam Hwaseong serial murders City government website City Council website
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897, it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul; the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade and science and technology. However, the dynasty was weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined in the late 19th century; the Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. By the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388, the 14th year of U of Goryeo, to demand that Goguryeo's former northern territory be handed over to Ming China, General Choe seized the chance to argue for an attack on the Liaodong Peninsula.
Yi was chosen to lead the attack. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne. In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, before he ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 500 years of rule. In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now ruler of Korea, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500-year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo and now the demoted Wang clan, the consensus in the reformed court was that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change. In naming the new dynasty, Taejo contemplated two possibilities - "Hwaryeong" and "Joseon".
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon. He moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong; when the new dynasty was promulgated and brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son Grand Prince Uian as crown prince in 1392; this conflict arose because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo's support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal family's power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bangwon struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Dojeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of
Yeongjo of Joseon
Yeongjo of Joseon was the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was the second son of King Sukjong, his mother was Consort Suk of the Choi clan. Before ascending to power, his name was Prince Yeoning. In 1720, a few months after the accession of his older brother, King Gyeongjong as the 20th King, Yeoning became the Royal Prince Successor Brother; this induced a large controversy between political factions. Four years at the death of Gyeongjong, Yeongjo ascended the throne. Yeongjo's reign lasted 52 years and was marked by his persistent efforts to reform the taxation system of Joseon, rule by Confucian ethics and reconcile the factional fighting under his "Magnificent Harmony" Policy, his reign was marked by the controversial execution of his son, Prince Sado, in 1762. In spite of the controversies, Yeongjo's reign has earned a positive reputation in Korean history due to his sincere efforts to rule by Confucian virtue. In 1720, his father King Sukjong died and Crown Prince Yi Yun, Sukjong's eldest son, ascended to the throne as King Gyeongjong, at the age of 33.
When Sukjong died in 1720, he told Yi Yi-myoung to name Yeoning-gun as Gyeongjong's heir, but in the absence of a historiographer or scribe, there was no record. During his time there was resentment for his low-born origins; the Noron faction of the bureaucracy pressured King Gyeongjong to step down in favor of his half-brother Prince Yeoning. In 1720, two months after the King's enthronement, Prince Yeoning was installed as Royal Prince Successor Brother; this aggravated the power struggle and led to a great massacre, namely the Shinim literati purges. The Norons sent messages to the king to no effect while the opposing Soron faction used this to their advantage – claiming the Noron were trying to usurp power and subsequently getting their rival faction removed from several offices. Members of the Soron faction came up with an idea to assassinate the heir under the pretence of hunting for a white fox said to be haunting the palace, but Yeoning-gun sought shelter with his stepmother, Queen Dowager Inwon, who protected him and he was able to stay alive.
Afterwards, he told his half-brother the king that he rather would live as a commoner. On 11 October 1724, King Gyeongjong died. Soron accused Prince Yeoning of having something to do with his brother's death due to the earlier attempt by the Noron faction to have him replace Gyeongjong on the throne, but historians now agree that he could have died of eating contaminated seafood, as to the symptoms of the illness that caused his death. Homer Hulbert described this in his book The History of Korea where he said, "But we may well doubt the truth of the rumor, for nothing, told of that brother indicates that he would commit such an act, in the second place a man who will eat shrimps in mid-summer, that have been brought 30 miles from the sea without ice might expect to die." On 16 October 1724, Prince Yeoning ascended the throne as the 21st ruler of Joseon. King Yeongjo was a Confucian monarch, is said to have had a greater knowledge of the classics than his officials. During the reign of Yeongjo and his grandson Jeongjo, Confucianization was at its height, as well as the economic recovery from the wars of the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
His rulership has been called one of the most brilliant reigns of all the Joseon Dynasty. Yeongjo worried for his people. Annals of the Joseon Dynasty record that one day in the 4th year of his reign, King Yeongjo woke up to the sound of early morning rain and said to his courtiers, Oh dear! We have had flood and famines for the past four years because of my lack of virtue, this year we went through an unprecedented revolt by a traitor named Yi In-jwa. How can my poor people manage their livelihood under such hardship? There is an old saying,'War is always followed by a lean year.' However, we haven’t had a big famine for the past two years and we pin our hopes on a good harvest this year. Yet I am still nervous because, while the season for harvesting is around the corner, there is no way of knowing if there will be a flood or drought before then. Nobody knows whether a cold rain will pour and flood the fields awaiting harvest. My lack of goodness might bring upon us such awful things. How can I earn the sympathy of heavens if I do not self-reflect and make efforts myself?
I should start with reflecting on myself. Yeongjo worried; the King ordered his courtiers to reduce taxes on the people and decrease the number of dishes in his own meals. Reducing the range of foods he ate was a decision made out of concern for his starving people. One early morning 25 years circa 1753, the continuous rain reminded Yeongjo of the flood during the 4th year of his reign, when he had eaten less food: "Oh! Floods and droughts happen because I lack virtue. I am much older than that year, but how can my compassion for the people and will to work hard for them be less than back then?". Yet again, Yeongjo ordered a reduction in the number of dishes on his dining table. People around him described him as an articulate, bright and kind King, he was penetrating in quick of comprehension. Yeongjo realising the detrimental effect on state administration of factional strife during the latter half of the 17th century, attempted to end factional strife as soon as he ascended the throne. Yeongjo reinstated the short-lived universal military ser