Jerome Bettis

Jerome Abram Bettis Sr. nicknamed The Bus, is a former American football halfback who played for the Los Angeles Rams/St. Louis Rams and Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. Bettis is eighth on the list of NFL rushing yards leaders, he retired in 2006 after he won Super Bowl XL with the Steelers in his native Detroit, beating the Seattle Seahawks. Bettis was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2015. Bettis was born February 1972, in Detroit, Michigan, he is the oldest of three children of Johnnie E. Bettis. Bettis did not start playing football until high school, as his primary passion as a youth had been bowling. At age 14, he was diagnosed with asthma; as a youth in Detroit and his brother made ends meet by selling crack cocaine. He attended Mackenzie High School in Detroit, where he was a standout running linebacker; as a senior, he was rated the top player in the state by the Detroit Free Press, was the Gatorade Circle of Champions Player of the Year award winner. At the University of Notre Dame, Bettis finished his career with 337 rushing attempts for 1912 yards, made 32 receptions for 429 yards.

In his last game as a junior, a 28-3 win by Notre Dame over Texas A&M in the 1993 Cotton Bowl, he rushed 20 times for 75 yards, ran for two touchdowns and caught a 26-yard touchdown pass. In his sophomore year, he set the Notre Dame touchdown record with 20 in one season, with 16 rushing, 4 receiving. 1990: 15 carries for 115 yards and 1 touchdown. 1991: 168 carries for 972 yards and 16 touchdowns. 17 catches for 190 yards and 4 touchdowns. 1992: 154 carries for 825 yards and 10 touchdowns. 15 catches for 239 yards and 6 touchdowns. Bettis did not graduate from college, he skipped his senior year at Notre Dame to enter the 1993 NFL Draft. He returned to Notre Dame in 1996 when he was having a dispute with the St. Louis Rams and was considering retirement, he took courses in "history, philosophy and business" totalling a heavy 18 credit class load. He returned to the NFL shortly thereafter, "he has not returned to Notre Dame to finish the coursework for his degree." Bettis was picked in the first round of the 1993 NFL Draft by the Los Angeles Rams.

On July 22, 1993, Bettis signed a three-year, $4.625 million contract with a signing bonus in excess of $2 million. As a rookie, he flourished under Chuck Knox's ground-oriented offense, he earned the nickname "The Battering Ram" as he rushed for 1,429 yards, drawing comparisons to Earl Campbell. Bettis had an NFL-best 79 rushing first downs and an NFL-best 38 runs of 10 or more yards, tied for the league lead with seven 100-yard rushing games despite not becoming the full-time starter until the sixth game of the season. Bettis was named a First-Team Consensus NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year, he rushed for over 1,000 yards and was selected for the NFC's Pro Bowl team in each of his first two seasons with the Rams. The Rams moved to St. Louis for the 1995 season. New coach Rich Brooks instituted a more pass-oriented offense, a major reason why Bettis was limited to 637 yards, a significant dropoff from his 1993 and 1994 totals. Brooks asked Bettis whether he wanted to move to fullback for the upcoming 1996 season or preferred to be traded.

Bettis stated. On April 20, 1996, Bettis was traded to the Pittsburgh Steelers with a third-round pick in the 1996 NFL Draft, in exchange for the Steelers' second-round pick and their fourth-round pick in the 1997 NFL Draft; the Rams gave Bettis the option of which team he wanted to be traded to, he chose the Steelers over their AFC Central rival Houston Oilers due to the Steelers more storied history. In exchange for Bettis, the Rams drafted Ernie Conwell and received the Steelers fourth-round pick in 1997. In 1997, the Rams had multiple trade deals including moving up to the number 1 draft slot to draft Orlando Pace; the Rams traded their fourth-round pick from the Steelers to the Dolphins along with two sixth-round picks, in order to move up nine slots and draft offensive tackle Ryan Tucker. The Steelers drafted Steve Conley with the draft selection they acquired from the Bettis trade with the Rams. Conley was traded to the Colts two seasons for a fifth-round pick; the Steelers were in need of a running back because Bam Morris, their power running back for the 1994 and 1995 seasons, was arrested in March 1996 for marijuana possession.

The Steelers traded for Bettis on the day of the 1996 NFL Draft. Morris pleaded guilty to marijuana possession and was cut by the team in June 1996, leaving Bettis as the featured back. In his first season in Pittsburgh, Bettis rushed for a career-high 1,431 yards and 11 touchdowns and was named to his second 1st team All-Pro team, he won the NFL Comeback Player of the Year, NFL Alumni Running Back of the Year, was voted Steelers' team MVP and finished the 1996 season as the leader in Football Outsiders rushing DYAR metric. Bettis rushed for over 1,000 yards in each of his first six seasons with the Steelers between 1996 and 2001. Included in that run were three campaigns of over 1,300 yards. In 1997, Bettis rushed for a career-best 1,665 yards in the team's first 15 games. However, because the team had wrapped up its playoff position, he was rested for the regular-season finale and finished 26 yards short of the team's single-season record. Bettis does hold the Steelers' franchise record for rus

An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity

An Argument to Prove that the Abolishing of Christianity in England May, as Things Now Stand Today, be Attended with Some Inconveniences, Perhaps not Produce Those Many Good Effects Proposed Thereby referred to as An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, is a satirical essay by Jonathan Swift defending Christianity, in particular, against contemporary assaults by its various opponents, including freethinkers, Antitrinitarians, atheists and other so-called "Dissenters." The essay was written in 1708 and, as was common at the time, was distributed as a pamphlet. The essay is known for its sophisticated, multi-layered irony, is regarded as a prime example of political satire. In the essay, Swift answers several rhetorical arguments against Christianity. First, he responds to the argument that the abolition of Christianity would expand the liberty of conscience by arguing that if great wits could not denounce the Church, they might instead turn to the denunciation of the government, causing political unrest.

Swift addresses the argument that the Church supported by government funds, was a drain on resources that might be better spent elsewhere. Swift responds that if the funds used to support the clergy were used instead to fund freethinking young gentlemen, the money would, in short time, be squandered away on vices, divided by disagreeable marriages. Next, Swift counters the argument that the abolition of Christianity would open up another day of the week to commercial activities for the benefit of the nation by arguing that the Sabbath provides benefits by allowing lawyers time to write their briefs, merchants to tally their books, others to exercise, go to coffeehouses, otherwise enjoy themselves implying that the argument is specious because the Sabbath was not kept as intended in any case. Swift counters the argument that abolishing Christianity would remove arbitrary sectarian distinctions between Whig and Tory, High Church and Low Church, etc. that arguably damaged civil discourse and politics, by arguing that Christianity stands in as a convenient and arbitrary source of such distinctions and that abolishing it would only allow other arbitrary distinctions arguing that the problem is semantic and that such distinctions are a part of human nature.

The irony becomes more explicit as Swift next addresses the argument that it is ridiculous to employ a class of people to wail on one day a week against behaviour, the constant practice of all men alive on the other six by arguing that such vices, including wine and fine silks, were made all the more pleasurable by virtue of their being forbidden by the Christian mores of the era. In response to the facetious rhetorical argument that the abolition of Christianity would lead to the abolition of all religion, with it such "grievous prejudices of education" as virtue, honour and justice, Swift argues that such concepts had been banished from contemporary education, that this argument was, moot. Answering the argument that the abolition of the gospel would benefit the vulgar, that religion was put in force to keep the "lower part of the world in awe by fear of invisible powers," Swift points out that the vast majority of people were unbelievers who only employed religion to quiet "peevish" children and provide topics for amusing discussion.

Swift addresses the argument that abolishing Christianity will contribute to the uniting of a people divided by various sects of by arguing that humanity has an inborn "spirit of opposition" such that if Christianity were not extant to provide a context for such natural oppositions among men, this natural tendency would instead be spent in contravention of the laws and disturbance of the public peace. Swift points out potential negative consequences to the abolition of Christianity. First, Swift points out that reformers do not appreciate the advantage to them of having such an easy target upon which to practice their criticism and wit with such little risk to their persons in response as the Church and clergy. Next, Swift warns that the abolition of Christianity could lead to a rise in Presbyterianism, or worse in his mind, Catholicism. Swift's ironic defence of Christianity becomes more earnest and apparent as he proposes that if Christianity were to be abolished, all religion should be so banned, so as to free men from all bounds on their thinking and behaviour, in order that they may be allowed to engage in such vices as prostitution and drunkenness.

In conclusion, Swift proposes that if Christianity is to be abolished, it ought not be done until the conclusion of wars in which England was involved, as many of the country's allies were devoutly Christian, or at least, in the case of Turkey, religious. In a final ironic flourish, Swift warns that if Christianity were abolished, the stock market would fall, costing Great Britain more than the country had spent for Christianity's preservation, that there would be no reason to lose that much money for the sake of destroying the faith. An Argument against Abolishing Christianity, AU: Adelaide. Argument to Prove that the Abolishing of Christianity in England May, as Things Now Stand Today, be Attended with Some Inconveniences, Perhaps not public domain audiobook at LibriVox


The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay at the mouth of the Miami River in Miami, Florida, it is the largest passenger port in the world, one of the largest cargo ports in the United States. It is connected to Downtown Miami by Port Boulevard—a causeway over the Intracoastal Waterway—and to the neighboring Watson Island via the PortMiami Tunnel; the port is located on Dodge Island, the combination of three historic islands that have since been combined into one. It is named in honor of 19 term Florida Congressman Dante Fascell; as of 2018, PortMiami accounts for 334,500 jobs and has an annual economic impact of $43 billion to the state of Florida. In the early 1900s, Government Cut was dredged along with a new channel to what now is known as Bicentennial Park in downtown Miami; this new access to the mainland created the Main Channel which improved the shipping access to the new port. From these original dredging spoils which were disposed on the south side of the new Main Channel, new islands were inadvertently created which became Dodge and Sam's Island along with several other smaller islands.

PortMiami's improved shipping access and growth of the South Florida community led to an expansion of the port. On April 5, 1960, Resolution No. 4830, "Joint Resolution Providing for Construction of Modern Seaport Facilities at Dodge Island Site" was approved by the Dade County Board of Commissioners. On April 6, 1960, the City of Miami approved City Resolution No. 31837 to construct the new port. The new port on Dodge Island required expansion of the island by joining it together with the surrounding islands. After the seawalls, administrative buildings, a vehicle and railroad bridge were completed, Port of Miami operations were moved to the new Dodge Island port. Additional fill material enlarged the connected Lummus and Sam's islands as well as the North, South and NOAO slips, creating a man made island for PortMiami. In 1993, the first dredge of PortMiami occurred. In 2006, a $40 million project to expand the South Harbor finished. In 2011, a project to reconnect PortMiami to the mainland via railroad began.

In 2013, a dredging project began to deepen the harbors around PortMiami from 44 to 52 feet. In April 2019, the Miami-Dade Tourism and Ports Committee approved a deal for Royal Caribbean Cruises to build a new office and parking garage on Dodge Island. PortMiami is an important contributor to state economies; as a world-class port, PortMiami is among an elite group of ports in the world which cater to both cruise ships and containerized cargo. PortMiami boasts the title "cruise capital of the world", is the busiest cruise/passenger port in the world, it accommodates the operations of major cruise lines such as Carnival, Royal Caribbean, Disney, MSC, among others. Over 5.5 million cruise passengers pass through the port each year. The largest cruise ship in the world by gross tonnage, the Symphony of the Seas, is homeported at PortMiami; as of October 2019, the following cruise ships are homeported at PortMiami: Carnival Conquest, Carnival Horizon, Carnival Sensation, Carnival Victory, Empress of the Seas, Navigator of the Seas, Symphony of the Seas, Norwegian Breakaway, Norwegian Sky, MSC Armonia, MSC Seaside.

As of October 2019, there are seven operating passenger cruise terminals at PortMiami: A, C, D, E, F, G, J. One facility, purpose-built for a specific company is in use, with four more of these types of facilities in their planning or construction stages. On March 7, 2018, Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings announced plans for a new 166,000-square-foot facility, new Terminal B, at PortMiami that will be capable of serving Norwegian's largest ships, the Breakaway Plus-class ships. Norwegian intended to open the terminal, dubbed the "Pearl of Miami," by fall 2019, but budgeting issues have postponed its opening date until spring of 2020; the facility will begin serving Disney in 2020 upon completion. In July 2018, MSC Cruises announced its plans to build Terminal AA/AAA for its upcoming World-class cruise ships, a forthcoming class of cruise ship with an approximate gross tonnage of 205,700 tons; this marks MSC's second investment in its passenger facility infrastructure at PortMiami after MSC unveiled Terminal F, a custom-built terminal for MSC's ships, in December 2017.

The new terminal is expected to be completed in October 2022. On September 19, 2019, MSC and Miami-Dade County finalized the contract to construct the new facility; the new $300 million building will span 16.7 acres and include two berths capable of operating separately named as "AA" and "AAA," and be operated by MSC under a 62-year lease. In September 2018, it was revealed that Disney Cruise Line had entered into an agreement with Miami-Dade County to plan for a brand-new terminal, Terminal K, on the south side of PortMiami and east of Terminal J; the inauguration of the terminal is expected to coincide with Disney's expansion into Miami with two vessels homeported at the port in the mid-2020s. The construction of the terminal will be dependent on improvements made to the port's infrastructure that can enable Disney's vessels to operate on the south side of the port. There is no announced groundbreaking or completion date. On November 28, 2018, Virgin Voyages revealed plans to build a new 100,000-square-foot terminal, Terminal V, located on the northwest side of PortMiami and is scheduled to be completed by November 2021.

This facility will replace the current Terminal H. The new terminal will come one year after Virgin Voyages' inaugural