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Jerry Coyne

Jerry Allen Coyne is an American biologist known for his work on speciation and his commentary on intelligent design. A prolific scientist and author, he has published numerous papers elucidating the theory of evolution, he is a professor emeritus at the University of Chicago in the Department of Ecology and Evolution. His concentration is speciation and ecological and evolutionary genetics as they involve the fruit fly, Drosophila, he is the bestselling non-fiction book Why Evolution Is True. Coyne maintains a website and writes for his blog called Why Evolution Is True, he is a hard determinist. Coyne gained attention outside of the scientific community when he publicly criticized religion and is cited with atheists such as Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris, he is the author of the book Faith vs Fact: Why Religion are Incompatible. Coyne retired in 2015. Coyne graduated with a B. S. in biology from the College of William & Mary in 1971. His graduate work at Rockefeller University under Theodosius Dobzhansky was interrupted when he was drafted.

He earned a Ph. D. in biology at Harvard University in 1978, studying under Richard Lewontin, went on to do a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, Davis with Timothy Prout. He was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship in 1989, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007, received the "Emperor Has No Clothes" award from the Freedom from Religion Foundation in 2011. Coyne has served as President and Vice President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, as Associate Editor of Evolution and of The American Naturalist, he has taught evolutionary biology, genetic analysis, social issues and scientific knowledge, scientific speaking and writing. He considers evolutionary biology to be "... more like the fine arts of science, in that it's aesthetically quite satisfying, but it happens to be true, an extra bonus."His work is published in scientific journals as well as in such mainstream venues as The New York Times, the Times Literary Supplement, The New Republic.

His research interests include population and evolutionary genetics, speciation and quantitative genetics, chromosome evolution, sperm competition. Coyne is a critic of creationism, theistic evolution, intelligent design, which he calls "the latest pseudoscientific incarnation of religious creationism, cleverly crafted by a new group of enthusiasts to circumvent recent legal restrictions", he is concerned about a disconnect between what the public believes about evolution and what scientists believe about evolution. He states the value of studying evolution is in the true story of our origins and its value in restoring wonder in people. In a 1996 critique of the theory of intelligent-design creationism, Coyne wrote his first large New Republic article on Of Pandas and People, which started a long history of writing on evolution and creationism. Coyne lists the following evidence for evolution, as detailed in his book and elsewhere: Fossil record Embryology Molecular biology Presence of vestigial organs Biogeography Sequence similarity between species that are observed as a time-dependent change in junk DNATransitional fossils provide rich evidence for evolution.

Charles Darwin predicted such fossils in 1859, those identified as such include: Tiktaalik Ichthyostega Mammal-like reptiles Archaeopteryx Ambulocetus Early human fossils with ape-like skulls Series of terrestrial fossils between land animals and whalesThe evidence not only includes these transitional fossils but the fact that they occur in the fossil record at times between their putative ancestors and their more modern relatives. The Ecuadoran frog Atelopus coynei is named after Coyne, he collected the holotype in a swamp on a frogging trip to western Ecuador as a student in the late 1970s. Born to Jewish parents, Coyne considers himself a secular Jew, an outspoken anti-theist, he supports the theses of the conflict thesis. He claims that religion and science are fundamentally incompatible, that only rational evaluation of evidence is capable of reliably discovering the world and the way it works, that scientists who hold religious views are only reflective of the idea, "that people can hold two conflicting notions in their heads at the same time".

He has argued that the incompatibility of science and faith is based on irreconcilable differences in methodology and outcomes when they try to discern truths about the universe. As well as evolution-related topics, his blog Why Evolution Is True, which has over 50,000 subscribers as of January 14, 2018, discusses subjects spanning science, medical ethics, determinism and free speech, he has participated in public forums and cross-fire debates with theists. Coyne responds to critics of science and evolution. In a rebuttal, he identifies his reasons for skeptical reasoning. All scientific progress requires a climate of strong skepticism, he offers criticism of creationists. He questions the creationist concept of animals diverging only within kinds, in itself an admission of transitional intermediates between different groups found throughout the fossil record. We have many examples of transitional fossils between what anyone would consider diffe

Cannabis in Egypt

Cannabis in Egypt is illegal, but its use is a part of the common culture in the country for many people. Large-scale smuggling of cannabis is punishable by death, while penalties for possessing small amounts can be severe. Despite this, enforcement of the law is lax in many parts of Egypt, where cannabis is consumed in local cafes. Evidence has suggested that cannabis was present in Egypt since circa 3000 BP. However, whether or not it was used for psychoactive purposes during this time has not been documented, it was stated in a book written in 1980 that cannabis cultivation has occurred in Egypt for "almost a thousand years". During this time, cannabis was used for making rope and it was cultivated for use as a drug. Cannabis has been utilized in Egypt for hashish production for at least the last "eight or nine centuries", it has been stated that hashish was introduced to Egypt by "mystic Islamic travelers" from Syria sometime during the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12th century CE. Hashish consumption by Egyptian Sufis has been documented as occurrent in the thirteenth century CE, a unique type of cannabis referred to as Indian hemp was documented during this time.

At this time, the Indian hemp was described as having been called hashishab, as only been seen in Egypt, as having been grown in gardens. Enforcement against cannabis dates back as early as around the 14th century, when cannabis users in Egypt could be punished by having their teeth pulled out. In the 18th century, a French army officer wrote that due to the use of hashish “the mass of male population is in a perpetual state of stupor!” During Napoléon Bonaparte's invasion of Egypt in 1798, alcohol was not available per Egypt being an Islamic country. In lieu of alcohol, Bonaparte's troops resorted to trying hashish; as a result of the conspicuous consumption of hashish by the troops, the smoking of hashish and consumption of drinks containing it was banned in October 1800, although the troops ignored the order. Subsequently, beverages containing hashish were banned in Egyptian cafes. During this time, hashish imported from other countries was destroyed by burning. Upon the end of the occupation in 1801, French troops brought supplies of hashish with them back to France.

In 1877, the Ottoman government in Constantinople mandated that all hashish in Egypt be destroyed, in 1879 importation of cannabis was banned by the Khedivate of Egypt. In 1882 the British occupied Egypt, which remained nominally an autonomous Ottoman province but de facto British controlled. Soon after the Egyptian government issued an 1884 ban on cultivation, though officials were permitted to confiscate and export captured hashish rather than destroy it. Despite these measures and sale of cannabis continued, with authorities shutting down premises where cannabis was consumed, into the 20th century. Cannabis is grown in Upper Egypt; the trade is focused in Sinai, the area has been the main target of eradication efforts, with 7 million cannabis plants eradicated there in 1994. In 1800, French troops in Egypt noted that the Muslim locals both smoked the "seeds" of the hemp plant, as well as making a beverage from hemp. A number of cannabis preparations combined with other psychoactive plants have been recorded in Egypt, including bosa and a waterpipe smoking blend combined with henbane.

The gozah is the traditional Egyptian water-pipe. A 1925 report noted that hashish, "mixed with sugar and cooked with butter and flavoring, is made into the candy known in Egypt as manzul and garawish". Rubin, V.. "Traditional Patterns of Hashish Use in Egypt". Cannabis and Culture. World Anthropology. De Gruyter. Pp. 195–205. ISBN 978-3-11-081206-0

Discus (fish)

Symphysodon, colloquially known as discus, is a genus of cichlids native to the Amazon river basin in South America. Due to their distinctive shape and bright colors and patterns, discus are popular as freshwater aquarium fish, their aquaculture in several countries in Asia is a major industry, they are sometimes referred to as pompadour fish. Following a review published in 2006, three species are recognized by FishBase: Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840 Symphysodon tarzoo E. Lyons, 1959 Discus are fish from the genus Symphysodon, which includes the species S. aequifasciatus, S. discus and S. tarzoo, based on a taxonomic review published in 2006. A review published in 2007 came to the same result, but differed in nomenclature, as the species called S. tarzoo in the 2006 study was called S. aequifasciatus in the 2007 study, S. aequifasciatus in 2006 was S. haraldi in 2007. Further arguments have been made that S. tarzoo was not described in accordance with ICZN rules and thus should be considered invalid and replaced with S. haraldi considered a synonym of S. aequifasciatus by FishBase.

Other species have been proposed, but morphometric data varies as much between individuals from one location as across the whole range of all discus fish species. S. tarzoo applies to the red-spotted western population. S. aequifasciatus and S. discus, seem to hybridise in the wild or have diverged as they lack mitochondrial DNA lineage sorting but differ in color pattern and have dissimilar chromosomal translocation patterns. S. discus occurs in the Rio Negro. Whether S. haraldi is indeed distinct from S. aequifasciatus remains to be determined. A molecular study in 2011 found five main groups, which matched recognized phenotypes, they recognized them as evolutionarily significant species. Their assigning of scientific names to species differed to some extent from that used by earlier authors: Heckel, blue, Xingu group; the Xingu group lacks a scientific name, but it is possible that the correct name for the blue is S. haraldi. This taxonomy with four described valid species, S. discus, S. tarzoo, S. haraldi and S. aequifasciatus, has been adopted by the Catalog of Fishes.

Some hybridisation occurs between the brown discus and neighbouring forms, but overall they maintain their separate evolutionary trajectories. In addition to the wild discus, several captive variants achieved by selective breeding exist. Based on RAPD sequences, the captive variants popularly known as turquoise, ghost and solid red are derived from wild green and brown discus. Like cichlids from the genus Pterophyllum, all Symphysodon species have a laterally compressed body shape. In contrast to Pterophyllum, extended finnage is absent giving Symphysodon a more rounded shape, it is this body shape from which "discus", is derived. The sides of the fish are patterned in shades of green, red and blue; some of the more brightly marked variants are the result of selective breeding by aquarists and do not exist in the wild. Discus reach up to 12.3–15.2 cm in length, but captives have been claimed to reach 23 cm. Adults weigh 150–250 g. There is no clear sexual dimorphism for this fish. In breeding form varieties, solid red discus females are redder than males.

Symphysodon are social occurring in groups that may number many dozens of individuals, unique among cichlids of the Americas. When breeding, the pair moves away from the group to reduce the risk of cannibalism of the young; as for most cichlids, brood care is developed with both the parents caring for the young. Additionally, adult discus produce a secretion through their skin, which the larvae live off during their first four weeks. During the first two weeks, the parents stay near their young allowing them to feed easily. In the last two they swim away, resulting in the young being "weaned off" and starting to fend for themselves. Although rare in fish, more than 30 species of cichlids are known to feed their young with skin secretion to various extent, including Pseudetroplus and Uaru species. Sexual maturity is reached in one year. Recent research have shown that, through this unique parental care behaviour, Discus fish parents transmit key microorganisms to their fry; this parent-to-offspring transmission of important microorganisms might explain the high survival rate of discus fry raised with their parents, compared to the low survival rate of progenies raised artificially by Discus fish breeders.

Symphysodon feed on algae, other plant material and detritus, but eat small invertebrates. Invertebrates can make up 38% of the stomach content in wild S. aequifasciatus during the high-water season, but this decreases during the low-water season and year-round it is lower in the other species. Unlike more predatory cichlids, Symphysodon have r

Chester, Maryland

Chester is a census-designated place on Kent Island in Queen Anne's County, United States. The population was 3,723 at the 2000 census. Chester is located at 38°58′19″N 76°17′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 7.0 square miles, of which 5.3 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,723 people, 1,567 households, 1,037 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 705.3 people per square mile. There were 1,723 housing units at an average density of 326.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.61% White, 7.06% African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.32% of the population. There were 1,567 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families.

27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.87. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $56,558, the median income for a family was $60,195. Males had a median income of $42,289 versus $30,495 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $27,789. About 3.3% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over. Charles Willson Peale, painter and naturalist

List of University of British Columbia people

This is a list of alumni and faculty from the University of British Columbia. Bertram Brockhouse, BA 1947, Nobel laureate "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" Robert Mundell, BA 1953, Nobel laureate "for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas" Kanti Bajpai, former headmaster of The Doon School Amit Chakma, University of Western Ontario Patricia Churchland, philosopher John J. Clague, Geological Survey of Canada scientist and SFU professor Thomas Martin Franck, international law scholar. Louie, President and CEO of H. Y. Louie Co. Limited, Chairman of London Drugs Limited Kyle MacDonald and founder of the One red paperclip website John H. McArthur, BCom 1957, Dean Emeritus, Harvard Business School Henry McKinnell, CEO and Chairman of the Board, Pfizer Nadir Mohamed, BCom 1978, CEO, Rogers Communications Sarah Morgan-Silvester BCom 1982, former Chancellor, University of British Columbia Jim Pattison, Chief Executive Officer and sole owner of the Jim Pattison Group, the second largest held company in Canada Ben Rutledge, BCom 2006, Canadian rower and'08 Olympic gold medalist Gregg Saretsky, MBA 1984, President & CEO, WestJet William Sauder, BCom 1948, Chairman of International Forest Products Ltd. and Sauder Industries.

C. premier Lance Finch, Chief Justice of British Columbia John Fraser, former Speaker of the House of Commons and Progressive Conservative MP Garde Gardom, former Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia Robert Hampton Gray, awarded the Victoria Cross for heroism during World War II Mike Harcourt, former B. C. premier Nancy Heppner, Member of the Saskatchewan Legislative Assembly Russ Hiebert, Member of Parliament for South Surrey—White Rock—Cloverdale Frank Iacobucci, former Puisne Justice on the Supreme Court of Canada Ted Lee, former Head of the UN Economic and Social Affairs Section, former Ambassador to Israel, South Africa, former High Commissioner to Cypres, Swaziland, former Governor of Canada to the International Atomic Energy Agency Rob Marris, British Labour party MP Allan McEachern, former Chancellor of UBC and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of British Columbia Michael Omolewa, historian and former President of UNESCO Gene

Kenneth C. Madsen

Kenneth C. Madsen was an American artist, he was the son of a mother who influenced his interest in the arts. His most famous work is his 1991 painting, "Discovery," a representation of the voyage of Christopher Columbus; the painting graced the program cover of the National Independence Day Festival and Parade in Washington, D. C. In celebration of the Columbus Quincentennial, Utah’s governor Norman H. Bangerter joined the parade organization in presenting the original painting to U. S. President George H. W. Bush for his future Presidential library collection. Beginning at age three Kenneth showed a great interest in visual art; when he was seven years old, he met photographer Ida M. Wilcox, who encouraged him to pursue his artistic talent. On her retirement, she bequeathed to him chair. Deseret News art critic Richard P. Christenson wrote the following: "After high school, Kenneth joined the Navy and sailed extensively among the South Pacific islands; this gave him ample opportunities to sketch boats and the many moods of the ocean."

In 1945 he won first prize for six pastel paintings that he entered in the Army-Navy-Marine art show, sponsored by the USO in San Diego. After completing his military service, Kenneth entered school at the Art Barn in Salt Lake City where for nine years he studied fine art and commercial art under the direction of some of Utah’s finest artists; the following art teachers influenced his early studies: Michael Cannon, Lorin Folland, Dan Lahey, Lee Dussell, Gertrude Teutsch. In addition to his studies at the Art Barn, Kenneth completed art courses with the Famous Artists School of Westport, Connecticut. In 1949 he was encouraged to enter a painting in the Junior League Art Show, where he won his first cash prize. About that time, his instructor, Michael Cannon, helped him obtain his first mural commission, which launched his career in fine art. Between commissions, Kenneth worked in commercial art and advertising, selling his work to restaurants, car dealerships, pharmacies, medical centers, schools.

On rare occasions Kenneth exhibited his paintings at private art shows and in local art galleries, including an exhibit at the Reno Little Theater in Nevada and another at the Panache Restaurant in Draper, Utah. In 1972 Kenneth became staff artist and art history course coordinator for International Exchange School in Salt Lake City, he prepared their art course syllabus. He conducted several art studio workshops aboard cruise ships on the Mediterranean Sea, he was asked by the Greek Epirotiki Cruise Line to teach art aboard the T. S. S. Hermes, he taught art classes aboard the Regina Prima and on the Romanza cruise ships. In addition, he conducted art workshops at the Collegio Alla Querce and other college campuses in Europe. Furthermore, his art appreciation tours to the Queen Mary College of South Woodford, attracted several students. During these years of European travel he served on the Board of Directors for the House of Fine Arts, Utah. Kenneth’s art encompassed a striking range of canvas sizes – from minute images of cellular amoeba to enormous murals, including a 12 x 90 foot mural of Lake Tahoe for a marine dealership.

And he painted a great variety of subjects, including still-life, character renditions, wildlife. But it was his free-flowing Western mountain scenes and powerful seascapes that captured the attention of scores of collectors, his paintings hang in churches, restaurants, doctor’s offices, department stores, country clubs, schools. Private owners of his works include the late Alex Haley. Kenneth’s oil painting, "From Dugouts to Spires," hangs in the South Jordan City Hall. Another painting, a pastoral scene, hangs in Utah’s Draper City Hall. Http://www.fold3.com/page/71577790_kenneth_c_madsen/ https://web.archive.org/web/20131202224506/http://www.slcgov.com/arts/artbarn http://www.deseretnews.com/article/200059/ART-CANVASS.html?pg=all http://www.deseretnews.com/article/956043/Obituary-Kenneth-C-Madsen.html?pg=all https://web.archive.org/web/20070427205622/http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/ https://familysearch.org/photos/stories/1348960/kenneth-c-madsen