Sivas is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province. According to a 2011 estimate, its population is 425,297. Rail repair shops and a manufacturing industry of rugs, cement. The surrounding region is an area with large deposits of iron ore which are worked at Divriği. Sivas is a hub for the north-south and east-west trade routes to Iraq and Iran. With the development of railways, the city gained new importance as junction of important rail lines linking the cities of Ankara, Samsun. The city is linked by air to Istanbul, the popular name Sebastian derives from the Latin Sebastianus, meaning someone from the city. Excavations at a known as Topraktepe indicate Hittite settlement in the area as early as 2600 BC. In 64 BC as part of his reorganization of Asia Minor after the Third Mithridatic War, numismatic evidence suggests that Megalopolis changed its name in the last years of the 1st century BC to Sebaste, which is the feminine form of the Greek name corresponding to Augustus. The name Sivas is the Turkish version deriving from the name Sebasteia and it was the place of martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, 4th century.
Justinian I had a wall around it rebuilt in the 6th century. Sebasteia was the first important city to be plundered by Turkish tribes in 1059, in the August of that year the troops of various emirs gathered before the unwalled city. Initially they hesitated to sack it, mistaking that the domes of the several Christian churches were tends of military camps, as soon as they realized that the city was defenceless they burned it for eight days, slaughtered large part of its population and took many prisoners. The city came under the domain of Turkmen Danishmend dynasty after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, after the death of Danişmend Gazi, Sivas passed to Nizamettin Yağıbasan who won it after a struggle with Danişmend Gazis successors. In 1174, the city was captured by Seljuk ruler Kilij Arslan II, it passed to the Ilkhanids and Kadı Burhanettin. The city was acquired by Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, in 1398, Tamerlane swept into the area and his forces destroyed the city in 1400, after which it was recaptured by the Ottomans in 1408.
Under the Ottomans, Sivas served as the center of the province of Rum until about the late 19th century. The Armenian Catholic Church and the Latins had one church, two Protestant churches and eight, mostly German- and American-staffed, schools
Pelion or Pelium is a mountain at the southeastern part of Thessaly in central Greece, forming a hook-like peninsula between the Pagasetic Gulf and the Aegean Sea. Its highest summit, Pourianos Stavros, is 1,610 metres amsl, the Greek National Road 38 runs through the southern portion of the peninsula and GR-38A runs through the middle. The mountain is forested, with both deciduous and perennial forests, mainly of beech, oak and chestnut trees. The higher elevations of the mountain receive enough snowfall so as to host skiing facilities that operate from Christmas to Easter, there is wide cultivation of plums, especially mirabelles and greengages. In Greek mythology, Mount Pelion was the homeland of Chiron the Centaur, tutor of many ancient Greek heroes, such as Jason, Theseus and it was in Mount Pelion, near Chirons cave, that the marriage of Thetis and Peleus took place. The uninvited goddess Eris, to revenge for having been kept outside the party. The dispute that arose between the goddesses Hera and Athena resulted in events leading to the Trojan War.
When the twins Otus and Ephialtes attempted to storm Olympus, they piled Mount Pelion upon Mount Ossa, the Pelion railway, dating back to 1892–1903, was the first serious public investment in the area. Electricity and automobiles were first introduced in the 1950s except for Volos, television arrived in the 1970s and the 1980s and computers and Internet in the late 1990s. The northern part of the Pelion mountains was struck by a forest fire on Wednesday, June 26,2007, the fire lasted for several days and stopped on July 1. As of late August, however, a rebirth of the forest was already being noticed, with several trees gradually turning green again. The mountain has a tower that broadcasts radio and television including ANT1, Mega, ERT, Star Channel, Alter, TRT and more and radio including ERA, ANT1 FM. Modern Pelions twenty-four villages retain traditional Pelian architecture and construction, with buildings made out of expertly carved local grey, blue, or green slate. They are built on terraces on the slopes and offer stunning vistas of the surrounding slopes, houses are usually multi-storied and feature the characteristic Pelian oriel construction, with tall windows and abundant painted ornamentation.
Pelian tradition calls for three-level houses, with the floor used for work, the middle floor used for socializing. Heat is provided by fireplaces, the chimneys of which run through the walls to provide heat to the levels, whereas the top level, being well ventilated. Interior construction is usually of timber, stained dark brown. Many of the larger Pelian mansions have been converted into hotels and hostels
Custody of the Holy Land
The Custody of the Holy Land is a custodian priory of the Franciscan order in Jerusalem, founded as Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who founded the Franciscan Order. The Custodial Curia was led by Custos Fr, pierbattista Pizzaballa since 2004, with the approval of the Holy See, since 2016, the chief custodian is Francesco Patton. Its headquarters are located in the Monastery of Saint Saviour, a 16th-century Franciscan monastery near the New Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem, the Franciscan presence in the Holy Land traces back to 1217 with Frater Elias of Cortona as Minister. By 1229, the friars had a house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa. In 1272, Sultan Baibars of Egypt permitted the Franciscans to settle in the Cenacle on Mount Zion, the Custodian subsequently came to be described as the Guardian of Mount Zion in Jerusalem. The Custody of the Holy Land has repeatedly expressed concern about the survival of the Christians in the Holy Land, an online history, The Franciscan Presence in the Holy Land, has been prepared by the current Custodian, Fr.
The Franciscan presence in the Holy Land started in 1217, when the province of Syria was established, by 1229, the friars had a small house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa. In 1272 the Sultan Baibars allowed the Franciscans to settle in the Cenacle on Mount Sion, on, in 1309, they settled in the Holy Sepulchre and in Bethlehem. In 1333, King Robert dAngiò of Naples, and his wife, Sancia di Maiorca, bought the Cenacle from the Sultan of Egypt and gave it to the Franciscans. In 1342, Pope Clement VI, by the Papal bulls Gratiam agimus, the Custodian was described as the Guardian of Mount Zion in Jerusalem. Between 1342 and 1489, the Custodian was the head of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, from 1374, he was based at the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. In 1489, Pope Innocent VIII suppressed the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, in 1496, Pope Alexander VI, restored the Order of Holy Sepulchre to independent status, but the Custodian ceased to be the head of the Order. Instead, a Grand Master of the Order was created, the Custodian continued to act as the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem ex officio until 1830, and by being appointed to both offices until 1905.
The office of Grand Master remained vested in the papacy until 1949, the Order is a member of many international bodies and has observer status at others. The Grand Master is a papal viceroy who assists Vatican diplomacy with procedural support for making motions, proposing amendments, Franciscan friars cared for the Cenacle, restoring the building with Gothic vaults, until 1552 when the Turks captured Jerusalem and banished all Christians. After the Franciscan friars eviction, the Cenacle was transformed into a mosque, Christians were not allowed to use the room for prayer until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. In 1623, the Latin Province of the Holy Land was split into a number of entities, called Custodies - creating Custodies of Cyprus, Syria. The Custody of the Holy Land included the monasteries of Saint-Jean-dAcre, Sidon, Jerusalem, in 1847, a resident Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was restored in the Holy Land, together with the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
The Gelre Armorial is a medieval armorial. The armorial was compiled before 1396 by one Claes Heinenzoon who was a herald in the service of the Duke of Guelders, the book displays some 1,800 coats-of-arms from all over Europe, in color, and is one of the most important sources for medieval heraldry. The Gelre Armorial manuscript is preserved in the Royal Library of Belgium. A copy from around 1500, produced by Cornelis Enghebrechtsz, is preserved in the library of Hoge Raad van Adel and this version, only contains 1400 arms. From 1880 to 1905, Victor Bouton produced 60 copies with hand-coloured arms, the book contains the oldest known depiction linking the Danish king to the red flag with white cross. On folio page 55v of the armorial, behind the horn is a lance tip with a banner. The text left of the coat of arms says die coninc van denmarke and this is the earliest known coloured image of the Dannebrog. Gelre Armorial in Gallica Facebookpage on the Gelre Armorial Text version of the Gelre Armorial
Walls of Jerusalem
The Walls of Jerusalem surround the Old City of Jerusalem. In 1535, when Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire, the work took some four years, between 1537 and 1541. The length of the walls is 4,018 meters, their height is 12 meters. The walls contain 34 watchtowers and seven main gates open for traffic, in 1981, the Jerusalem walls were added, along with the Old City of Jerusalem, to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List. Today the walls of Jerusalem, which were built to protect the city against intrusions. The city of Jerusalem has been surrounded by walls for its defense since ancient times. In the Middle Bronze Age, a period known in biblical terms as the era of the Patriarchs. Remains of its walls are located above the Siloam Tunnel, the identification of Jebus with Jerusalem has been disputed, principally by Niels Peter Lemche. Supporting his case, every mention of Jerusalem found in the ancient Near East refers to the city as Jerusalem. Also in the Amarna letters, it is called Beth-Shalem, the house of Shalem, according to Jewish tradition, as expressed in the Tanakh, Jerusalem remained a Jebusite city until the rise of David, who conquered Jebus, renamed it City of David and started expanding it.
His city was located on the low southeastern hill, outside todays Old City area. Solomon, Davids son, built the First Temple on the rising right above the city he had inherited, the Temple Mount. During the First Temple period the city walls were extended to include the northwest hill as well, i. e. the area where todays Jewish, the entire city was destroyed in 587/86 BCE during the siege led by Nebukhadnezzar of Babylon. After the Babylonian captivity and the Persian conquest of Babylonia, Cyrus II of Persia allowed the Jews to return to Judea, the construction was finished in 516 BCE or 430 BCE. Then, Artaxerxes I or possibly Darius II allowed Ezra and Nehemiah to return and rebuild the walls and to govern Judea. During the Second Temple period, especially during the Hasmonean period, herod the Great added what Josephus called the Second Wall somewhere in the area between todays Jaffa Gate and Temple Mount. Agrippa I began the construction of the Third Wall, which was completed just at the beginning of the First Jewish–Roman War, some remains of this wall are located today near the Mandelbaum Gate gas station.
In 70 CE, as a result of the Roman siege during the First Jewish–Roman War, Jerusalem would remain in ruins for some six decades, and without protective walls for over two centuries
A saltire, called Saint Andrews Cross, is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type. The word comes from the Middle French sautoir, possibly owing to the shape of the areas in the design. It appears in flags, including those of Scotland and Jamaica. A variant, appearing on many past and present flags, a warning sign in the shape of a saltire is used to indicate the point at which a railway line intersects a road at a level crossing. In Unicode, the cross is encoded at U+2613 ☓ saltire, see X mark#Unicode for similar symbols that might be more accessible. The saltire appears on vexilla that are represented consistently on coinage of Christian emperors of Rome, in the ninth and tenth century the saltire was revived in Constantinople as a symbol of Christian-imperial power. Anne Roes detected the symbol, which appears with balls in the quadrants formed by the arms of the chi-cross. She suggested that early Christians endorsed its solar symbolism as appropriate to Christ and she wrote, although it cannot be proved.
In the white saltire of St. Andrew we still have a reminiscence of the old standard of the Persepolitan kingdom, when two or more saltires appear, they are usually blazoned as cut off. A saltorel is a saltire, the term is usually defined as one-half the width of the saltire. A field per saltire is divided into four areas by a saltire-shaped cut, each of the four divisions may be blazoned separately. Examples include, Suffolk County Council, The Corporation of the Municipality of Brighton, when five or more compact charges are in saltire, one is in the center and one or more lie on each arm of an invisible saltire. The Saint Andrews Cross was worn as a badge on hats in Scotland, the Cross of Burgundy, a form of the Saint Andrews Cross, is used in numerous flags across Europe and the Americas. It was first used in the 15th century as an emblem by the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, the Duchy of Burgundy, forming a large part of eastern France and the Low Countries, was inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line.
As a result, the Cross of Burgundy has appeared in a variety of flags connected with territories formerly part of the Burgundian or Habsburg inheritance. Examples of such diversity include the Spanish naval ensign, the flag of Carlism, the flag of the Dutch municipality of Eijsden, the naval ensign of the Imperial Russian and Russian navies is a blue saltire on a white field. Prior to the Union the Royal Scots Navy used a red ensign incorporating the St Andrews Cross, with its colours exchanged, the same design forms part of the arms and flag of Nova Scotia. The Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza use a blue saltire on a white field, the flags of the Spanish island of Tenerife and the remote Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providencia use a white saltire on a blue field
Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem
The Lutheran Church of the Redeemer is the second Protestant church in Jerusalem. It is a property of the Evangelical Jerusalem Foundation, one of the three foundations of the Evangelical Church in Germany in the Holy Land, the Church, together with the adjoining provost building, is the seat of the Provost of the German Protestant Ministries in the Holy Land. It serves as the headquarters of the Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Jordan, built on land given to King William I of Prussia in 1869 by Sultan Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire, the church was constructed from 1892 to 1898. The location had been the site of the old church of St. Mary Minor, in 1898, Kaiser Wilhelm II made a trip to Jerusalem to personally dedicate the new church. The church was dedicated on Reformation Day,1898, in the garden next to the church is a memorial marking the location of the crusader headquarters of the Order of the Knights of St. John. The adjoining cloister of the vicarage maintains a museum for more information, beginning in 1852, a pastor served the German-speaking Protestant congregation in Jerusalem.
Starting in 1871, the congregation convened in the Muristan Chapel, the congregation shares Mount Zion Cemetery for their deceased. Between 1903 and 1940 the provostry was located in its own building in #42 Street of the Prophets, today the provost serves the German-speaking Protestant congregation and is simultaneously the representative of the Evangelical Church in Germany in Israel, the West Bank and Jordan
Christian cross variants
This is a list of Christian cross variants. The Christian cross, with or without a figure of Christ included, is the religious symbol of Christianity. A cross with figure of Christ affixed to it is termed a crucifix, the term Greek cross designates a cross with arms of equal length, as in a plus sign, while the term Latin cross designates a cross with an elongated descending arm. Numerous other variants have developed during the medieval period. Christian crosses are used widely in churches, on top of buildings, on bibles, in heraldry, in personal jewelry, on hilltops. Crosses are a prominent feature of Christian cemeteries, either carved on gravestones or as sculpted stelae, roman Catholic and Lutheran depictions of the cross are often crucifixes, in order to emphasize that it is Jesus that is important, rather than the cross in isolation. Large crucifixes are a prominent feature of some Lutheran churches, as illustrated in the article Rood, several Christian cross variants are available in computer-displayed text.
The Latin cross symbol is included in the character set as 271D. For others, see Religious and political symbols in Unicode, basic variants, or early variants widespread since antiquity
Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23, the Dome of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture. The octagonal plan of the structure may have influenced by the Byzantine Church of the Seat of Mary built between 451 and 458 on the road between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Herods Temple was destroyed in 70 CE by the Romans, and after the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 CE, Jerusalem was ruled by the Christian Byzantine Empire throughout the 4th to 6th centuries. During this time, Christian pilgrimage to Jerusalem began to develop, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built under Constantine in the 320s, but the Temple Mount was left undeveloped after a failed project of restoration of the temple under Julian the Apostate. The Dome of the Rock is now assumed to have been built by the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik and his son. According to Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, construction started in 687, construction cost was reportedly seven times the yearly tax income of Egypt.
A dedicatory inscription in Kufic script is preserved inside the dome, the date is recorded as AH72, the year historians believe the construction of the original Dome was completed. In this inscription, the name of al-Malik was deleted and replaced by the name of Abbasid caliph Al-Mamun and this alteration of the original inscription was first noted by Melchior de Vogüé in 1864. Some scholars have suggested that the dome was added to a building, built either by Muawiyah I, or indeed a Byzantine building dating to before the Muslim conquest. Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces, the two engineers in charge of the project were Raja ibn Haywah, a Muslim theologian from Beit Shean and Yazid Ibn Salam, a non-Arab who was Muslim and a native of Jerusalem. Creswell in his book The Origin of the Plan of the Dome of the Rock notes that those who built the shrine used the measurements of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The diameter of the dome of the shrine is 20.20 m and its height 20.48 m, while the diameter of the dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is 20.90 m and its height 21.05 m.
It comprises a dome, approximately 20 m in diameter. Surrounding this circle is an arcade of 24 piers and columns. The original construction was surrounded by arcades, like the Dome of the Chain. Under Abbasid caliph Al-Mamun, a wall was added. The building was damaged by earthquakes in 808 and again in 846
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power. He travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial duties, and represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised and he died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis that was resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords.
Edward was born at 10,48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace and he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle and he was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the family throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall, as a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a constitutional monarch.
At age seven, Edward embarked on an educational programme devised by Prince Albert. Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies and he tried to meet the expectations of his parents, but to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, after the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, in October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. Now released from the strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time
Castello della Manta
Castello della Manta is a castle at Manta near Saluzzo, Province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont, in northern Italy. The original building, dating from the 12th century, was enlarged and transformed into a noble residence by the Saluzzo della Manta family. Among the numerous rooms, the Baronial Hall is notable for the fresco cycle decorating its walls, the work is attributed to the anonymous Master of Castello della Manta. The cycle, completed soon after 1420, portrays the Nove Prodi, the artist may have used as models members of the House of the Margraves of Saluzzo. The figures are shown wearing precious contemporary clothing, depicted is the so-called Fountain of Youth, a theme taken from the tradition of French medieval stories. The scene is inspired by the poem by Marquess Thomas III of Saluzzo, the Sala delle Grottesche was decorated in the Mannerist style of the 16th century, and was commissioned by Marquess Michele Antonio around 1560. It has a painted ceiling, decorated with stuccoes, ancient ruins.
Annexed to the castle is the church, whose apse has a series of frescoes about the life of Christ dating from the time as the Baronial Hall decorations. List of castles in Italy Manta castle at Fondo per lAmbiente
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish knight, and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076, after the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Christ and he is known as the Baron of the Holy Sepulchre and the Crusader King. Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 as the son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne. His birthplace was probably Boulogne-sur-Mer, although one 13th-century chronicler cites Baisy, as second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman. However his maternal uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and this duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands.
Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him even when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought alongside Henry and his forces against the forces of Rudolf of Swabia. A major test of Godfrey’s leadership skills was shown in his battles to defend his inheritance against a significant array of enemies, claims were raised by his uncles estranged wife, Mathilda of Tuscany, Albert III, Count of Namur, and Theoderic Flamens, Count of Veluwe. This coalition was joined by Theoderic, Bishop of Verdun, and two minor counts attempting to share in the spoils, Count of Arlon and Limburg, and Arnold I, Count of Chiny. As these enemies outside the family tried to take portions of his land, Godfreys brothers and Baldwin. Following these long struggles and proving that he was a subject to Henry IV. Still, Godfreys influence in the German kingdom would have been if it had not been for his major role in the First Crusade. In 1095 Urban II, the new Pope, called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces, Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun.
With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land as the Crusader Army of Godfrey of Bouillon, in this he was joined by his older brother and his younger brother, who had no lands in Europe. He was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, known as Raymond of Saint-Gilles, created the largest army. At age 55, Raymond was the oldest and perhaps the best known of the Crusader nobles, because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him