In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety". Arrangement and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre. In particular, music written for the piano has undergone this treatment. Pictures at an Exhibition, a suite of ten piano pieces by Modest Mussorgsky, has been arranged over twenty times, notably by Maurice Ravel. Due to his lack of expertise in orchestration, the American composer George Gershwin had his Rhapsody in Blue orchestrated and arranged by Ferde Grofé.
Popular music recordings include parts for brass and other instruments that were added by arrangers and not composed by the original songwriters. Popular music arrangements may be considered to include new releases of existing songs with a new musical treatment; these changes can include alterations to tempo, key and other musical elements. Well-known examples include Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends," Cream's "Crossroads", Ike and Tina Turner's version of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary"; the American group Vanilla Fudge and British group Yes based their early careers on radical re-arrangements of contemporary hits. Bonnie Pointer performed disco and Motown-themed versions of "Heaven Must Have Sent You." Remixes, such as in dance music, can be considered arrangements. Though arrangers may contribute to finished musical products, they hold no legal claim to their work for the purpose of copyright and royalty payments. Arrangements for small jazz combos are informal and uncredited.
Larger ensembles have had greater requirements for notated arrangements, though the early Count Basie big band is known for its many head arrangements, so called because they were worked out by the players themselves and never written down. Most arrangements for big bands, were written down and credited to a specific arranger, as with arrangements by Sammy Nestico and Neal Hefti for Count Basie's big bands. Don Redman made innovations in jazz arranging as a part of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra in the 1920s. Redman's arrangements introduced a more intricate melodic presentation and soli performances for various sections of the big band. Benny Carter became Henderson's primary arranger in the early 1930s, becoming known for his arranging abilities in addition to his previous recognition as a performer. Beginning in 1938, Billy Strayhorn became an arranger of great renown for the Duke Ellington orchestra. Jelly Roll Morton is sometimes considered the earliest jazz arranger. While he toured around the years 1912 to 1915, he wrote down parts to enable "pickup bands" to perform his compositions.
Big-band arrangements are informally called charts. In the swing era they were either arrangements of popular songs or they were new compositions. Duke Ellington's and Billy Strayhorn's arrangements for the Duke Ellington big band were new compositions, some of Eddie Sauter's arrangements for the Benny Goodman band and Artie Shaw's arrangements for his own band were new compositions as well, it became more common to arrange sketchy jazz combo compositions for big band after the bop era. After 1950, the big bands declined in number. However, several bands continued and arrangers provided renowned arrangements. Gil Evans wrote a number of large-ensemble arrangements in the late 1950s and early 1960s intended for recording sessions only. Other arrangers of note include Vic Schoen, Pete Rugolo, Oliver Nelson, Johnny Richards, Billy May, Thad Jones, Maria Schneider, Bob Brookmeyer, Lou Marini, Nelson Riddle, Ralph Burns, Billy Byers, Gordon Jenkins, Ray Conniff, Henry Mancini, Ray Reach, Vince Mendoza, Claus Ogerman.
In the 21st century, the big-band arrangement has made a modest comeback. Gordon Goodwin, Roy Hargrove, Christian McBride have all rolled out new big bands with both original compositions and new arrangements of standard tunes; the string section is a body of instruments composed of various stringed instruments. By the 19th century orchestral music in Europe had standardized the string section into the following homogeneous instrumental groups: first violins, second violins, violas and double basses; the string section in a multi-sectioned orchestra is referred sometimes to as the "string choir."The harp is a stringed instrument, but is not a member of nor homogeneous with the violin family and is not considered part of the string choir. Samuel Adler classifies the harp as a plucked string instrument in the same category as the guitar, banjo, or zither. Like the harp these instruments do not belong to the violin family and are not homogeneous with the string choir. In modern arranging these instruments are considered part of the rhythm section.
The electric bass and upright string bass—depending on the circumstance—can be treated by the arranger as either string section or rhythm section instruments. A group of instruments in which each member plays a unique part—rather than playing in u
Live at Earls Court
Live at Earls Court is a live album by Morrissey. Its sleeve notes state that it was "recorded live at Earls Court in London on the 18 December 2004 in front of 17,183 people." All tracks written by Alain Whyte except as noted. "How Soon Is Now?" "First of the Gang to Die" "November Spawned a Monster" "Don't Make Fun of Daddy's Voice" "Bigmouth Strikes Again" "I Like You" "Redondo Beach" "Let Me Kiss You" "Subway Train – Munich Air Disaster 1958" medley "There Is a Light That Never Goes Out" "The More You Ignore Me, the Closer I Get" "Friday Mourning" "I Have Forgiven Jesus" "The World Is Full of Crashing Bores" "Shoplifters of the World Unite" "Irish Blood, English Heart" "You Know I Couldn't Last" "Last Night I Dreamt That Somebody Loved Me" One single was released from the album: "Redondo Beach"/"There Is a Light That Never Goes Out" double A-sideB-sides: "Noise Is the Best Revenge", "It's Hard to Walk Tall When You're Small" It was released on 28 March 2005 in Europe and on 5 April in the United States.
In the United Kingdom, the single reached number 11 in the Top 40. In Europe the single preceded the album. Morrissey – vocals Boz Boorer – guitar, clarinet, backing vocals Jesse Tobias – guitar Michael Farrell – keyboards, trumpet, backing vocals Gary Day – bass Dean Butterworth – drums
A guitarist is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, bass guitars; some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by playing the harmonica. The guitarist may employ any of several methods for sounding the guitar, including finger picking, depending on the type of strings used, including strumming with the fingers, or a guitar pick made of bone, plastic, felt, leather, or paper, melodic flatpicking and finger-picking; the guitarist may employ various methods for selecting notes and chords, including fingering, the barre, and'bottleneck' or steel-guitar slides made of glass or metal. These left- and right-hand techniques may be intermixed in performance. Several magazines and websites have compiled what they intend as lists of the greatest guitarists—for example The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Rolling Stone magazine, or 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Guitar World magazine.
Rolling Stone In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. This list included 100 guitarists whom the magazine editor David Fricke considered the best, with a brief introduction for each of them; the first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend, guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at #50 in the list. In describing the list to readers, Paul MacInnes from British newspaper The Guardian wrote, "Surprisingly enough for an American magazine, the top 10 is fair jam-packed with Yanks," though he noted three exceptions in the top 10; the online magazine Blogcritics criticized the list for introducing some undeserving guitarists while forgetting some artists the writer considered more worthy, such as Johnny Marr, Al Di Meola, Phil Keaggy or John Petrucci. In 2011, Rolling Stone updated the list, which this time was chosen by a panel of guitarists and other experts with the top 5 consisting of Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Keith Richards and Jeff Beck.
Artists who had not been included in the previous list were added. Rory Gallagher, for example, was ranked in 57th place; the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list. Guitar World Guitar World, a monthly music magazine devoted to the guitar published their list of 100 greatest guitarists in the book Guitar World Presents the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time from the Pages of Guitar World Magazine. Different from the Rolling Stone list, which listed guitarists in descending order, Guitar World divided guitarists by music genre—such as "Lords of Hard Rock" for hard rock artists or "Jazzmen" for jazz players. Despite the appearance in other magazines like Billboard, this publication by Guitar World was criticized for including no female musicians within its selection. However, Guitar World published a list of "Eight Amazing Female Acoustic Players," including Kaki King, Muriel Anderson and Sharon Isbin. TIME and others Following the death of Les Paul, TIME website presented their list of 10 greatest artists in electric guitar.
As in Rolling Stone magazine's list, Jimi Hendrix was chosen as the greatest guitarist followed by Slash from Guns'N' Roses, B. B. King, Keith Richards, Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton. Gigwise.com, an online music magazine ranks Jimi Hendrix as the greatest guitarist followed by Jimmy Page, B. B. King, Keith Richards and Kirk Hammett. There are many classical guitarists listed as notable in their respective epochs. In recent decades, the most "notable classical and cross genre" guitarist was Paco de Lucía, one of the first flamenco guitarists to have crossed over into other genres of music such as classical and jazz. Richard Chapman and Eric Clapton, authors of Guitar: Music, Players, describe de Lucía as a "titanic figure in the world of flamenco guitar", Dennis Koster, author of Guitar Atlas, has referred to de Lucía as "one of history's greatest guitarists.". Media related to Guitarists at Wikimedia Commons
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. Session musicians are not permanent members of a musical ensemble or band, they work behind the scenes and achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders. However, top session musicians are well known within the music industry, some have become publicly recognized, such as the Wrecking Crew and Motown's The Funk Brothers. Many session musicians specialize in playing common instruments such as guitar, bass, or drums. Others are specialists, play brass and strings. Many session musicians play multiple instruments, which lets them play in a wider range of musical situations and styles. Examples of "doubling" include electric bass. Session musicians are used. Session musicians are used by recording studios to provide backing tracks for other musicians for recording sessions and live performances. In the 2000s, the terms "session musician" and "studio musician" are synonymous, though in past decades, "studio musician" meant a musician associated with a single record company, recording studio or entertainment agency.
During the 1950s and 1960s, session players were active in local recording scenes concentrated in places such as Los Angeles, New York City, Memphis and Muscle Shoals. Each local scene had its circle of "A-list" session musicians, such as The Nashville A-Team that played on numerous country and rock hits of the era, the two groups of musicians in Memphis, both the Memphis Boys and the musicians who backed Stax/Volt recordings, the Funk Brothers in Detroit, who played on many Motown recordings. At the time, multi-tracking equipment, though common, was less elaborate, instrumental backing tracks were recorded "hot" with an ensemble playing live in the studio. Musicians had to be available "on call" when producers needed a part to fill a last-minute time slot. In the 1960s, Los Angeles was considered the top recording destination in the United States — studios were booked around the clock, session time was sought after and expensive. Songs had to be recorded in the fewest possible takes. In this environment, Los Angeles producers and record executives had little patience for needless expense or wasted time and depended on the service of reliable standby musicians who could be counted on to record in a variety of styles with minimal practice or takes, deliver hits on short order.
A studio band is a musical ensemble, in the employ of a recording studio for the purpose of accompanying recording artists who are customers of the studio. The Nashville A-Team Studio musicians, their contributions began in the 1950s with artists such as Elvis Presley. The original A-Team includes bassist Bob Moore. Cramer, McCoy and Randolph, along with A-Teamer and producer Chet Atkins, would emerge as part of Hee Haw's Million Dollar Band in the 1980s. Booker T. & the M. G.'s The house band at Stax records in Memphis during the 1960s and 1970s, playing behind Otis Redding, Eddie Floyd and Dave, Isaac Hayes, The Staple Singers, others. MGs guitarist Steve Cropper co-wrote many of Redding's hits and the MGs produced albums and hit singles such as "Green Onions" in their own right while being the house band at Stax; the Wrecking Crew Prolific, established studio musicians based in Los Angeles. They have recorded many albums since the 1960s; the Ron Hicklin Singers was a vocal session group associated with the Wrecking Crew and appeared as backing vocalists on many of the Crew's recordings.
The Funk Brothers Session musicians who backed many Motown Records recordings from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, as well as a few non-Motown recordings, notably on Jackie Wilson's " Higher and Higher."The Andantes The Memphis Boys The Section A Los Angeles singer/songwriter scene associated with the Troubadour nightclub and Laurel Canyon in the late 1960s to mid-1970s was supported by musicians Russ Kunkel, Danny Kortchmar, Leland Sklar and Craig Doerge. This session combo, nicknamed "the Section" or "the Mafia", backed many musicians, among others: Carole King, James Taylor, Jackson Browne, Warren Zevon, Kris Kristofferson and David Crosby; the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section A group comprising Barry Beckett, Roger Hawkins, David Hood, Jimmy Johnson known as the Swampers, became known for the "Muscle Shoals Sound." Many of the recordings done in the Memphis area, which included Muscle Shoals, used The Memphis Horns in their arrangements. MFSB MFSB was a group of soul music studio musicians based in Philadelphia at the Sigma Sound Studios.
The Hillside Singers A vocal group commissioned to provide vocals for Mayoham Music, formed by husband and wife Al Ham and M
Alanis Nadine Morissette is a Canadian singer, record producer, actress. Known for her emotive mezzo-soprano voice, Morissette began her career in Canada in the early 1990s with two mildly successful dance-pop albums. Afterwards, as part of a recording deal, she moved to Holmby Hills, Los Angeles and in 1995 released Jagged Little Pill, a more rock-oriented album which sold more than 33 million copies globally and is her most critically acclaimed work, her follow-up album, Supposed Former Infatuation Junkie, was released in 1998. Morissette assumed creative control and producing duties for her subsequent studio albums, including Under Rug Swept, So-Called Chaos, Flavors of Entanglement, her eighth studio album and most recent to date and Bright Lights, was released in 2012. Morissette has sold more than 75 million records worldwide and has been dubbed the "Queen of Alt-Rock Angst" by Rolling Stone. Morissette was born June 1, 1974, in Ottawa, Canada, to teacher Georgia Mary Ann and high-school principal and French teacher Alan Richard Morissette.
She has two siblings: older brother Chad is a business entrepreneur, twin brother Wade is a musician. Her father is of French and Irish descent and her mother has Hungarian ancestry, her parents were teachers in a military school and due to their work had to move. From 1977 to 1980 Morissette spent three years of her childhood in West Germany; when she was six years old, she started to play the piano. In 1981, at age seven, she began dance lessons. Morissette had a Catholic upbringing, she attended Holy Family Catholic School for elementary school and Immaculata High School for Grades 7 and 8 before completing the rest of her high school at Glebe Collegiate Institute. She appeared on the children's television show You Can't Do That on Television for five episodes when she was in junior high school. Morissette recorded her first demo called Fate Stay with Me, produced by Lindsay Thomas Morgan at Marigold Studios in Toronto, engineered by Rich Dodson of Canadian classic rock band The Stampeders. In 1991 MCA Records Canada released Alanis, in Canada only.
Morissette co-wrote every track on the album with Leslie Howe. The dance-pop album went platinum, its first single, "Too Hot", reached the top 20 on the RPM singles chart. Subsequent singles "Walk Away" and "Feel Your Love" reached the top 40. Morissette's popularity, style of music and appearance that of her hair, led her to become known as the Debbie Gibson of Canada. During the same period, she was a concert opening act for rapper Vanilla Ice. Morissette was nominated for three 1992 Juno Awards: Most Promising Female Vocalist of the Year, Single of the Year and Best Dance Recording. In 1992, she released her second album, Now Is the Time, a ballad-driven record that featured less glitzy production than Alanis and contained more thoughtful lyrics. Morissette wrote the songs with the album's producer, Leslie Howe, Serge Côté, she said of the album, "People could go,'Boo, hiss, this girl's like another Tiffany or whatever.' But the way I look at it... people will like your next album if it's a suck-ass one."
As with Alanis, Now Is the Time was released only in Canada and produced three top 40 singles—"An Emotion Away", the minor adult contemporary hit "No Apologies" as well as " Never a Waste of Time". The industry considered it a commercial failure, since it sold only a little more than half the copies of her first album. With her two-album deal with MCA Records Canada complete, Morissette was left without a major label contract. In 1993, Morissette's publisher Leeds Levy at MCA Music Publishing introduced her to manager Scott Welch. Welch told HitQuarters he was impressed by her character and her lyrics. At the time she was still living at home with her parents. Together they decided it would be best for her career to move to Toronto and start writing with other people. After graduating from high school, Morissette moved from Ottawa to Toronto, her publisher funded part of her development and when she met producer and songwriter Glen Ballard, he believed in her talent enough to let her use his studio.
The two wrote and recorded Morissette's first internationally released album, Jagged Little Pill, by the spring of 1995, she had signed a deal with Maverick Records. In the same year she learned. According to manager Welch every label they had approached, apart from Maverick, declined to sign Morissette. Maverick Records released Jagged Little Pill internationally in 1995; the album was expected only to sell enough for Morissette to make a follow-up, but the situation improved when KROQ-FM, an influential Los Angeles modern rock radio station, began playing "You Oughta Know", the album's first single. The song garnered attention for its scathing, explicit lyrics, a subsequent music video went into heavy rotation on MTV and MuchMusic. After the success of "You Oughta Know", the album's other hit singles helped send Jagged Little Pill to the top of the charts. "All I Really Want" and "Hand in My Pocket" followed, but the fourth U. S. single, "Ironic", became Morissette's biggest hit. "You Learn" and "Head over Feet", the fifth and sixth singles kept Jagged Little Pill in the top 20 on the Billboard 200 albums chart for more than a year.
According to the RIAA, Jagged Little Pill sold more than 16 million copies in the U. S..
Hillel Slovak was an American musician best known as the founding guitarist of the Los Angeles rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers. Slovak recorded two albums with Freaky Styley and The Uplift Mofo Party Plan, his guitar work was rooted in funk and hard rock, although he experimented with other genres including reggae and speed metal. He is considered to have been a major influence on the Red Hot Chili Peppers' early sound. Born in Haifa, Slovak immigrated with his family to the United States in 1967 when he was five years old. Slovak met future bandmates Anthony Kiedis and Jack Irons while attending high school in Los Angeles, he joined the group Anthym along with Irons while attending Fairfax High School. Slovak, Flea and Irons started Red Hot Chili Peppers in 1982, which became popular in the Los Angeles area, playing various shows around the city. However, Slovak quit the band to focus on What is This?, which had gotten a record deal, leaving the Red Hot Chili Peppers to record their debut album without him.
He rejoined the Chili Peppers in 1985, recorded the albums Freaky Styley and The Uplift Mofo Party Plan with the band. During his career, Slovak developed a serious heroin addiction, he attempted to quit the drug many times, but succumbed to his addiction, dying of an overdose on June 25, 1988 at age 26. He was replaced by guitarist John Frusciante, influenced by Slovak's playing style. Several Red Hot Chili Peppers songs have been written as tributes to Slovak, including "Otherside", "Knock Me Down", "My Lovely Man", "This Is the Place", "Dosed", "Feasting on the Flowers". In 1999, his brother James Slovak published a book entitled Behind the Sun: The Diary and Art of Hillel Slovak, which features Slovak's diaries and paintings. Slovak was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers on April 14, 2012, with his brother accepting on his behalf. Hillel Slovak was born in Israel, to Jewish parents who were survivors of the Holocaust, they settled in the Queens borough of New York City in 1967 relocated to Southern California.
As a child, Slovak developed an interest in art, would spend time painting with his mother, Esther. He attended Laurel Elementary School in Bancroft Jr.. High School in Hollywood, where he met future bandmates Michael "Flea" Balzary. Slovak received his first guitar at age 13 as a bar mitzvah present, would play the instrument into the late hours of the night. During this time, he was influenced by hard rock music such as Jimi Hendrix, Led Zeppelin, Kiss; as a freshman at Fairfax High School, Slovak formed a band with Irons on drums and two other high school friends, Alain Johannes and Todd Strassman. They called their band Chain Reaction changed the name to Anthem after their first gig. After one of the group's shows, Slovak met audience member Anthony Kiedis, invited him to his house for a snack. Kiedis described the experience in his autobiography Scar Tissue: "Within a few minutes of hanging out with Hillel, I sensed that he was different from most of the people I'd spent time with... He understood a lot about music, he was a great visual artist, he had a sense of self and a calm about him that were just riveting."
Slovak and Flea became best friends and used LSD, heroin and methamphetamine recreationally. The original bassist for Anthem, which renamed to Anthym, was deemed unsatisfactory, so Slovak began teaching Flea to play bass. Following several months of commitment to the instrument, Flea developed proficiency and a strong musical chemistry with Slovak; when Strassman saw Flea playing Anthym songs on his equipment he quit the band, with Flea replacing him. Shortly afterwards Anthym won second place. Anthym started to play at local nightclubs, despite the fact. After graduating from high school, the band changed their name to What Is This?. Flea left Anthym around this time to accept an offer of playing bass in the prominent L. A. punk band Fear. What Is This? continued on and performed many shows along the California coast. Slovak and Flea began to create their own music after finding inspiration in a punk-funk fusion band called Defunkt; the three formed a band with former Anthym-drummer Jack Irons called Tony Flow and the Miraculously Majestic Masters of Mayhem.
The band had only one song, entitled "Out in L. A.", was formed for the purpose of playing the song once. The song was based on a guitar riff that Slovak wrote while "jamming" with Irons, was not meant to become a real song until Kiedis decided to rap over the music. Following the group's first show at The Rhythm Lounge, the owner of the bar asked them to return, but with two songs instead of one. After several more shows, the addition of several songs to their repertoire, the band's name was changed to Red Hot Chili Peppers. After the band started to gain popularity amongst the L. A. club scene, Kiedis began writing more lyrics. The lyrics would become songs such as "Green Heaven" and "True Men Don't Kill Coyotes", the band's concert repertoire grew to nine songs as a result of months of playing local nightclubs and bars. Over the course of the next six months, the Red Hot Chili Peppers played many shows in L. A. became something of an underground hit. Slovak and Flea moved into a small house in a high-crime area in Hollywood where they collaborated musically and continued their drug addictions.
The threesome traveled to New York City to perform