SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jewish Theological Seminary of America

The Jewish Theological Seminary is a Conservative Jewish education organization in New York City, New York. It is one of the academic and spiritual centers of Conservative Judaism and a major center for academic scholarship in Jewish studies. In addition to a number of research and training institutes, JTS operates five schools: Albert A. List College of Jewish Studies Gershon Kekst Graduate School William Davidson Graduate School of Jewish Education H. L. Miller Cantorial School and College of Jewish Music The Rabbinical School Rabbi Zecharias Frankel was a leading figure in mid-19th Century German Jewry. Known both for his traditionalist views and the esteem he held for scientific study of Judaism, Frankel was at first considered a moderate figure within the nascent Reform movement, he criticized the 1844 first Reform rabbinic conference of Braunschweig, yet agreed to participate in the next, in spite of warnings from conservative friends such as Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport. He withdrew from the assembly, held in Frankfurt am Main in 1845, making a final break with the Reform camp after coming to believe their positions were excessively radical.

In 1854 he became the director of a new rabbinical school, the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau. The same year, the Jewish Theological Seminary and Scientific Institution was incorporated in the state of New York. Rabbi Bernard Drachman, a key Frankel student and one of the founders of the American JTS, was himself Orthodox, claims that the Breslau seminary was Orthodox. Others disagree. In his magnum opus Darkhei HaMishnah, Frankel amassed scholarly support which showed that Jewish law was not static, but rather had always developed in response to changing conditions, he called his approach towards Judaism'Positive-Historical', which meant that one should accept Jewish law and tradition as normative, yet one must be open to changing and developing the law in the same historical fashion that Judaism has always developed. About this time in North America, the Reform movement was growing at a rapid pace, alarming more traditional Jews. Sabato Morais, rabbi of Philadelphia's Mikveh Israel, championed the reaction to American Reform.

At one time Morais had been a voice for bridge-building within the Reformers. He had opposed the more radical changes, but was open to moderate changes that would not break with significant traditional. After the Reform movement published the Pittsburgh Platform in late 1885, Morais recognized the futility of his efforts and began to work with like-minded rabbis to strengthen the Orthodox institutions. One of the tools his group used was the creation of a new rabbinical school in New York City; the "Jewish Theological Seminary Association" was founded with Morais as its President in 1886 as an Orthodox institution to combat the hegemony of the Reform movement. The school was hosted by Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes' Congregation Shearith Israel, a sister synagogue to Mikveh Israel. Morais and Mendes were soon joined by Alexander Kohut and Bernard Drachman, both of whom had received semicha at Rabbi Frankel's Breslau seminary, they shaped the philosophy of the new school after Rabbi Frankel's seminary.

The first graduate to be ordained, in 1894, was Joseph Hertz, who would go on to become the Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Morais served as the president of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America until his death in 1897. After Morais's death, Mendes led the school, but the financial position of the association became precarious, Mendes did not have the resources to turn it around. In October 1901, a new organization was projected entitled the "Jewish Theological Seminary of America," with which the association was invited to incorporate; this arrangement was carried into effect April 14, 1902. The new organization was endowed with a fund of over $500,000, was presented with a suitable building on University Heights by Jacob H. Schiff, it obtained a charter from the state of New York, "for the perpetuation of the tenets of the Jewish religion, the cultivation of Hebrew literature, the pursuit of Biblical and archeological research, the advancement of Jewish scholarship, the establishment of a library, the education and training of Jewish rabbis and teachers.

It is empowered to grant and confer the degrees of Rabbi, Ḥazan and Doctor of Hebrew Literature, Doctor of Divinity, to award certificates of proficiency to persons qualified to teach in Hebrew schools." The reorganized seminary was opened on Sept. 15, 1902, in the old building of the Theological Seminary Association at 736 Lexington Avenue. A search was executed for a new president. Solomon Schechter was recruited from Great Britain, his religious approach seemed compatible with JTS's, he assumed the presidency, as well as serving as Professor of Jewish theology. In a series of papers he articulated an ideology for the nascent movement of Conservative Judaism. Many of the Orthodox rabbis associated with JTS vehemently disagreed with him, left the institution. About 100 days after Schechter's appointment, the Agudath Harabbonim formed, principally in protest, declared that they would not accept any new ordinations from JTS, though previous recipients were still welcome; the more moderate Orthodox Union, still maintained some ties to JTS for decades to come, some of its rabbis, including Drachman, continued to teach there.

In practice, it was still difficult to tell the difference between many of the less strict Orthodox congr

Pterostylis scitula

Pterostylis scitula known as the elegant snail orchid, is a species of orchid endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. Both flowering and non-flowering plants have a small rosette of leaves flat on the ground. Flowering plants have a small green and white flower with leaves on the flowering stem. Pterostylis scitula is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and when not flowering, a rosette of leaves 20–60 mm in diameter. Flowering plants have a single green and white flower 12–17 mm long and 5–8 mm wide on a flowering stem 75–200 mm high. There are between two and four stem leaves 10–22 mm long and 4–10 mm wide on the flowering stem; the dorsal sepal and petals are fused. The lateral sepals are held against the galea, fused at their bases and closing the front of the flower with erect tips 16–22 mm long; the labellum is small and not visible from outside the flower. Flowering occurs from August to September. Pterostylis scitula was first formally described in 2015 by David Jones and Christopher French from a specimen collected near Moora and the description was published in Australian Orchid Review.

The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "beautiful", "elegant", "handsome" or "pretty" referring to the "neat, elegant flowers". The elegant snail orchid grows in moist soil in dense scrub between Moora and Mogumber in the Avon Wheatbelt, Jarrah Forest and Swan Coastal Plain biogeographic regions. Pterostylis scitula is listed as "not threatened" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife

Pir Baksh Junejo

Pir Baksh Junejo is a Pakistani politician, a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, from June 2013 to May 2018. He was born on 14 February 1956, he ran for the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan as an independent candidate from Constituency NA-234, Constituency NA-235 and Constituency NA-236 in 2008 Pakistani general election but was unsuccessful. He received 15 votes from Constituency NA-234 and lost the seat to Muhammad Jadam Mangrio, He received 16 votes from Constituency NA-235 and lost the seat to Ghulam Dastgir Rajar, a candidate of Pakistan Muslim League, he lost the seat to Roshan Din Junejo. In the same election, he ran for the seat of the Provincial Assembly of Sindh from Constituency PS-81 as an independent candidate but was unsuccessful, he lost the seat to Jam Madad Ali Khan. He was elected to the National Assembly as a candidate of PML-F from Constituency NA-234 in 2013 Pakistani general election, he received 90,787 votes and defeated Fida Hussain Dero, a candidate of Pakistan Peoples Party