Sukkot translated as Festival of Tabernacles known as Chag HaAsif, the Festival of Ingathering, is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei. During the existence of the Jerusalem Temple, it was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals on which the Israelites were commanded to perform a pilgrimage to the Temple; the names used in the Torah are Chag HaAsif, translated to "Festival of Ingathering" or "Harvest Festival", Chag HaSukkot, translated to "Festival of Booths". This corresponds to the double significance of Sukkot; the one mentioned in the Book of Exodus is agricultural in nature—"Festival of Ingathering at the year's end" —and marks the end of the harvest time and thus of the agricultural year in the Land of Israel. The more elaborate religious significance from the Book of Leviticus is that of commemorating the Exodus and the dependence of the People of Israel on the will of God; the holiday lasts eight in the diaspora. The first day is a Shabbat-like holiday.
This is followed by intermediate days called Chol Hamoed. The festival is closed with another Shabbat-like holiday called Shemini Atzeret. Shemini Atzeret coincides with the eighth day of Sukkot outside Israel; the Hebrew word sukkōt is the plural of sukkah, "booth" or "tabernacle", a walled structure covered with s'chach. A sukkah is the name of the temporary dwelling in which farmers would live during harvesting, a fact connecting to the agricultural significance of the holiday stressed by the Book of Exodus; as stated in Leviticus, it is intended as a reminiscence of the type of fragile dwellings in which the Israelites dwelt during their 40 years of travel in the desert after the Exodus from slavery in Egypt. Throughout the holiday, meals are eaten inside the sukkah and many people sleep there as well. On each day of the holiday it is mandatory to perform a waving ceremony with the Four Species. In the Book of Leviticus, God told Moses to command the people: "On the first day you shall take the product of hadar trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, willows of the brook", "You shall live in booths seven days.
The origins of Sukkot are both agricultural. Sukkot commemorates the forty-year period during which the children of Israel were wandering in the desert, living in temporary shelters. Agriculturally, Sukkot is a harvest festival and is sometimes referred to as Chag HaAsif, as it celebrates the gathering of the harvest. Sukkot is a seven-day festival, with the first day celebrated as a full festival with special prayer services and holiday meals; the seventh day of Sukkot has a special observance of its own. Outside Israel, the first and last two days are celebrated as full festivals; the intermediate days are known as Chol HaMoed. According to Halakha, some types of work are forbidden during Chol HaMoed. In Israel many businesses are closed during this time. Throughout the week of Sukkot, meals are eaten in the sukkah. If a brit milah or Bar Mitzvah rises during Sukkot, the seudat mitzvah is served in the sukkah; the father of a newborn boy greets guests to his Friday-night Shalom Zachar in the sukkah.
Males awaken there. Every day, a blessing is recited over the Etrog. Keeping of Sukkot is detailed in the Hebrew Bible; the sukkah walls can be constructed of any material. The walls can include the sides of a building or porch; the roof must be of organic material, known as s'chach, such as leafy tree overgrowth, schach mats or palm fronds - plant material, no longer connected with the earth. It is customary to decorate the interior of the sukkah with hanging decorations of the four species as well as with attractive artwork. Prayers during Sukkot include the reading of the Torah every day, reciting the Mussaf service after morning prayers, reciting Hallel, adding special additions to the Amidah and Grace after Meals. In addition, the service includes rituals involving the Four Species; the lulav and etrog are not brought to the synagogue on Shabbat. On each day of the festival, worshippers walk around the synagogue carrying the Four Species while reciting special prayers known as Hoshanot; this takes place either at the end of Mussaf.
This ceremony commemorates the willow ceremony at the Temple in Jerusalem, in which willow branches were piled beside the altar with worshippers parading around the altar reciting prayers. A custom originating with Lurianic Kabbalah is to recite the ushpizin prayer to "invite" one of seven "exalted guests" into the sukk
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
North Carolina Museum of Art
The North Carolina Museum of Art is an art museum in Raleigh, North Carolina. It opened in 1956 as the first major museum collection in the country to be formed by state legislation and funding. Since the initial 1947 appropriation that established its collection, the Museum has continued to be a model of enlightened public policy with free admission to the permanent collection. Today, it encompasses a collection that spans more than 5,000 years of artistic work from antiquity to the present, an amphitheater for outdoor performances, a variety of celebrated exhibitions and public programs; the Museum features over 40 galleries as well as more than a dozen major works of art in the nation's largest museum park with 164-acres. One of the leading art museums in the American South, the NCMA completed a major expansion winning international acclaim for innovative approaches to energy-efficient design. In 1924, the North Carolina State Art Society formed to generate interest in creating an art museum for the state.
In 1928 the society acquired funds and 75 paintings were first displayed in a series of temporary art exhibition spaces in the Agriculture Building in Raleigh in 1929. In 1939, NCMA was moved to the former Supreme Court building. In 1947 the state legislature appropriated $1 million to purchase a collection of artworks for the people of North Carolina; the money was used to purchase 139 American works. The Samuel H. Kress Foundation matched the appropriation with a gift of 71 works from the Italian Renaissance; the 1947 state earmarking of funds for an art collection was the first in the United States. On April 6, 1956, the museum opened in the renovated State Highway Division Building on Morgan Street in downtown Raleigh, the state capital. W. R. Valentiner became the museum's first director. In 1961, the legislature separated the museum from the Art Society, making it a state agency jointly governed by the state and a board of trustees. Ten years NCMA became an entity under what is now the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources.
In 1967, the present-day Blue Ridge Road site was chosen as the location for a new building, as the museum had outgrown the Morgan Street location. Designed by Edward Durrell Stone and Associates of New York and Holloway-Reeves Architects of North Carolina, the new building opened in 1983. Stone used spatial experimentation with pure geometric form for the museum by using a square as a basic unit and designing the entire site by manipulating the square form; this was Stone's last major design prior to his death. After he died in 1978, the exterior was changed from white marble to red brick. In April 2010 the museum opened the new 127,000-square-foot West Building, designed by New York-based architects Thomas Phifer and Partners as part of an expansion initiative; the single-story structure, surrounded by sculpture gardens and pools, was created to feature the museum's permanent collection as well as more than 100 new works of art acquired on the occasion of the expansion. Highlights include a gift of 30 Auguste Rodin sculptures and work by artists Roxy Paine, Ursula von Rydingsvard, El Anatsui, Jaume Plensa, Jackie Ferrara, Ellsworth Kelly, David Park.
The project transformed the museum's East Building into a center for temporary exhibitions and public programs, public events, administrative functions. The project cost $72.3 million. The exterior walls of the West Building are covered with anodized aluminum panels that are canted two degrees back from vertical with seams covered by polished steel bands; the roof of the West Building includes parabolic-shaped 6.5 ft by 37 ft coffers, which admit natural light. The museum's permanent collection includes European paintings from the Renaissance to the 19th century, Egyptian funerary art and vase painting from ancient Greece and Rome, American art of the 18th through 20th centuries, international contemporary art. Other strengths include African, ancient American, pre-Columbian, Oceanic art, Jewish ceremonial objects; the museum's African collection originated in the 1970s with historical material from the 19th and 20th centuries, including important items from the Benin Kingdom. Acquisitions expanded regional coverage to include other parts of sub-Saharan Africa with an eye toward assembling works that demonstrated a particular ethnic style, such as those of the Chokwe and Luba peoples of central Africa.
Though much of the collection is rooted in traditional media such as wood and textiles and derives from established creative traditions, many works date from the mid-20th century and give insight into global exchanges that have taken place on the continent for centuries. The museum's American art collection encompasses paintings and sculpture from the late colonial period to the advent of modern art in the early 20th century, beginning with three imposing portraits by John Singleton Copley and concluding with paintings by leading American impressionists. In between, the collection addresses many of the themes and subjects of American art history, such as the celebration of wilderness and the search for a national identity. In December 2018, the museum acquired the 1865 sculpture Saul by William Wetmore Story; the ancient American collection features art from three distinct areas of the Western Hemisphere: Mesoamerica, Central America, the Andes. The ancient American gallery focuses on Mesoamerica the art of the ancient Maya.
Known for their achievements in science and the arts, the Maya dominated the region for most of two millennia
Ze’ev Raban was a leading painter, decorative artist, industrial designer of the Bezalel school style, was one of the founders of the Israeli art world. Wolf Rawicki was born in Łódź, Congress Poland, began his studies there, he continued his studies in sculpture and architectural ornamentation at a number of European art academies. These included the School of Applied Art in Munich at the height of the Jugendstil movement, the neo-classical studio of Marius-Jean-Antonin Mercié at the Académie des Beaux-Arts, the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels a center of Art Nouveau, under symbolist and idealist artists Victor Rosseau and Constant Montald. Under the influence of Boris Schatz, the founder of the Bezalel Academy, Raban moved to the land of Israel in 1912 during the wave of immigration known as the Second Aliyah, he joined the faculty of the Bezalel school, soon took on a central role there as a teacher of repoussé, sculpture. He directed the academy's Graphics Press and the Industrial Art Studio.
By 1914, most of the works produced in the school's workshops were of his design. He continued teaching until 1929. In 1921, he participated in the historic art exhibition at the Tower of David, the first exhibit of Hebrew artists in Palestine, which became the first of a yearly series of such exhibits. Raban is regarded as a leading member of the Bezalel school art style, in which artists portrayed both Biblical and Zionist themes in a style influenced by the European jugendstil and by traditional Persian and Syrian styles. Exemplars of this style are Rabban's illustrated editions of the Book of Ruth, Song of Songs, Book of Job, Book of Esther, the Passover Hagadah. Like other European art nouveau artists of the period such as Alphonse Mucha Raban combined commercial commissions with uncommissioned paintings. Raban designed the decorative elements of such important Jerusalem buildings as the King David Hotel and the Jerusalem YMCA, he designed a wide range of day-to-day objects, including playing cards, commercial packaging for products such as Hanukkah candles and Jaffa oranges, bank notes, tourism posters and insignia for Zionist institutions.
"Raban navigated a wealth of artistic sources and mediums and combining ideas from East and West, fine arts and crafts from past and present. His works blended European neoclassicism, Symbolist art and Art Nouveau with oriental forms and techniques to form a distinctive visual lexicon. Versatile and productive, he lent this unique style to most artistic mediums, including the fine arts, sculpture, jewellery design, ceramics."Raban designed a wide range of Jewish objects, including Hanukkah menorahs, temple windows, Torah arks. Temple Emanuel has a notable set of six windows, each 16-feet high]; the windows were commissioned from Raban in 1922 by Rabbi Samuel Rosinger. Each window depicts an event in the life of one of the principal Hebrew prophets, Elijah, Ezekiel and Isaiah. Raban collaborated with other artists to produce versions of his work as ceramic tiles, a number of which can still be sees on buildings in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, including the Bialik House; the 1925 Lederberg house, at the intersection of Rothschild Boulevard and Allenby Street features a series of large ceramic murals designed by Raban.
The four murals show a Jewish pioneer sowing and harvesting, a shepherd, Jerusalem with a verse from Jeremiah 31:4, "Again I will rebuild thee and thous shalt be rebuilt."In 2015 one of his works received international attention. The President of Israel, Reuven Rivlin visited at the White House with U. S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama for the December 2015 Hannukah celebration. Israel's First Lady Nechama Rivlin joined her husband in lighting a menorah made in Israel by Raban, loaned by the North Carolina Museum of Art’s Judaic Art Gallery; the White House noted: "The design elements of this menorah underscore a theme of coexistence, its presence in the collection of the Judaic Art Gallery in North Carolina highlights the ties between American Jews and Israeli Jews and the vibrancy of Jewish life in the American South." 1905 Academy of Art, Munich 1907 National Academy, with Prof. Marcier 1912 Bezalel School of Art, Jerusalem From 1914 Bezalel School of Art, headed the Repousse Department, taught anatomy and composition.
Visual arts in Israel Raban Remembered: Jerusalem's Forgotten Master and Catalogue of an Exhibition at the Yeshiva University Museum, December 1982 Ze'ev Raban, A Hebrew Symbolist, Batsheva Goldman Ida, Tel Aviv Museum of Art, 2001, 233 pp. Zeev Raban, 1890-1970, By Zeev Raban, Malka Jagendorf, Published by Mayanot Gallery, Jerusalem,1993 Goldfine, Gil. "Zeev Raban and the Bezalel style," Nurit Shilo. The "Hebrew Style" of Bezalel, 1906-1929; the Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, Vol. 20. Pp. 140–163 Manor, Dalia. “Biblical Zionism in Bezalel Art,” Israel Studies 6.1 55-75 Zeev Raban collection at the Israel Museum. Retrieved March 2012. "Zeev Raban". Information Center for Israeli Art. Israel Museum. Retrieved March 2012. Art of Zeev Raban at Europeana. Retrieved March 2012 1923 edition of the Song of Songs Temple Emanuel's Sanctuary Windows Art in America article on Israeli art exhibition
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued. It is estimated to contain 150–200 million+ items from many countries; as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport; the British Library is a major research library, with items in many languages and in many formats, both print and digital: books, journals, magazines and music recordings, play-scripts, databases, stamps, drawings. The Library's collections include around 14 million books, along with substantial holdings of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 2000 BC. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library has a programme for content acquisitions.
The Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. There is space in the library for over 1,200 readers. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum; the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997. The Library is now located in a purpose-built building on the north side of Euston Road in St Pancras and has a document storage centre and reading room near Boston Spa, near Wetherby in West Yorkshire; the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building "of exceptional interest" for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972. Prior to this, the national library was part of the British Museum, which provided the bulk of the holdings of the new library, alongside smaller organisations which were folded in.
In 1974 functions exercised by the Office for Scientific and Technical Information were taken over. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs and thousands of tapes; the core of the Library's historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the "foundation collections". These include the books and manuscripts of Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Hans Sloane, Robert Harley and the King's Library of King George III, as well as the Old Royal Library donated by King George II. For many years its collections were dispersed in various buildings around central London, in places such as Bloomsbury, Chancery Lane and Holborn, with an interlibrary lending centre at Boston Spa, 2.5 miles east of Wetherby in West Yorkshire, the newspaper library at Colindale, north-west London. Initial plans for the British Library required demolition of an integral part of Bloomsbury – a seven-acre swathe of streets in front of the Museum, so that the Library could be situated directly opposite.
After a long and hard-fought campaign led by Dr George Wagner, this decision was overturned and the library was instead constructed by John Laing plc on a site at Euston Road next to St Pancras railway station. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this single new building and the collection of British and overseas newspapers was housed at Colindale. In July 2008 the Library announced that it would be moving low-use items to a new storage facility in Boston Spa in Yorkshire and that it planned to close the newspaper library at Colindale, ahead of a move to a similar facility on the same site. From January 2009 to April 2012 over 200 km of material was moved to the Additional Storage Building and is now delivered to British Library Reading Rooms in London on request by a daily shuttle service. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013 and the newspaper library at Colindale closed on 8 November 2013; the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites.
The British Library Document Supply Service and the Library's Document Supply Collection is based on the same site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, make up around 70% of the total material the library holds; the Library had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson in collaboration with his wife MJ Long, who came up with the plan, subsequently developed and built. Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley, it is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century. In the middle of the building is a six-storey glass tower inspired by a similar structure in the Beinecke Library, containing the King's Library with 65,000 printed volumes along with other pamphlets and maps collected by King George III between 1763 and 1820.
In December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins and seeds is referred to as "must"; the sugars in grape juice allow it to be used as a sweetener, fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice. Grape juice can be made from all grape varieties after reaching appropriate maturity; because of consumers' preferences for characteristics in colour and aroma, grape juice is produced from American cultivars of Vitis labrusca species. The method of pasteurizing grape juice to halt the fermentation has been attributed to an American physician and dentist, Thomas Bramwell Welch in 1869.
A strong supporter of the temperance movement, he produced a non-alcoholic wine to be used for church services in his hometown of Vineland, New Jersey. His fellow parishioners continued to use regular wine, his son, Charles E. Welch, a dentist gave up his practice to promote grape juice. In 1893 he founded Welch's Grape Juice Company at New York; the product was given to visitors at international exhibitions. The oldest extant structure associated with the company is Welch Factory Building No. 1, located at Westfield, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. As the temperance movement grew, so did the popularity of grape juice. In 1913, Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan served grape juice instead of wine during a full-dress diplomatic function, in 1914, Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, forbade any alcoholic drinks on board of naval ships replacing them with grape juice. During World War I, the company supplied "grapelade", a type of grape jam, to the military and advertised aggressively.
Subsequent development of new grape products and sponsorship of radio and television programs made the company successful. Grape juice, because of its non-alcoholic content, is used by Christians who oppose the partaking of alcoholic beverages, as the "cup" or "wine" in the Lord's Supper; the Catholic Church does not use grape juice because it believes that bread and wine become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as transsubstantiation. Therefore, it is believed that not using wine impedes the transsubstantiation from happening; the Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church, Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, not corrupt. Although alcohol is permitted in Judaism, grape juice is sometimes used as an alternative for kiddush on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and it has the same blessing as wine. However, many authorities maintain that grape juice must be capable of turning into wine in order to be used for kiddush. Common practice, however, is to use any kosher grape juice for kiddush