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Jewish eschatology

Jewish eschatology is the area of Jewish philosophy and theology concerned with events that will happen in the end of days and related concepts. This includes the ingathering of the exiled diaspora, the coming of a Jewish Messiah and the revival of the dead Tzadikim. In Judaism, the end times are called the "end of days", a phrase that appears several times in the Tanakh. In Judaism, the main textual source for the belief in the end of days and accompanying events is the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible; the roots of Jewish eschatology are to be found in the pre-exile Prophets, including Isaiah and Jeremiah, the exile-prophets Ezekiel and Deutero-Isaiah. The main tenets of Jewish eschatology are the following, in no particular order, elaborated in the Books of Isaiah and Ezekiel: End of world God redeems the Jewish people from the captivity that began during the Babylonian Exile, in a new Exodus God returns the Jewish people to the Land of Israel God restores the House of David and the Temple in Jerusalem God creates a regent from the House of David to lead the Jewish people and the world and usher in an age of justice and peace All nations recognize that the God of Israel is the only true God God resurrects the dead God creates a new heaven and a new earth The Hebrew word mashiach refers to the Jewish idea of the messiah.

Mashiach means anointed, a meaning preserved in the English word derived from messiah. The Messiah is to be a human leader, physically descended from the Davidic line, who will rule and unite the people of Israel and will usher in the Messianic Age of global and universal peace. While the name of the Jewish Messiah is considered to be one of the things that precede creation, he is not considered divine, in contrast to Christianity where Jesus is both divine and the Messiah. In biblical times the title mashiach was awarded to someone in a high position of nobility and greatness. For example, Cohen ha-Mašíaḥ means High Priest. In the Talmudic era the title mashiach or מלך המשיח, Méleḫ ha-Mašíaḥ means "the anointed King", it is a reference to the Jewish leader and king that will redeem Israel in the end of days and usher in a messianic era of peace and prosperity for both the living and deceased. Early in the Second temple Period hopes for a better future are described in the Jewish scriptures. After the return from the Babylonic exile, the Persian king Cyrus II was called "messiah" in Isiaiah, due to his role in the return of the Jews exiles.

A number of messianic ideas developed during the Second Temple Period, ranging from this-worldy, political expectations, to apocalyptic expectations of an endtime in which the dead would be resurrected and the Kingdom of Heaven would be established on earth. The Messiah might be a kingly "Son of David," or a more heavenly "Son of Man," but "Messianism became eschatological, eschatology was decisively influenced by apocalypticism," while "messianic expectations became focused on the figure of an individual savior. According to Zwi Werblowsky, "the Messiah no longer symbolized the coming of the new age, but he was somehow supposed to bring it about; the "Lord's anointed" thus became the "savior and redeemer" and the focus of more intense expectations and doctrines." Messianic ideas developed both by new interpretations of the Jewish scriptures, but by visionary revelations. The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Sanhedrin, contains a long discussion of the events leading to the coming of the Messiah.

Throughout Jewish history Jews have compared these passages to contemporary events in search of signs of the Messiah's imminent arrival, continuing into present times. The Talmud tells many stories about the Messiah, some of which represent famous Talmudic rabbis as receiving personal visitations from Elijah the Prophet and the Messiah. In rabbinic literature, the rabbis elaborated and explained the prophecies that were found in the Hebrew Bible along with the oral law and rabbinic traditions about its meaning. Maimonides' commentary to tractate Sanhedrin stresses a naturalistic interpretation of the Messiah, de-emphasizing miraculous elements, his commentary became accepted in the non- or less-mystical branches of Orthodox Judaism. The belief in a human Messiah of the Davidic line is a universal tenet of faith among Orthodox Jews and one of Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith; some authorities in Orthodox Judaism believe that this era will lead to supernatural events culminating in a bodily resurrection of the dead.

Maimonides, on the other hand, holds that the events of the messianic era are not connected with the resurrection. Conservative Judaism varies in its teachings. While it retains traditional references to a personal redeemer and prayers for the restoration of the Davidic line in the liturgy, Conservative Jews are more inclined to accept the idea of a messianic era: We do not know when the Messiah will come, nor whether he will be a charismatic human figure or is a symbol of the redemption of mankind from the evils of the world. Through the doctrine of a Messianic figure, Judaism teaches us that every individual human being must live as if he or she, has the responsibility to bring about the messianic age. Beyond that, we echo the words of Maimonides based on the prophet Habakkuk that though he may tarry, yet do we wait for him each day... Reform Judaism concurs with the more liberal Conservative perspective of a future messianic era rather than a personal Messiah. Acc

Kerkrade Centrum railway station

Kerkrade Centrum is a railway station in Kerkrade, the Netherlands. The station was built in 1933 on the Schaesberg–Simpelveld railway and is the eastern terminus of the Heuvellandlijn. However, as the Dutch Railways deemed it unprofitable at the time, the station did not see passenger services until 15 May 1949, when regular passenger services commenced on the Schaesberg–Simpelveld railway. Train services were operated by Veolia until 11 December 2016; the station is about 200 m north of the German border. The station is served by the ZLSM heritage steam train to Schin op Geul and Simpelveld as well as Germany; the following local train services call at this station: Stoptrein S3: Sittard–Heerlen–Kerkrade As of 11 December 2016, the following buses call at Kerkrade Centrum's bus stop: 20: Kerkrade–Parkstad Limburg Stadion–Heerlen–Brunssum–Schinveld 34: Kerkrade–Kohlscheid–Aachen NS website Dutch public transport travel planner

Boys (2003 film)

Boys is a 2003 Indian Tamil-language coming-of-age musical film directed by S. Shankar, it stars newcomers Siddharth, Genelia D'Souza, Nakul and Sai Srinivas in the lead roles. The score and soundtrack are composed by A. R. Rahman. Boys was released in Telugu as well with the same title; the story revolves around the six youngsters. Munna, Bob Galy, Krishna and Juju are five friends obsessed with smoking, ogling girls, having sex, watching pornography, complaining about their parents. While Munna's parents are out of town, they hire a prostitute Rani, but all of them back out at the last moment. One day, they meet Mangalam, a depressed middle-age man, in a bar and help him home after he passes out. Although they first use him as a source to get alcohol, Mangalam enjoys their company and becomes a mentor of sorts for the boys. One day, the boys see all of them decide to ask her out. Everyone's try fails, but they become friends with her and her friends Sampatha, Padma and Teju. However, Munna can not forget her.

He conveys his feelings to her while on a day-out in a resort. Sampatha lies to Munna that Harini would accept him only if he streaks on Mount Road, he does it and is arrested. When Harini learns what Munna did, she accepts his love. Munna's and Harini's parents learn about their relationship and are furious, as they want them to focus on their studies. Harini's father holds a meeting involving Munna, his friends, their parents and Harini's friends at his house. After that, if they are still in love, the parents will not oppose them. Although the children agree to this, they continue to long for each other. Harini and Munna run away from their homes and elope at Tirumala. On hearing the news and Harini's parents disown them. Munna's friends walk out of their homes too, in a show of solidarity for Harini. Mangalam helps the teenagers find a modest residence and they take up part-time jobs to support themselves, including their education; this proves unsuccessful, so Mangalam encourages them to explore their natural musical talents.

The teenagers form a band named "Boys", composing modern versions of Tamil devotional songs, gain recognition. Soon, they are approached by a Naxalite group to compose anti-government songs, they do it for money and are arrested under POTA. They are expelled from their respective colleges. After their release, Boys show more resolve to succeed in their musical career. After a few unsuccessful attempts, they are signed by Sony Music and record their first album. While celebrating their success, a drunk Krishna accidentally tells Harini about their earlier encounter with Rani. Harini, hurt at this revelation, leaves Munna and returns to her parents, despite Munna pleading that he and Harini did not know each other before the encounter and that he did not have sex with Rani; as only Rani can prove that Munna did not have sex with her, Boys begin searching for her. Kumar tries to board it, but dies after being run over. Munna decides that his words accepts her decision. Boys' album soon becomes a huge hit.

But without Harini, the lead female vocalist, the record labels are unwilling to sign them. When Boys request Harini's presence for a live show on MTV, her parents accept, but on the condition that Munna signs the divorce papers. Munna agrees. Boys has a successful live debut, they dedicate their first live success in memory of Kumar. They dedicate their success to Mangalam, whom Krishna calls their godfather. On the day of the divorce hearing, now the manager of Boys, fields many calls to replace Harini with another girl; when Harini looks at the pictures of all the girls vying to be the group's new lead female vocalist, a bout of jealousy strikes her. She starts hitting Munna; as the two fight, they share a kiss. In December 2002, it was announced, he had postponed the making of Robot featuring Kamal Haasan and Preity Zinta in the lead roles to start this film, with the announcement prompting hundreds of applications from youngsters who wanted to feature in it. Shankar opted to introduce five debutants to play the lead characters and held auditions in 2002, with over 500 applicants being video tested.

Siddharth had worked as an assistant director to Mani Ratnam in Kannathil Muthamittal, the script writer of that film, were insistent that Siddharth auditioned for Boys. After consulting with Mani Ratnam, he met Shankar and got the role of Munna. Shankar had seen Bharath at a dance programme, Inspirations at the Music Academy by'Swingers', called him to appear in screen tests that included delivering dialogues and dancing before selecting him to do the role of Bob Galy. Bharath was earmarked to play the lead role in the film before the team found Siddharth. Sai Srinivas, a percussionist and a drummer, who had worked with leading music directors was added after a successful audition in which he had to play the drums and went on to help out with the background score. Nakul, brother of actress Devayani, was a second-year college student, chosen, his family had sent some pictures of Nakul's elder brother Mayur to Shankar's office and, after seeing Nakul in one of the pictures, Shankar approached

Milestones (Miles Davis album)

Milestones is a studio album by American jazz trumpeter and composer Miles Davis, recorded with his "first great quintet" augmented as a sextet. It was released in 1958 by Columbia Records. Tenor saxophonist John Coltrane's return to Davis' group in 1958 coincided with the "modal phase" albums: Milestones and Kind of Blue are both considered essential examples of 1950s modern jazz. Davis at this point was experimenting with modes -- scale patterns other than minor. Davis plays both trumpet and piano on "Sid's Ahead," a blues, reminiscent of "Walkin'." He plays trumpet in the ensemble passages and solos on trumpet but moves to the piano to accompany the saxophonists in Garland's absence. "Billy Boy" is a solo feature for the rhythm section. In a five-star review, Allmusic's Thom Jurek called Milestones a classic album with blues material in both bebop and post-bop veins, as well as the "memorable" title track, which introduced modalism in jazz and defined Davis' subsequent music in the years to follow.

Andy Hermann of PopMatters felt that the album offers more aggressive swinging than Kind of Blue and showcases the first session between saxophonists Coltrane and Cannonball Adderley, whose different styles "feed off each other and push each musician to greater heights." Jim Santella of All About Jazz said that the quality of the personnel Davis enlisted was "the best" though the sextet was short-lived, that Milestones is "a seminal album that helped shape jazz history."The Penguin Guide to Jazz selected the album as part of its suggested "Core Collection", calling it "one of the great modern-jazz albums." Milestones was released in mono, as well as in electronically re-channeled stereo. The album was remixed and remastered in stereo for The Complete Columbia Recordings of Miles Davis with John Coltrane and, in 2001, reissued in stereo on the Columbia/Legacy label. Side one"Dr. Jekyll" – 5:55 "Sid's Ahead" – 13:13 "Two Bass Hit" – 5:19 Side two"Miles" – 5:49 "Billy Boy" – 7:19 "Straight, No Chaser" – 10:41 Sides one and two were combined as tracks 1–6 on CD reissues.

CD reissue bonus tracks"Two Bass Hit" – 4:29 "Milestones" – 5:58 "Straight, No Chaser" – 10:28Tracks 3–9 recorded on February 4, 1958. Miles Davis – trumpet, piano Julian "Cannonball" Adderley – alto saxophone John Coltrane – tenor saxophone Red Garland – piano Paul Chambers – double bass Philly Joe Jonesdrums Official website Milestones at Discogs


Makoko is a neighbourhood across the 3rd Mainland Bridge located on the coast of mainland Lagos. A third of the community is built on stilts along the lagoon and the rest is on the land; the waterfront part of the community is harboured by the Egun people who migrated from Badagary and Republic of Benin and whose main occupation is fishing. In July 2012, the Lagos State government ordered that some of the stilts beyond the power-lines be brought down without proper notice; this led to the destruction of several stilts on the Iwaya/Makoko waterfront and many families were rendered homeless. Established in the 19th century, much of Makoko rests in structures constructed on stilts above Lagos Lagoon. Makoko is a neighbouring community to Iwaya on Oko Baba. In July 2012, Lagos State government under the governorship of Babatunde Fashola ordered that the stilts on the Iwaya/Makoko waterfront be demolished and dozens of stilts were demolished within 72 hours of notice to the residents. Nearly 3,000 people lost their homes to the demolition exercise.

Two months after the partial demolition, a Serac housing affiliate known as the Urban Spaces Innovation developed a regeneration plan for Makoko that would bring the community together with academics, non-profits, international consultants. The plan was submitted to the Lagos State Ministry of Urban and Physical Planning in January 2014. Makoko is sometimes referred to as the "Venice of Africa", its population is considered to be 85,840. Makoko Floating School CEE HOPE Iwan Baan. "School at Sea". New York Times. Photos of Makoko. Lagos' floating slum Makoko - what's it like to live there

Spotlight TV

Spotlight TV is a British music television channel available on Sky and Freesat. The channel launched on Sky on 21 April 2010 as Showcase 2 on channel 216. On 1 September 2010, following the removal of Channel M and launch of Showcase +1, it moved to channel 203. On 3 July 2012, following a Sky EPG reshuffle, it moved to channel 192. On 3 December 2013, a timeshift channel launched on Sky channel 293, which moved to channel 238 on 19 August 2014 following another EPG clean-up. Showcase 2 was renamed as Showcase following the previous first channel's rebrand to Irish TV the previous month. On 1 June 2015, the timeshift channel was replaced by Property Show, it moved to Sky channel 261 on 17 August 2015 following the closure of True Entertainment +1 and to free space for AMC from BT. On 17 February 2016, the channel moved to Sky channel 389, being relabelled as Keep It Country the next month. Operated by Phil Mack Country, the channel broadcast for 17 hours of each day because space for third party content left over from Showcase still had to be broadcast.

It launched on Freesat at the beginning of March 2016. On 31 May 2016, the channel launched on Freeview, broadcasting via COM7, available to around 75% of the UK. From 26 January 2017 to 1 February 2017, Keep It Country was temporarily removed from Sky channel 389. On 1 May 2018, following another EPG reshuffle, Keep It Country moved from Sky channel 389 to 376. On 21 January 2019, the channel changed Freeview multiplex and increased its reach from 75% of the UK to 90% but it was removed from the platform in June 2019; the channel was renamed as Spotlight TV on 1 July 2019 and can be found on Freeview channel 87 in the Greater Manchester area. After a short break in transmission the channel moved to the "Hybrid TV channel" Vision TV, so people in the UK could watch it if they had a'connected TV'; the majority of the channel's output is country music but the channel has added a "small number of shows from other genres," oldies and classic hits from the second half of the 20th century, to encourage more viewers to watch the channel as part of its overall growth plans