The Yangtze or Yangzi, 6,300 km long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow within one country, it drains one-fifth of the land area of China, its river basin is home to nearly one-third of the country's population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world; the English name Yangtze derives from the Chinese name Yángzǐ Jiāng, which refers to the lowest 435 km of the river between Nanjing and Shanghai. The whole river is known in China as Cháng Jiāng. In more recent modern texts, it is spelled as the Yangzi, in align with its modern pinyin; the Yangtze plays a large role in the history and economy of China. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRC's GDP; the Yangtze River flows through a wide array of ecosystems and is habitat to several endemic and endangered species including the Chinese alligator, the narrow-ridged finless porpoise, the Chinese paddlefish, the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji, the Yangtze sturgeon.
For thousands of years, the river has been used for water, sanitation, industry, boundary-marking and war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, plastic pollution, agricultural run-off and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding; some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves. A stretch of the upstream Yangtze flowing through deep gorges in western Yunnan is part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In mid-2014, the Chinese government announced it was building a multi-tier transport network, comprising railways and airports, to create a new economic belt alongside the river; because the source of the Yangtze was not ascertained until modern times, the Chinese have given different names to lower and upstream sections of the river."Yangtze" was the name of Chang Jiang for the lower part from Nanjing to the river mouth at Shanghai.
However, due to the fact that Christian missionaries carried out their activities in this area and were familiar with the name of this part of Chang Jiang, "Yangtze river" was used to refer to the whole Chang Jiang in the English language. In modern Chinese, Yangtze is still used to refer to the lower part of Chang Jiang from Nanjing to the river mouth. Yangtze never stands for the whole Chang Jiang. Chang Jiang is the modern Chinese name for the lower 2,884 km of the Yangtze from its confluence with the Min River at Yibin in Sichuan province to the river mouth at Shanghai. Chang Jiang means the "Long River." In Old Chinese, this stretch of the Yangtze was called Jiang/Kiang 江, a character of phono-semantic compound origin, combining the water radical 氵 with the homophone 工. Krong was a word in the Austroasiatic language of local peoples such as the Yue. Similar to *krong in Proto-Vietnamese and krung in Mon, all meaning "river", it is related to modern Vietnamese sông and Khmer kôngkea. By the Han dynasty, Jiang had come to mean any river in Chinese, this river was distinguished as the "Great River" 大江.
The epithet 長, means "long", was first formally applied to the river during the Six Dynasties period. Various sections of Chang Jiang have local names. From Yibin to Yichang, the river through Sichuan and Chongqing Municipality is known as the Chuan Jiang or "Sichuan River." In Hubei Province, the river is called the Jing Jiang or the "Jing River" after Jingzhou. In Anhui Province, the river takes on the local name Wan Jiang after the shorthand name for Anhui, wǎn, and Yangzi Jiang or the "Yangzi River", from which the English name Yangtze is derived, is the local name for the Lower Yangtze in the region of Yangzhou. The name comes from an ancient ferry crossing called Yangzi or Yangzijin. Europeans who arrived in the Yangtze River Delta region applied this local name to the Å river; the dividing site between upstream and midstream is considered to be at Yichang and that between midstream and downstream at Hukou. The Jinsha River is the name for 2,308 km of the Yangtze from Yibin upstream to the confluence with the Batang River near Yushu in Qinghai Province.
From antiquity until the Ming Dynasty, this stretch of the river was believed to be a tributary of the Yangtze while the Min River was thought to be the main course of the river above Yibin. In the Yu Gong, written in the fifth century BCE, this section is called the Hei Shui 黑水 or the "Black Water." The name "Jinsha" originates in the Song dynasty when the river attracted large numbers of gold prospectors. Gold prospecting along the Jinsha continued to this day. Prior to the Song dynasty, other names were used including, for example Lújiāng from the Three Kingdoms period; the Tongtian River describes the 813 km section from Yushu up to the confluence with the Dangqu River. The name comes from a fabled river in the Journey to the West. In antiquity, it was called the Yak River. In Mongolian, this section is known as the Murui-ussu. and sometimes confused with the nearby Baishui. The Tuotuo River is the official headstream of the Yangtze, a
Risshū Ritsu school, is one of the six schools of Nara Buddhism in Japan, noted for its use of the Vinaya textual framework of the Dharmaguptaka, one of the early schools of Buddhism. The Ritsu school was founded in Japan by the blind Chinese priest Jianzhen, better known by his Japanese name Ganjin. Ganjin traveled to Japan at the request of Japanese priests, established the Tōshōdai-ji in Nara. During the Kamakura period, the Ritsu sect was divided into schools at Tōshōdai-ji, Kaidan-in, Saidai-ji, Sennyū-ji. However, during the Meiji period, the Ritsu sect was incorporated within the Shingon sect by decree of the Japanese government. Today only Tōshōdai-ji, which resisted the government measures, retains its identity as a Ritsu temple. Buddhism in Japan Dharmaguptaka Schools of Buddhism Vinaya Bunyiu Nanjio. A short history of the twelve Japanese Buddhist sects, Tokyo: Bukkyo-sho-ei-yaku-shupan-sha, pp. 20–31
Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation, Republic of China, known for short as the Tzu Chi Foundation, is a Taiwanese international humanitarian and non-governmental organization with over 10 million members worldwide throughout 47 countries. It is operated by a worldwide network of volunteers and employees and has been awarded a special consultative status at the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the Tzu Chi Foundation was founded by Master Cheng Yen, a Taiwanese Buddhist nun, or bhikkhuni, in 1966 as a Buddhist humanitarian organization. The foundation has several sub-organizations such as the Tzu Chi International Medical Association and the Tzu Chi Collegiate Youth Association, Tzu Chi volunteers and relief workers are recognizable worldwide by their blue and white uniforms called, in Chinese: 藍天白雲, lántiān báiyún; the foundation's work includes medical aid, disaster relief, environmental work such as recycling. While Tzu Chi has a policy of being secular in its humanitarian work, Dharma teachings are integrated into its practices for volunteers.
Cheng Yen is considered to be one of the "Four Heavenly Kings" of Taiwanese Buddhism, Tzu Chi itself is considered to be one of the "Four Great Mountains", or four major Buddhist organizations of Taiwanese Buddhism along with Fo Guang Shan, Dharma Drum Mountain, Chung Tai Shan. The Tzu Chi Foundation was founded as a charity organization with Buddhist origins by the Buddhist nun Master Cheng Yen in 1966 in Hualien, Taiwan after Cheng Yen saw the humanitarian work of Christian missionaries in Taiwan in the post World War II period, she was inspired by her master and mentor, the late Venerable Master Yin Shun a proponent of Humanistic Buddhism, who exhorted her to "work for Buddhism and for all sentient beings". The organization began with a motto of "instructing the rich and saving the poor" as a group of thirty housewives who saved fifty cents every day and stored them in bamboo savings banks to donate to needy families. Tzu Chi experienced modest growth in the first two decades of its establishment, it grew to 293 members in 1968 and by 1986 had just 8,000 members.
The foundation expanded its services since starting as a group of thirty housewives, raising money for disaster relief after a small fire in 1970 that destroyed 43 buildings and opening its first free medical clinic in 1972. In 1986 the foundation established its first hospital in Hualien City. With the surge in popularity of Humanistic Buddhism in Taiwan in the late 1980s and 1990s, the publicity from fundraising to build its first hospital, Tzu Chi enjoyed a rapid expansion in membership alongside several other major Taiwanese Buddhist organizations during this time. From 1987 to 1991, Tzu Chi membership doubled in size each year, by 1994, it boasted a membership of 4 million members. Tzu Chi's expanded its aid work to the People's Republic of China in 1991, during the eastern China floods. In 1993, the foundation created a bone marrow registry, an effort that caused Taiwan to alter its bone marrow laws, organized a nationwide volunteer program for Taiwan in 1996; the foundation achieved much media attention in Taiwan in 2015 with a plan to develop a plot of land in Neihu District into a disaster relief center and cultural park which led to the destruction of parts of the Neihu conservation zone.
The incident led to widespread critical coverage of Tzu Chi by the Taiwanese media, scrutiny into its finances. During this time several unsubstantiated reports circulated in Taiwan about the foundation, including unfounded claims that the foundation invested in tobacco and weapons companies. Despite authorities not finding any illicit activity with its finances, calls for greater transparency were made. Tzu Chi has grown to become a significant actor in civil society, Tzu Chi is not only the largest Buddhist organization in Taiwan, but Taiwan's largest owner of private land; as of 2013, the organization was estimated to have 10 million members worldwide, chapters in 47 countries. The four major causes of Tzu Chi are Charity, Medicine and Humanity, as highlighted by the official motto, or concept of "Four endeavors, eight footprints"; the eight footprints are charity causes, medical contributions, education development, international disaster assistance, bone-marrow donation, community volunteerism, environmental protection.
The official website for the organization states that the organization started with Charity, extended its aims to include Medicine and Culture. Its stated goal is to promote "sincerity, integrity and honesty". Tzu Chi is notably distinct from the other Four Great Mountains in respect to three main unique characteristics. First of all, the founder of the organization is a female. Secondly, the founder is not a Buddhist scholar who promotes a specific interpretation of Buddhism nor started any kind of religious movement, and the organization is a charitable organization and Tzu Chi itself focuses on humanitarianism and community service rather than Buddhist spiritual development. Consisting of a ship that simultaneously bears the lotus fruit and flower, the Tzu Chi logo symbolizes that the world can be made a better place by planting good karmic seeds. Followers believe that these seeds are required for flowers bloom and bear fruit, a metaphor for their beliefs that a better society can be created with good actions and pure thoughts.
The ship represents Tzu Chi steering a ship of compassion, representing their goal in saving all beings that suffer, while the Eight Petals represent the N
Emperor Shōmu was the 45th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Shōmu's reign spanned the years 724 through 749. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name is not known, but he was known as Oshi-hiraki Toyosakura-hiko-no-mikoto. Shōmu was Fujiwara no Miyako, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Shōmu had six Imperial sons and daughters. Shōmu was still a child at the time of his father's death. 724: In the 9th year of Genshō-tennō's reign, the empress abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Shōmu is said to have acceded to the throne. January 31, 724: The era name is changed to mark the accession of Emperor Shōmu. 735–737: A major smallpox epidemic raged throughout Japan, incurring adult mortality rates of about 25% to 35%. Shōmu continued to reside in the Hezei Palace. Shōmu is known as the first emperor, his consort Kōmyō was a non-royal Fujiwara commoner. A ritsuryō office was created for the Kogogushiki. While battle maneuvers of the Fujiwara no Hirotsugu Rebellion were still underway, in Tenpyō 12 10th month Emperor Shōmu left the capital at Heijō-kyō and traveled eastward via Horikoshi, Nabari, Ao to Kawaguchi in Ichishi District, Ise Province where he retreated together with his court to a temporary palace.
One of his generals was left in command of the capital. Shōmu feared Fujiwara supporters in Nara and was hoping to quell potential uprisings in other parts of the country with his presence. After four days travelling through heavy rain and thick mud, the party reached Kawaguchi on Tenpyō 12 11th month, 2nd day A couple of days they learn of Hirotsugu's execution and that the rebellion had been quelled. Despite the good news, Shōmu did not return to Heijō-kyō but stayed in Kawaguchi until Tenpyō 12 11th month, 11th day, he continued his journey east north via Mino Province and back west along the shores of Lake Biwa to Kuni in Yamashiro Province which he reached on Tenpyō 12 12th month, 15th day. Places passed along the way included Akasaka (赤坂頓宮. 1st d.: Dec 23）, Inukami (犬上頓宮. Situated among the hills and near a river north of Nara, Kuni was defensible. In addition, the area was linked with the Minister of the Right, Tachibana no Moroe, while Nara was a center of the Fujiwara clan. On Tenpyō 12 12th month, 15 day Shōmu proclaimed a new capital at Kuni-kyō.
724: Emperor Shōmu rises to throne. 740: In the Imperial court in Nara, Kibi no Makibi and Genbō conspire to discredit Fujiwara no Hirotsugu, Dazai shoni in Kyushu. 740: Hirotsugu rebels in reaction to the growing influence of Genbō and others. 740: Under the command of Ōno no Azumabito, an Imperial army of 17,000 is sent to Kyushu to stop the potential disturbance. 740: Hirotsugu is decisively beaten in battle. 740: The capital is moved to Kuni-kyō 741: The Emperor calls for nationwide establishment of provincial temples. Provincial temples and provincial nunneries were established throughout the country; the more formal name for these "kokubunji" was "konkomyo-shitenno-gokoku no tera". The more formal name for these "bokubunniji" was "hokke-metuzai no tera". 743: The Emperor issues a rescript to build the Daibutsu to be completed and placed in Tōdai-ji, Nara. 743: The law of Perpetual Ownership of Cultivated Lands issued 744: In the spring, the court was moved to Naniwa-kyō which became the new capital.
745: The Emperor declares by himself Shigaraki-kyō the capital 745: The capital returns to Heijō-kyō, construction of the Great Buddha resumes. 749: Shōmu, accompanied by the empress, their children, all the great men and women of the court, went in procession to Todai-ji. The emperor stood before the statue of the Buddha and proclaimed himself to be a slave to the three precious precepts of the Buddhist religion, which are the Buddha, the Buddhist law, the Buddhist church. 749: After a 25-year reign, Emperor Shōmu abdicates in favor of his daughter, Princess Takano, who would become Empress Kōken. After abdication, Shōmu took the tonsure, thus becoming the first retired emperor to become a Buddhist priest. Empress
Daming Temple is a temple located at the middle peak of Shugang Mountain, Jiangsu, China. This temple is known for a famous monk, who studied the sutras and initiated people into monkhood here in 742 AD before he left for Japan. Daming Temple is so named because it was constructed during the periods in the reign of Xiaowu Emperor of the Liu Song dynasty. In 581 AD, Qiling Tower was built in the temple as a place to offer sacrifices to the relic of Buddha. During the periods of the Wuzong reign of the Tang dynasty, it was called Qiling Temple. In the Qing dynasty, due to social taboo of "Daming", its name was changed into "Qiling Temple". In 1765, during the 30th year of Qianlong period, Qianlong Emperor honored the name "Fajing Temple". In 1922, Japanese scholar Tokiwa Daijo built a pavilion, a gallery and a memorial hall before Daming Temple to commemorate master Jianzhen. In 1973, Jianzhen Memorial Hall, designed by Liang Sicheng, was constructed. In 1980, the temple reverted to its former name of "Daming Temple".
The temple was constructed around the hill. The central part consistes of the Hall of the "Four Heavenly Kings" and the Great Hall; the eastern part consisted of Pingyuan Hall and the "Jianzhen Memorial Hall". The western part consisted of Si Garden and other features; the palaces and pavilions are well integrated with each well-arranged in structure. The Memorial Hall modeled the style of the Main Hall in the Tōshōdai-ji, organized and built by Jianzhen in Japan. A wood carving sitting statue of Jianzhen, dry-lacquered and wrapped with linen layer by layer in enshrined in the hall; the Pingshan Hall was built by Song dynasty scholar Ouyang Xiu in 1048 during the Qingli period when he was prefecture chief of Yangzhou. When people overlook the distant scenes, the mountains are at the same level with sight line, hence the name "Pingshan Hall"; some time during the Renshou reign of the Sui Dynasty - between 601 and 604 AD, the nine-story "Qiling Pagoda" was completed. Report on Water for Brewing Tea Zi Yan.
Famous Temples in China. Hefei, Anhui: Huangshan Publishing House. Pp. 54–57. ISBN 978-7-5461-3146-7
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Nara is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan. The city occupies the northern part of Nara Prefecture. Eight temples and ruins in Nara remain: Tōdai-ji, Saidai-ji, Kōfuku-ji, Kasuga Shrine, Gangō-ji, Yakushi-ji, Tōshōdai-ji, the Heijō Palace, together with Kasugayama Primeval Forest, collectively form "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara", a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During 710 CE - 784 CE, Nara was the capital of Japan, the Emperor lived there before moving the capital to Kyoto. By the Heian period, a variety of different characters had been used to represent the name Nara: 乃楽, 乃羅, 平, 平城, 名良, 奈良, 奈羅, 常, 那良, 那楽, 那羅, 楢, 諾良, 諾楽, 寧, 寧楽 and 儺羅. A number of theories for the origin of the name Nara have been proposed, some of the better-known ones are listed here; the second theory in the list, by notable folklorist Kunio Yanagita, is most accepted at present. The Nihon Shoki suggests. According to this account, in September in the tenth year of Emperor Sujin, "leading selected soldiers went forward, climbed Nara-yama and put them in order.
Now the imperial forces flattened trees and plants. Therefore the mountain is called Nara-yama." Though the narrative itself is regarded as a folk etymology and few researchers regard it as historical, this is the oldest surviving suggestion, is linguistically similar to the following theory by Yanagita. "Flat land" theory: In his 1936 study of placenames, the author Kunio Yanagita states that "the topographical feature of an area of gentle gradient on the side of a mountain, called taira in eastern Japan and hae in the south of Kyushu, is called naru in the Chūgoku region and Shikoku. This word gives rise to the verb narasu, adverb narashi, adjective narushi." This is supported by entries in a dialect dictionary for nouns referring to flat areas: naru and naro. Yanagita further comments that the way in which the fact that so many of these placenames are written using the character 平, or other characters in which it is an element, demonstrates the validity of this theory. Citing a 1795 document, Inaba-shi from the province of Inaba, the eastern part of modern Tottori, as indicating the reading naruji for the word 平地, Yanagita suggests that naruji would have been used as a common noun there until the modern period.
Of course, the fact that "Nara" was written 平 or 平城 as above is further support for this theory. The idea that Nara is derived from 楢 nara is the next most common opinion; this idea was suggested by Yoshida Togo. This noun for the plant can be seen as early as in Man ` Harima-no-kuni Fudoki; the latter book states the place name Narahara in Harima derives from this nara tree, which might support Yoshida's theory. Note that the name of the nearby city of Kashihara contains a semantically similar morpheme. Nara could be a loan word from Korean nara; this idea was put forward by a linguist Matsuoka Shizuo. Not much about the Old Korean language is known today, the first written attestation of a word ancestral to Modern Korean nara is as late as the 15th century, such as in Yongbieocheonga, Wolinseokbo, or Beophwagyeongeonhae, there is no evidence that proves the word existed as far back as the 7th century; these 15th-century books used narah, an old form of nara in Korean, its older form might be reconstructed *narak.
American linguist Christopher I. Beckwith infers the Korean narak derives from the late Middle Old Chinese 壌, from early *narak, has no connection with Goguryoic and Japanese na. Kusuhara et al. points out this hypothesis cannot account for the fact there are lots of places named Nara and Naro besides this Nara. There is the idea. In some Tungusic languages such as Orok, na means land or the like; some have speculated about a connection between these Tungusic words and Old Japanese nawi, an archaic and somewhat obscure word that appears in the verb phrases nawi furu and nawi yoru. The "Flat land" theory is adopted by Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, various dictionaries for place names, history books on Nara and the like today, it is regarded as the most likely. By decree of an edict on March 11, 708 AD, Empress Genmei ordered the court to relocate to the new capital, Nara. Once known as Heijō or Heijō-kyō, the city was established as Japan’s first permanent capital in 710 CE. Heijō, as the ‘penultimate court’, was abandoned by the order of Emperor Kammu in 784 CE in favor of the temporary site of Nagaoka, Kyoto which retained the status of capital for 1,100 years, until the Meiji Emperor made the final move to Edo