To the Slanderers of Russia

To the Slanderers of Russia is a patriotic poem by Alexander Pushkin, published in 1831. The poem was written during the 1830–1831 Polish uprising; the immediate reason for writing it was that some members of the French parliament had called for French armed intervention on the side of Polish insurgents against the Russian army. In the poem, Pushkin explains that from the Russian point of view the uprising is just a part of the ages old quarrel between relatives, he tells the French to leave Slavs alone because the eventual outcome of all quarrels between Slavs must be decided between Slavs themselves. He says that the French parliamentarians don't understand Slavs or Slavic languages, they seek a fight because they hate Russia for defeating Napoleon, he dares them to attack Russia in reality, not just in words, saying that in case of a military attack the whole Russian country will rise against the invaders. The poem had mixed reception in Russian society: it was lauded by government and nationalists, but criticized by liberal intelligentsia.

Adam Mickiewicz published the reply poem Do przyjaciół Moskali, where he accused Pushkin of betrayal of their common ideals of freedom, as expressed by the Decembrists. Pushkin started writing a reply, He Lived Among Us, published only posthumously

Computer recycling

Computer recycling, electronic recycling or e-waste recycling is the disassembly and separation of components and raw materials of waste electronics. Although the procedures of re-use and repair are not recycling, these are other common sustainable ways to dispose of IT waste. In 2009, 38% of computers and a quarter of total electronic waste was recycled in the United States, 5% and 3% up from 3 years prior respectively. Since its inception in the early 1990s, more and more devices are recycled worldwide due to increased awareness and investment. Electronic recycling occurs in order to recover valuable rare earth metals and precious metals, which are in short supply, as well as plastics and metals; these are used in new devices after purification, in effect creating a circular economy. Such processes involve specialised facilities and premises, but within the home or ordinary workplace, sound components of damaged or obsolete computers can be reused, reducing replacement costs. Recycling is considered environmentally friendly because it prevents hazardous waste, including heavy metals and carcinogens, from entering the atmosphere, landfill or waterways.

While electronics consist a small fraction of total waste generated, they are far more dangerous. There is stringent legislation designed to enforce and encourage the sustainable disposal of appliances, the most notable being the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive of the European Union and the United States National Computer Recycling Act. Obsolete computers and old electronics are valuable sources for secondary raw materials. Rapid technology change, low initial cost, planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of computers and other electronic components around the globe. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, collection system and other services need to be implemented before applying a technical solution; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, estimates 30 to 40 million surplus PCs, classified as "hazardous household waste", would be ready for end-of-life management in the next few years; the U. S. National Safety Council estimates that 75% of all personal computers sold are now surplus electronics.

In 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency stated that more than 63 million computers in the U. S. were discarded. Today, 15% of electronic devices and equipment are recycled in the United States. Most electronic waste is sent to landfills or incinerated, which releases materials such as lead, mercury, or cadmium into the soil and atmosphere, thus having a negative impact on the environment. Many materials used in computer hardware can be recovered by recycling for use in future production. Reuse of tin, iron, a variety of plastics that are present in bulk in computers or other electronics can reduce the costs of constructing new systems. Components contain copper, tantalum, platinum and lead as well as other valuable materials suitable for reclamation. Computer components contain many toxic substances, like dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, chromium, radioactive isotopes and mercury. A typical computer monitor may contain more than 6% lead by weight, much of, in the lead glass of the cathode ray tube.

A typical 15 inch computer monitor may contain 1.5 pounds of lead but other monitors have been estimated to have up to 8 pounds of lead. Circuit boards contain considerable quantities of lead-tin solders that are more to leach into groundwater or create air pollution due to incineration. In US landfills, about 40% of the lead content levels are from e-waste; the processing required to reclaim these precious substances may release, generate, or synthesize toxic byproducts. Export of waste to countries with lower environmental standards is a major concern; the Basel Convention includes hazardous wastes such as, but not limited to, CRT screens as an item that may not be exported transcontinentally without prior consent of both the country exporting and receiving the waste. Companies may find it cost-effective in the short term to sell outdated computers to less developed countries with lax regulations, it is believed that a majority of surplus laptops are routed to developing nations. The high value of working and reusable laptops and components can help pay the cost of transportation for many worthless commodities.

Laws governing the exportation of waste electronics are put in place to govern recycling companies in developed countries which ship waste to Third World countries. However, concerns about the impact of e-recycling on human health, the health of recycling workers and environmental degradation remain. For example, due to the lack of strict regulations in developing countries, sometimes workers smash old products, propelling toxins on to the ground, contaminating the soil and putting those who do not wear shoes in danger. Other procedures include burning away wire acid baths to resell circuit boards; these methods pose environmental and health hazards, as toxins are released into the air and acid bath residue can enter the water supply. In Switzerland, the first electronic waste recycling system was implemented in 1991, beginning with collection of old refrigerators; the established producer responsibility organization is SWICO handling information and organization technology. The European Union implemented a similar system in February 2003