Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Celebrity Deathmatch is an American stop-motion animated series created by Eric Fogel for MTV. A parody of sports entertainment programs, Celebrity Deathmatch depicts various celebrities engaging in stylized professional wrestling matches; the series is known for its large amount of bloody violence, including combatants employing different abilities and weapons to deliver brutal attacks, resulting in exaggerated physical injuries. Two television pilots were broadcast on MTV on January 1 and 25, 1998; the series proper premiered on May 14, 1998, ended on October 20, 2002, airing for 75 episodes. A television special, Celebrity Deathmatch Hits Germany, aired on June 21, 2001. For a brief period during that year, reruns of the series aired on broadcast network UPN. Professional wrestler Stone Cold Steve Austin portrayed a fictionalized version of himself as a guest commentator. Early in 2003, a film based on the series was announced by MTV to be in production, but the project was canceled by the end of the year.
In 2005, MTV2 announced the revival of the show as part of their Sic'Em Friday programming block. Set to return in November 2005, the premiere was pushed back to June 10, 2006 as part of a block with two other animated series, Where My Dogs At? and The Adventures of Chico and Guapo. The revival series was produced without any involvement from Fogel; the series' fourth and fifth seasons were produced by Cuppa Coffee Studios, the premiere drew over 2.5 million viewers, becoming MTV2's highest rated season premiere ever. It was canceled again in 2007. In April 2015, MTV2 announced a reboot of the series. However, in November 2016, Fogel stated via Twitter. On December 6, 2018, MTV Studios announced a reimagining of the show would return in 2019, with Ice Cube as star and executive producer. Johnny Gomez,: One of the two joint commentators on the Celebrity Deathmatches, Johnny is the more professional one, a loyal friend of Nick's despite his constant blunders, he only lost his professionalism once to Lenny Stanton, the producer's son and nearly lost it a 2nd time concerning interviewer Tally Wong.
Johnny's hair has noticeably changed from black to brown in the new season. Judging by a comment made by Tally during one episode, he may be wearing a hairpiece. Johnny harbors an intense hatred for her akin to Nick and Debbie, but tries to maintain being a professional, he was born in Illinois. Johnny bears a striking resemblance to Mike Adamle, former professional football player and sports announcer, a host and an announcer for American Gladiators. Nick Diamond,: Johnny Gomez's co-host, a perceived alcoholic and divorced father of one, he is always screwing up, he harbors an intense hatred for interviewer Debbie Matenopoulos, has participated in, won, several matches by himself. Nick is so hopeless that when he mentions having an uneventful weekend, Johnny spends the show preparing for the inevitable disaster to befall his co-commentator, he was born in Virginia. Nick bears a striking resemblance to Larry Csonka, former college and pro football hall of famer, one of the hosts and announcers on American Gladiators.
Mills Lane,: The official referee of the Deathmatch ring. Another catch phrase is when there is a disputable move by either fighter, like using foreign objects, he says "I'll allow it!" Implying that just about anything is legal in the ring. Biting and guns are his only reservation as well as having a dirty fighting ring. After he suffered a stroke in 2002, the real Mills stopped providing the voice of his own character but gave Edgerly his blessing. Stone Cold Steve Austin: World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler and guest commentator on Celebrity Deathmatch; the scientist and weapons expert on the show. He fought and won a match against Vince McMahon. Austin did not show up in the seasons, for Nick has once stated that he was too expensive to bring back. Stacey Cornbred,: The first interviewer on Celebrity Deathmatch, Stacey maintained a more professional air than Tally and Marv, she kept her interviewing job until her untimely demise from spontaneous human combustion. Though she had exploded, she returned in a Halloween episode as a demon to challenge Debbie in the ring only to be soundly defeated.
Debbie Matenopoulos: The interviewer that succeeded Stacey Cornbred after her death. She hates Nick and doesn’t prepare for any interviews just asking whatever she feels like. Debbie believes herself to be smarter than she is, but is self-centered and unprofessional. Left the show late in the 4th season on maternity leave. Debbie is similar to behave during interviews. Tally Wong: The new interviewer from Season 5 onward. Before most of the matches, she interviews the combatants in a segment called "Tally's Korner". Like Debbie, Tally is self-centered and unprofessional, she spends most of her interviews insulting the celebrities rather than asking questions. The only time Tally does ask questions, she asks whatever she feels like asking and when they refuse to answer, she makes rude remarks about them. At times, she makes rude remarks about Nick and Johnny during matches, earning her their ire, including making remarks about them wearing hairpieces. Whenever Nick or Johnny gets mad at her for it, she taunts
Hitman: Blood Money
Hitman: Blood Money is a stealth video game developed by IO Interactive and published by Eidos Interactive for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, Xbox and Xbox 360. It is the fourth installment in the Hitman video game series; the story follows the life of professional hitman, Agent 47, as narrated in cutscenes by a former Director of the FBI to a journalist, interviewing him. The wheelchair-using ex-director Cayne recounts; the game was a commercial success for Eidos, selling more than 2.1 million copies. High-definition ports of Blood Money and its predecessors, Silent Assassin and Contracts, were released on PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in January 2013 as the Hitman HD Trilogy. Remastered versions of Blood Money and its successor, Hitman: Absolution, were released for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One as part of the Hitman HD Enhanced Collection. In Hitman: Blood Money, each mission is framed around the killing of one or more individuals, which the main protagonist, Agent 47, must accomplish. Standing between him and success are armed guards, security checkpoints, possible witnesses and other obstacles.
The player guides 47 through the game's levels with the help of a map which can be accessed at any time. The map indicates the layout of each topographical area of the level, the whereabouts of 47's main targets, other characters. In order to carry out his mission, 47 may use any method at his disposal to eliminate his targets, regardless of witnesses or violence done to bystanders. Beyond rewarding stealth over bloodshed as is traditional in the series, Blood Money includes features that directly penalize the player for making too much noise and/or being too violent. Many new features were introduced in Blood Money; these include the capability to climb through more obstacles, improved unarmed combat, the ability to use a non-player character as a human shield with the help of a weapon, the ability to dispose of dead or unconscious bodies into containers, improved character animations, a new game engine, the ability to upgrade weapons and equipment. Five of the featured weapons in the game, as well as assorted pieces of equipment such as bombs and armor, can be upgraded.
Every level contains some method to make the target's death look like an accident. There are improvised weapons, such as nail-guns, a child's air rifle, kitchen knives, stilettos, cane swords, fire extinguishers and hedge clippers. Added was the "Notoriety System". If the player, during a mission, gets caught on camera surveillance or is witnessed committing murder, 47's notoriety will rise. Conversely, if the player executes the mission with none of the aforementioned events occurring, 47's notoriety will be minimal. However, if the only factor affecting 47's notoriety in a certain mission is the fact that he was recorded on CCTV, the player may enter the location in which the tape that recorded him is located in disguise, retrieve it, thus eliminating that factor; the higher Agent 47's notoriety is, the easier it will be for NPCs to identify him. Players may use the bribery system to negate accumulated notoriety. Notoriety gained in early missions will affect missions. Earlier missions in which 47 has gained notoriety in can be replayed to reduce notoriety in missions.
The "Notoriety System" is not enabled on the easiest difficulty setting. At the end of each mission, a newspaper article is displayed about the hit, in which the content varies depending on the investigation results and the player's notoriety, it will detail the weapon most used, how it was used, the number of police and civilians killed or injured, if there were any witnesses. Any injured people will be counted as witnesses. Sketch drawings are sometimes visible showing Agent 47's face, which grow progressively more accurate as 47's notoriety grows; the newspaper announces in the headline how many people were killed, whereas executing the target without any problems will have 47 as'wanted by police'. The article's title relates to the player's mission rating. "Silent Assassin", in which one assassinates the targets as cleanly and as possible and draws no unnecessary attention to themself, is the best rating possible. On higher difficulty levels, something as simple as 47 exiting the level in a disguise rather than his original suit will adversely affect the player's notoriety, as well as deduct $5,000 from their payment for the mission.
As one advances further into the game and more newspapers containing the headline from the last mission will be scattered around levels. Blood Money improved the melee weapons system, allowing the player to lethally throw certain weapons at NPCs. Once thrown into anyone, the weapon cannot be retrieved. There is an exception for the hammer, which can be retrieved though thrown into a victim. Unlike previous games, melee weapons cannot be transferred to the player's inventory. If 47 renders a NPC unconscious, either by using his syringe filled with sedative or knocking them out with close combat, they will not awaken for the entirety of the level until a security guard checks it, unlike previous games. In addition, if both uses of 47's sedative syringe have been used and the player does not wish to use close combat (which increases their violence rating and by extension affects their
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Voice acting is the art of performing voice-overs or providing voices to represent a character or to provide information to an audience or user. Examples include animated, off-stage, off-screen or non-visible characters in various works, including feature films, dubbed foreign language films, animated short films, television programs, radio or audio dramas, video games, puppet shows, amusement rides and documentaries. Voice acting is done for small handheld audio games. Performers are called voice artists or voice talent, their roles may involve singing, although a second voice actor is sometimes cast as the character's singing voice. Voice acting is recognised in Britain as a specialized dramatic profession, chiefly owing to the BBC's long tradition of radio drama. Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement; the voices for animated characters are provided by voice actors. For live action productions, voice acting involves reading the parts of computer programs, radio dispatchers, or other characters who never appear on screen.
With a radio drama or Compact Disc drama, there is more freedom in voice acting, because there is no need to match a dub to the original actors, or to match an animated character. Producers and agencies are on the look out for many styles of voices such as booming voices, which may be perfect for more dramatic productions or cute, young sounding voices that are perfect for trendier markets; some just sound like regular, everyday people and all of these voices have their place in the Voiceover world, provided they are used and in the right context. In the context of voice acting, narration is the use of spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. A narrator is a personal character or a non-personal voice that the creator of the story develops to deliver information to the audience about the plot; the voice actor who plays the narrator is responsible for performing the scripted lines assigned to the narrator. In traditional literary narratives, narration is a required story element. One of the most common uses for voice acting is within commercial advertising.
The voice actor is hired to voice a message associated with the advertisement. This has different subgenres; the subgenres are all different styles in their own right. For example, television commercials tend to be voiced with a narrow, flat inflection pattern, whereas radio commercials tend to be voiced with a wide inflection pattern in an over-the-top style. Markerters and advertisers use voiceover all over their projects, from radio, to TV, to online and more! Total advertising spend in the UK is forecast to be £21.8 billion in 2017. Voiceover used in commercial adverts is the only area of voice acting where de-breathing is used. De-breathing means artificially removing breaths from the recorded voice; this is done to stop the audience being distracted in any way from the commercial message, being put across. Dub localization is a type of voice-over, it is the practice of voice-over translation altering a foreign language film, art film or television series by voice actors. Voice-over translation is an audiovisual translation technique, in which, unlike in Dub localization, actor voices are recorded over the original audio track, which can be heard in the background.
This method of translation is most used in documentaries and news reports to translate words of foreign-language interviewees. Automated dialogue replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. ADR is used to change original lines recorded on set to clarify context, improve diction or timing, or to replace an accented vocal performance. In the UK, it is called "post-synchronization" or "post-sync". Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement. At its simplest, each recording consists of a short phrase, played back when necessary, e.g. the "Mind the gap" announcement introduced by London Underground in 1969. In a more complicated system, such as a speaking clock, the announcement is re-assembled from fragments such as "minutes past" "eighteen" and "p.m." For example, the word "twelve" can be used for both "Twelve O'Clock" and "Six Twelve."
Automated announcements can include on-hold messages on phone systems and location-specific announcements in tourist attractions. Seiyū occupations include performing roles in anime, audio dramas and video games, performing voice-overs for dubs of non-Japanese movies, providing narration to documentaries and similar programs; because the animation industry in Japan is so prolific, voice actors in Japan are able to have full-time careers as voice-over artists. Japanese voice actors are able to take greater charge of their careers than voice actors in other countries. Japan has 130 voice acting schools and troupes of voice actors, who work for a specific broadcast company or talent agency, they attract their own appreciators and fans, who watch shows to hear their favorite actor or actress. Many Japanese voice actors branch into music singing the opening or closing themes of shows in which their character stars, or become involved in non-animated side projects such as audio dram
Wheel of Fortune (U.S. game show)
Wheel of Fortune is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin that debuted in 1975. The show features a competition in which contestants solve word puzzles, similar to those used in Hangman, to win cash and prizes determined by spinning a giant carnival wheel. Wheel aired as a daytime series on NBC from January 6, 1975, to June 30, 1989. After some changes were made to its format, the daytime series moved to CBS from July 17, 1989, to January 11, 1991, it returned to NBC from January 14, 1991, until it was cancelled on September 20, 1991. The popularity of the daytime series led to a nightly syndicated edition being developed, which premiered on September 19, 1983, has aired continuously since; the network version was hosted by Chuck Woolery and Susan Stafford, with Charlie O'Donnell as its announcer. O'Donnell was replaced by Jack Clark. After Clark's death in 1988, M. G. Kelly took over as announcer until O'Donnell returned in 1989. O'Donnell remained on the network version until its cancellation, continued to announce on the syndicated show until his death in 2010, when Jim Thornton succeeded him.
Woolery left in 1981, was replaced by Pat Sajak. Sajak left the network version in January 1989 to host his own late-night talk show, was replaced on that version by Rolf Benirschke. Bob Goen replaced Benirschke when the network show moved to CBS remained as host until the network show was canceled altogether. Stafford left in 1982, was replaced by Vanna White, who remained on the network show for the rest of its run; the syndicated version has been hosted continuously by White since its inception. Wheel of Fortune ranks as the longest-running syndicated game show in the United States, with over 6,000 episodes aired. TV Guide named it the "top-rated syndicated series" in a 2008 article, in 2013, the magazine ranked it at No. 2 in its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever. The program has come to gain a worldwide following with sixty international adaptations; the syndicated series' 36th season premiered on September 10, 2018, Sajak became the longest-running host of any game show, surpassing Bob Barker, who did Price Is Right from 1972 to 2007.
The core game is based on Hangman. Each round has a category and a blank word puzzle, with each blank representing a letter in the answer, punctuation revealed as needed. Most puzzles are straightforward figures of speech that fit within a static list of categories, this list has evolved over the course of the series. Crossword puzzles were added to the rotation in 2016. In such rounds, a clue bonding the words in the puzzle is given instead of a traditional category, contestants win by solving all the words in the crossword; the titular Wheel of Fortune is a roulette-style wheel mechanism with 24 spaces, most of which are labeled with dollar amounts ranging from $500 to $900, plus a top dollar value: $2,500 in round 1, $3,500 in rounds 2 and 3, $5,000 for round 4 and any subsequent rounds. The wheel features two Bankrupt wedges and one Lose a Turn, both of which forfeit the contestant's turn, with the former eliminating any cash or prizes the contestant has accumulated within the round; each game features three contestants, or three two-contestant teams positioned behind a single scoreboard with its own flipper.
The left scoreboard from the viewer's perspective is colored red, the center yellow, the right blue, with the contestants' positions determined by a random selection prior to taping. A contestant spins the wheel to guess a consonant. Calling a correct letter earns the value before the corresponding flipper, multiplied by the number of times that the letter appears in the puzzle. Calling a correct letter keeps the wheel in the contestant's control, allowing the contestant to spin again, buy a vowel for a flat rate of $250, or attempt to solve the puzzle. Contestants may continue to buy vowels so long as they have enough money to keep doing so, until all of the vowels in the puzzle have been revealed. Control passes to the next contestant clockwise if the wheel lands on Lose a Turn or Bankrupt, if the contestant calls a letter, not in the puzzle, calls a letter, called in that round, fails to call a letter within five seconds of the wheel stopping, or attempts unsuccessfully to solve the puzzle.
The only exception is the Free Play wedge, on which the contestant may call a consonant for $500 per occurrence, call a free vowel, or solve the puzzle, with no penalty for an incorrect letter or answer. In the first three rounds, the wheel contains a Wild Card and a Gift Tag, while two ½ Car tags are present in rounds two and three only; the Wild Card may be used to call an additional consonant after any turn or taken to the bonus round to call an extra consonant there. The Gift Tag offers either a $1,000 credit toward purchases from, or $1,000 in cash courtesy of the sponsoring company; the 1/2 Car tags award a car if the contestant wins the round in which she claims both. Unlike the other tags, the 1/2 Car tags are replaced in subsequent rounds. A special wedge in the first two rounds awards a prize, described by the announcer if won. All of the tags and the prize wedge are located over the $500 wedges, so calling a letter that appears in the puzzle when landed upon awards both the tag/wedge and $500 per every occurrence of that letter in the puzzle.
The first three rounds contain a special wedge which, if won and taken to the bonus round, offers an opportunity to play that round for $1 million. A contestant must solve the puzzle in order to keep any cash, prizes, or
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream