Jimmie Kenneth Johnson is an American professional stock car racing driver. A seven-time champion in the NASCAR Cup Series, he competes full-time in the series, driving the No. 48 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 1LE for Hendrick Motorsports. Johnson was born in El Cajon and began racing motorcycles at the age of four. After graduating from Granite Hills High School he competed in off-road series, he raced in Mickey Thompson Entertainment Group, Short-course Off-road Drivers Association and SCORE International, winning rookie of the year in each series. In 1998, Johnson and his team, Herzog Motorsports, began stock car racing, he moved to the national American Speed Association series for late model touring cars, won another rookie of the year title. In 2000, he switched to the NASCAR Busch Series, he moved to Hendrick Motorsports in the Winston Cup Series in 2002. After finishing fifth in the points in his first full season, he was second in 2003 and 2004, fifth in 2005. Johnson won his first Cup Series championship in 2006 and with further wins in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, he became the first and only driver in NASCAR history to win five consecutive championships.
Johnson finished sixth in the points standings in the 2011 season and third in 2012 before winning his sixth championship in 2013. In 2016, Johnson won his seventh championship, tying Richard Petty and Dale Earnhardt for the most Cup Series championships of all time. Johnson is a two-time winner of the Daytona 500, winning in 2006 and 2013. Between 2002 and 2017, Johnson recorded seven championships, 83 career race wins, 222 top fives, 341 top tens, 35 pole positions. Although he has not won a race since 2017, his successes have allowed many analysts and fellow drivers to consider Johnson to be one of the greatest NASCAR drivers of all time. Johnson started racing motorcycles in 1980. Three years he won the 60cc class championship, despite having an injured knee. Afterward, he moved to the Mickey Thompson Entertainment Group Stadium Racing Series where he won several more awards. In 1993, Johnson was given the opportunity to drive for Herb Fishel, he continued racing buggies and trucks in off-road stadium and desert races.
He reported for ESPN in the Short Course Off-Road Drivers Association. Three years Johnson drove for Herzog Motorsports in the off-road truck series in 1996. By 1997, Johnson had progressed to SODA's Class 8, he battled Brendan Gaughan for the championship. That year, Johnson won both races at Lake Geneva Raceway's first race weekend in May, he won the season's third event at Antigo before finishing second to Gaughan at Antigo's second race. Johnson returned to Lake Geneva in July, winning the Saturday race and finished 2nd on the following day. Taylor ended up winning Johnson third. During his time in the SODA, SCORE and MTEG series, he accumulated over 25 wins, 100 top-three finishes, six championships, received Rookie of the Year honors in all three leagues. In 1998, he began racing on asphalt ovals when he entered the American Speed Association as well as part-time in the NASCAR Busch Series. In the same year, Johnson won the ASA Pat Schauer Memorial Rookie title. One year he had two wins and finished third in the standings.
In 2000, he was announced the driver for Herzog Motorsports in the Busch Series. During the season, he had a spectacular accident on lap 46 during the Lysol 200 at Watkins Glen when his brakes failed entering the first turn, he had to swerve to the right to avoid the 86 of Dennis Demers, but went into the grass on the inside of turn one went back across the track, caught some air on the gravel trap before crashing head-on into the carafoam barriers at the far end of the turn while still more than 150+ MPH. Many feared that this accident could have resulted in career ending injuries or have killed him, but he climbed out of the car unscathed and raised his fists in the air like he'd won the race, much to the delight of the crowd. Otherwise, in a rather uneventful season which featured one DNQ at Daytona and six top-10s, he finished tenth in the point standings. During the 2001 season, Johnson recorded one win, at Chicagoland Speedway, finished eighth in the point standings, he began racing in the Winston Cup Series for Hendrick Motorsports, making his cup debut during the UAW-GM Quality 500 at Charlotte.
In the following season, Johnson left Herzog Motorsports to move to Hendrick Motorsports in the Winston Cup Series, driving the No. 48 Lowe's Chevrolet. Johnson began racing full-time in the Winston Cup Series during the 2002 season, he earned his first career pole position for the Daytona 500. In his 13th career start, Johnson scored his first career win in the NAPA Auto Parts 500 at Auto Club Speedway. Johnson became the first rookie driver to lead the point standings and to win twice at the same track during a season, by sweeping both races at Dover, he recorded four pole positions and three wins, as well as six top fives and twenty-one top ten finishes. He finished fifth in the final point standings. However, despite the strong season, Ryan Newman won rookie of the year honors over Johnson. During 2003, Johnson finished ninth on the all-time list for consecutive weeks ranked in the top ten in points with 69, he won three races, two poles (at Kansas Speedway and Pocon
Viktoria Savs served in the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War disguised as a man. She was one of two known female soldiers on the Austrian front lines, she served with the knowledge of her superiors, but unrecognized as a woman, on the Dolomite front from 1915 to 1917. After a severe injury in May 1917, she was hospitalized, her biological sex was discovered, ending her military career, she was awarded several medals for her bravery. She was known as the "Heroine of the Drei Zinnen." Viktoria was born on June 1899 in Bad Reichenhall, Upper Bavaria, Germany. Her mother died in 1904, Viktoria was raised by her father, Peter Savs, with her three younger sisters, in Arco, near Lake Garda. Shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, her father, a master shoemaker, moved the family to Obermais, her father was called into military service as a Kaiserjäger in 1914, was wounded in 1915 in Galicia on the Russian front. While he was at home recovering from his wounds, the sixteen-year-old Viktoria begged him to allow her to enlist.
After unsuccessfully attempting to dissuade her, Peter decided to volunteer for the Austro-Hungarian Landsturm, a militia composed of troops who were too young or too old for standard military service. On June 10, 1915, she enlisted with her father as "Viktor," concealing her biological gender from all except a few superior officers; the two of them were assigned to a Standschützen battalion at Lavarone. She served for more than a year as an unarmed trainee. Anxious to serve in combat, Viktoria wrote to the Archduke Eugen of Austria to request a transfer to the Italian front, granted in December, 1916. On the front lines, she showed talent as a messenger on skis, she was assigned as an orderly to a captain and soon after took part in combat operations at Drei Zinnen. In an attack against Italian positions in the Sexten Dolomites on April 11, 1917, she led a group of 20 captured Italians behind the Austrian lines under enemy artillery fire. For bravery and exemplary leadership, she was awarded the Medal for Bravery in bronze and in silver, the Karl Troop Cross."Viktor" was well known for volunteering for dangerous assignments.
On May 27, 1917 she volunteered to carry a message up a sheer rock face, but was injured when an exploding grenade dislodged a boulder which crushed her right leg, leaving her foot dangling by only a few tendons. She was attempting to amputate her own limb with a knife when she lost consciousness and was rescued by comrades, she was transported to the field hospital at Sillian, where her leg had to be amputated below the knee. During preparation for surgery, her biological sex was uncovered, upon awakening she was informed that her military career was over, she served in the Austrian Red Cross during the rest of the war, where she was decorated with the Military Merit Cross for her service. She was hailed as a patriotic war heroine. After the war she was reluctant to return to her family home in Merano, ceded to Italy along with the South Tyrol through the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, she moved to Hall in Tirol and in 1928 to Salzburg, where she was homeless for a time. An anecdote apocryphal, relates that at one point when she was reduced to begging, she was recognized on the street by the Archduke Eugen, who offered to help her by employing her as a housekeeper.
She took part in occasional veterans' meetings throughout the 1930s, joined the NSDAP in 1933 to get a better disability pension. In 1936 she moved to Berlin, where she received a gift of 150 Reichsmarks from Chancellor Adolf Hitler for the purchase of a new prosthetic leg. Following the annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938, she returned to Salzburg, where she took a job at the news department of the Wehrmacht. In 1942 she took a job at a microbiological research laboratory in Belgrade. Savs never married, but late in life she adopted as her daughter a woman, twenty years younger. In his 2015 biography, Frank Gerbert says that adoption of a partner was a common means of legitimizing same-sex relationships; the two women lived together until Savs' death in Salzburg in 1979. Johanna Sophia Kettner Franziska Scanagatta Stephanie Hollenstein Women in World War I List of wartime cross-dressers Frank Gerbert, Die Kriege der Viktoria Savs: von der Frontsoldatin 1917 zu Hitlers Gehilfin. K&S, Kremayr & Scheriau, 2015.
ISBN 321800991X Reinhard Heinisch, "Frauen in der Armee: Viktoria Savs, das „Heldenmädchen von den Drei Zinnen“." In Pallasch, Zeitschrift für Militärgeschichte. 1/1997. Österreichischer Milizverlag, Salzburg 1997, ZDB-ID 1457478-0, S. 41–44. "Das Heldenmädchen von den Drei Zinnen." In: Mitteilungen und Berichte. 129/2009. Österreichisches Schwarzes Kreuz, Vienna 2015, ZDB-ID 2708727-X, S. 36
The Botswana Meat Commission was established by the newly independent Botswana government in 1965 to be responsible for the slaughter and marketing of all beef exports from Botswana. The BMC is headquartered in Lobatse, its facilities consist of an integrated complex which includes an abattoir, tanning and by-products plants. A throughput of 8000 cattle and 500 small stock are handled on a daily basis; the BMC operates two branch abattoirs, one in Maun and the other in Francistown, with respective capacities of 100 cattle per day and 400 cattle and 150 small stock per day. Along with its core business, the BMC owns transport companies in Botswana. On an international scale, it owns marketing subsidiaries in European countries including the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, cold storage facilities in the UK and South Africa, it owns an insurance company in the Cayman Islands. The BMC co-ordinates the production of beef from a national herd grazing on predominantly communal ranch lands which cover a large portion of the country.
The population of the cattle suffered a notable decline between the 1980s and the early 2000s, with numbers decreasing from three million to about 1,700,000. The company is monitored by the Botswana Veterinary Services for quality control. All stages of its production are certified to the ISO 9002 quality system. Chilled vacuum-packed beef cuts have a shelf-life of six months provided that the cold chain is maintained at a constant, specified minimum temperature. BMC produces frozen boneless beef for manufacturing purposes with a two-year shelf-life as well as corned beef and other canned beef products for export. A 2005 report cited the company's European quota of frozen beef as 19,000 tonnes per year. Official site Botswana Beef Exports and Trade Policy Dr Christopher Stevens and Jane Kennan, Institute of Development Studies University of Sussex, United Kingdom. February 2005