Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Qingdao is a major city in the east of Shandong Province on China's Yellow Sea coast. It is a major nodal city of the One Belt, One Road Initiative that connects Asia with Europe, it has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level, Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities; as of 2014, Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Qingdao is a major seaport, naval base, industrial centre; the world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. It is the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China. In 2018, Qingdao ranked 31st in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and China Development Institute, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Dalian.
In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness. In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit. Jiāo'ào:: former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao:: additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline. Tsingtao: Postal romanisation Tsingtau: German name during their concession period, written in German romanisation of Chinese. Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiautschou: romanisations of Jiaozhou. Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years; the Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the town of Jimo was established, the second largest one in the Shandong region.
The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891. In 1891, the Qing Empire decided to make coastal Tsingtao a defense base against naval attack and began to improve its fortifications. Imperial German naval officials observed and reported on this activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops occupied the fortification; the unmodernised and ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany the following year, the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the imperial province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanised as Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers.
Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east." Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of "Tsingtao" with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia at that time and later. The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic missions. Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy rather than the Imperial Colonial Office.
The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of III. Seebataillon were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway began on September 23, 1899, was completed in 1904. Before the outbreak of World War I, ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions; the fleet rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands to plan a transit back to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets. After a minor British naval attack on the German colony on Shandong in 1914, Japanese Empire troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. China protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but was not able to interfere in the military operations.
The decision of the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in Qingdao after the Great War triggered the May Fourth M
Zhang Zuolin was an influential Chinese soldier and warlord during the Warlord Era in China. The warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928, the dictator of the government of China in 1927 and 1928, he rose from banditry to power and influence, only to be thwarted by the excesses of his own ambition and his erstwhile backers, the Japanese Kwantung Army. Backed by Japan, Zhang influenced politics in the Republic of China during the early 1920s, invaded China proper in October 1924 during the Second Zhili-Fengtian War, gained control of Peking, including the internationally recognized government, in April 1926, his appointment as grand marshal of the Republic of China in June 1927 represented the height of his success, but was followed by defeat: the economy of Manchuria, the basis of his power, was overtaxed by his adventurism and collapsed in the winter of 1927. Leaving Beijing in early June to return to Manchuria, he was killed by a bomb planted by infuriated Kwantung officers on 4 June 1928.
Zhang was born in 1875 in Haicheng, a county in southern Fengtian province in northeastern China, to poor parents. He received little formal education, the only non-military trade that he learned in his lifetime was a small amount of veterinary science, his grandfather had come to the northeast after fleeing a famine in Zhili in 1821. As a child, Zhang was known by the nickname "Pimple." He spent his early youth hunting and brawling. He hunted hares in the Manchurian countryside to help feed his family. In appearance he was rather short, it was asserted. When he became old enough to work, he got a job at a stable in an inn, where he became familiar with many bandit gangs operating in Manchuria at the time; as early as 1896 Zhang himself was a member of a well-known bandit gang. In one version of his beginnings as a warlord, during a hunting trip he spotted a wounded bandit on horseback, killed him, took his horse and became a bandit himself. By his late 20s he had formed a small personal army, his bandit career was euphemistically referred to as his experience in the "University of the Green Forest", as he was illiterate.
In 1900 the Boxer Rebellion broke out, Zhang's gang joined the imperial army. In peacetime he hired his men out as security escorts for traveling merchants. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 the Japanese Army employed Zhang and his men as mercenaries. At the end of the Qing dynasty Zhang managed to have his men recognised as a regiment of the regular Chinese army, patrolling the borders of Manchuria and suppressing other bandit gangs; the American surgeon Dr. Louis Livingston Seaman met Zhang during the Russo-Japanese War, took several photographs of him and his troops as well as writing an account of his journey. During the 1911 Xinhai Revolution some military commanders wanted to declare independence for Manchuria. For his efforts in preventing civil disturbance and revolution, Zhang was named the Vice Minister of Military Affairs. On 1 January 1912 Sun Yat-sen became the first President of the Republic of China in Nanjing. Yuan Shikai, operating out of Beijing, sent other northern military commanders a series of telegrams, advising them to oppose Sun's administration.
To gain Zhang's loyalty, Yuan sent him a large shipment of military provisions. Zhang murdered a number of leading figures in his base city of Shenyang, was rewarded with a series of impressive-sounding titles by the nearly defunct Manchu court; when it became obvious to Zhang that Yuan would usurp control of the central government, he endorsed Yuan's rule over that of either Sun or the Manchus. After Zhang put down a rebellion in June 1912, Yuan raised him to the rank of Lieutenant-General. In 1913 Yuan attempted to move Zhang away from Manchuria by having him transferred to Mongolia, but Zhang reminded Yuan of his successful efforts to keep local order, refused. In 1915, when it became clear that Yuan intended to declare himself emperor, Zhang was one of the few officials who supported him. Besides political opportunism, Zhang recognized that Yuan's monarchy would be short-lived and could be attacked later. Zhang's main rival for power in Manchuria, Zhang Xiluan, had been asked about Yuan's ambitions, suggested to Yuan that he "think about it a bit more", for which Zhang Xiluan was recalled to Beijing while Zhang Zuolin was promoted.
In March 1916, after many southern provinces revolted against Yuan Shikai's government, Zhang supported him but expelled a local military governor sent by Duan Qirui to replace him, with some support from local Japanese officers in the Kwangtung Army. Beijing accepted Zhang's authority and Yuan appointed Zhang superintendent of military affairs in Liaoning. After Yuan died in June 1916, the new central government named Zhang both military and civil governor of Liaoning, the essential components of a successful warlord. Zhang, a monarchist, had always remained cordial with Puyi, the last Emperor of China, had sent him a gift of £1,600 for his wedding as a token of loyalty. In 1917 he plotted with Zhang Xun, a
Nanjing romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of 6,600 km2 and a total population of 8,270,500 as of 2016. The inner area of Nanjing enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing City, with an area of 55 km2, while the Nanjing Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, covering over 60,000 km2, with a population of over 30 million. Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949, has thus long been a major center of culture, research, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports; the city is one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only less than that of a province.
Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index; the ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, according to the Nature Index strong in the chemical sciences. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.
It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu, one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the city served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered severe atrocities including the Nanjing Massacre. Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it boasts many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum; the city has a number of other names, some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city.
When it was the capital of a state, for instance during the ROC, Jing was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty; the name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital", was designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later. Nanjing is known as Jinling or Ginling and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou dynasty. Archaeological discovery shows. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC. In 473 BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate.
In 333 BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi in the western part of present-day Nanjing. It was renamed Moling during reign of Qin Shi Huang. Since the city experienced destruction and renewal many times; the area was successively part of Kuaiji and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, part of Yangzhou region, established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty. Nanjing was the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. Nanjing first became a state capital in AD 229, when the state of Eastern
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which were spread across the mainland regions of Sichuan, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu and Xinjiang. In historiography, the era began when Yuan Shikai died in 1916, lasted until 1928 when the Nationalist Kuomintang unified China through the Northern Expedition, marking the beginning of the Nanjing decade. Several of the warlords continued to maintain their influence through the 1930s and the 1940s, problematic for the Nationalist government during the Second Sino-Japanese War; this era was characterized by constant military conflicts between different factions, the largest conflict was the Central Plains War which involved more than one million soldiers. Early in the 20th century the term was adopted in China as "Jun Fa" to describe the aftermath of the 1911 Wuchang uprising and Xinhai Revolution, when regional commanders led their private militias to battle the state and competing commanders for control over territory, launching the period that would come to be known in China as the modern Warlord Era.
The term "Jun Fa" is now applied retroactively to describe the leaders of regional private armies who, throughout China's history, threatened or used violence to expand their political rule over additional territories, including those who rose to lead and unify kingdoms. The origins of the armies and leaders which dominated politics after 1912 lay in the military reforms of the late Qing dynasty. During the Taiping Rebellion, the Qing dynasty was forced to allow provincial governors to raise their own armies, the Yong Ying, to fight against the Taiping rebels. Strong bonding, family ties and respectful treatment of troops were emphasized; the officers were never rotated, the soldiers were handpicked by their commanders, commanders by their generals, so personal bonds of loyalty formed between local officers and the troops, unlike Green Standard and Banner forces. These late Qing reforms did not establish a national army but instead they mobilized regional armies and militias that had neither standardization nor consistency.
Officers were loyal to their superiors and formed cliques based upon their place of origins and background. Units were composed of men from the same province; this policy was meant to reduce dialectal miscommunication, but had the side effect of encouraging regionalistic tendencies. The Confucian disdain for the military was swept aside by the rising necessity of military professionalism, with scholars becoming militarized, many officers from non-scholarly backgrounds rising to high command and high office in civil bureaucracy. At this time, the military upstaged the civil service. Influenced by German and Japanese ideas of military predominance over the nation, coupled with the absence of national unity amongst the various cliques in the officer class, led to the fragmentation of power in the warlord era; the most powerful regional army was the northern-based Beiyang Army under Yuan Shikai, which received the best in training and modern weaponry. The Xinhai Revolution in 1911 brought widespread mutiny across southern China.
The revolution began in October 1911 with the mutiny of troops based in Wuhan. Soldiers once loyal to the Qing government began to defect to the opposition; these revolutionary forces established a provisional government in Nanjing the following year under Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who had returned from his long exile to lead the revolution, it became clear that the revolutionaries were not strong enough to defeat the Beiyang army and continued fighting would certainly lead to defeat. Instead, Sun negotiated with Beiyang commander Yuan Shikai to bring an end to the Qing and reunify China. In return, Sun would hand over his presidency and recommend Yuan to be the president of the new republic. Yuan refused to move to Nanjing and insisted on maintaining the capital in Beijing, where his power base was secure. Reacting to Yuan's growing authoritarianism, the southern provinces rebelled in 1913 but were crushed by Beiyang forces. Civil governors were replaced by military ones. In December 1915 Yuan found a new dynasty.
The southern provinces rebelled again in the National Protection War. Yuan renounced his plans for restoring the monarchy to woo back his lieutenants, but by the time he died in June 1916 China was fractured politically; the North-South split would persist throughout the entire Warlord Era. Yuan Shikai cut back on many government institutions in the beginning of 1914 by suspending parliament, followed by the provincial assemblies, his cabinet soon resigned making Yuan dictator of China. After Yuan Shikai curtailed many basic freedoms, the country spiraled into chaos and entered a period of warlordism. "Warlordism did not substitute military force for the other elements of government. This shift in balance came from the disintegration of the sanctions and values of China's traditional civil government." In other words, during the warlord era, there was a characteristic shift from a state-dominated civil bureaucracy held by a central authority to a military-dominated culture held by many groups, with power shifting from warlord to warlord.
A notable theme of warlordism is identified by C. Marti
National Protection War
The National Protection War known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China from 1915–1916. Only three years earlier the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, had been overthrown and the Republic of China established in its place; the cause of the war was the proclamation by Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic, of himself as the Hongxian Emperor, Emperor of the Empire of China. In Yunnan province military leaders including Tang Jiyao, Cai E and Li Liejun declared their independence and launched expeditions against Yuan. Yuan's army experienced several defeats and fractured, which led other provinces in the south to declare independence as well. Under immense pressure from the entire nation, Yuan Shikai was forced to abdicate, he died a few months later. After Yuan Shikai plotted the assassination in 1913 of Song Jiaoren, the founder of the Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen launched the Second Revolution against him, it was unsuccessful, Sun was forced to flee to Japan while the Kuomintang was dissolved.
Between August and December 1915 supporters of Yuan began to clamor for the restoration of a Chinese monarchy. On December 12 Yuan declared himself emperor of the Chinese Empire under the name Hongxian; the new empire was due to formally launch on January 1, when he intended to conduct the accession rites. Shortly after Yuan proclaimed himself the Hongxian Emperor, military leaders Cai E and Tang Jiyao of Yunnan province declared independence in the provincial capital, Kunming; the date was December 25. They organized the National Protection Army and began an expedition against the Hongxian Emperor's forces; the Hongxian Emperor sent 80,000 men in an attempt to attack Yunnan, but his troops suffered a major defeat in Sichuan province. Before this defeat and Guangxi provinces declared their independence between February and March 1916. Guangdong, Hunan, Shanxi and Jiangsu followed suit and declared their independence shortly thereafter. Discord began to surface inside the emperor's government in the national capital of Beijing.
Faced with mounting pressure, he was forced to abandon the empire on March 22. He died soon after, on June 6; the National Protection War was proclaimed a success, with the provinces rescinding their declarations of independence. The Governor of Xinjiang, Yang Zengxin, was a former Qing dynasty official who approved of the Hongxian Emperor's monarchism and was against republicanism. Yang commanded thousands of Chinese Muslim troops, he ruled Xinjiang with a clique of Yunnanese. His subordinate Muslim Generals Ma Fuxing and Ma Shaowu were Yunnanese; when some of the Yunnanese revolutionaries wanted to join Cai E in rebelling against Yang, he beheaded them at a New Year's banquet in 1916. Yang was made a Count by the Hongxian Emperor; the National Protection War symbolized the beginning of the separation between the North and the South after the establishment of the Republic of China. Yuan Shikai was a legitimate president of the Republic, but his attempt to become Emperor was thwarted by the military opposition of the southern provinces.
After the end of Yuan's short-lived monarchy, the Beiyang government in Beijing was no longer able to maintain control over the military leaders of the southern provinces. After the death of Yuan, the Beiyang government lost its leadership over warlords in the provinces and infighting among cliques within the government began in earnest. China's Warlord Era would last for years until Chiang Kai-shek unified the country through the Northern Expedition, the Central Plains War and many other civil wars before the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Fairbank, John King; the Cambridge History of China: Republican China 1912–1949, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521235419. Putnam Weale, Bertram Lenox; the fight for the Republic in China. Dodd and Company. Pp. 490. OCLC 1541271