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Jinn

Jinn Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies, are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and Islamic mythology and theology. Like humans, they are created with fitra, neither born as believers nor as unbelievers, but their attitude depends on whether or not they accept God's guidance. Since jinn are neither innately evil nor innately good, Islam was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion. Jinn are not a Islamic concept. In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature. Therefore, jinn are mentioned together with devils/demons. Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN, whose primary meaning is "to hide" or "to conceal"; some authors interpret the word to mean "beings that are concealed from the senses". Cognates include the Arabic majnūn, janīn. Jinn is properly treated as a plural, with the singular being jinnī.

The origin of the word Jinn remains uncertain. Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius Augustus, but this derivation is disputed. Another suggestion holds that jinn may be derived from Aramaic "ginnaya" with the meaning of "tutelary deity", or "garden". Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of a wicked spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran; the Anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion. It first appeared in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature. In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are called genie.

Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. In ancient Arabia, there had been no term for demons; some scholars argue, that angels and demons have been intoduced by Muhammad to Arabia. On the other hand Amira El-Zein argues, that angels have been known to the pagan Arabs, but the term jinn was used for all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; the exact origins of belief in jinn are not clear. Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who took the forms of animals. According to common Arabian belief, pre-Islamic philosophers, poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them. Jinn are mentioned 29 times in the Quran.

In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities. Traditionally Surah 72, named after them, is held to tell about the revelation to jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad's followers accompanied him, witnessing the revelation to the jinn, they appear with different attitudes. In the story of Solomon they appear as nature spirits comparable to Talmudic shedim. Solomon was gifted by God to talk to spirits. God granted him authority over the rebellious jinn and devils forcing them to build the First Temple. In other instances, the Quran tells about Pagan Arabs; the Quran reduced the status of jinn from that of tutelary deities to that of minor spirits paralleling humans. In this regard, the jinn appear paired with humans. To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic concept of Tauhid, all affinities between the jinn and God were denied, thus jinn were placed parallel to humans subject to God's judgment and afterlife.

They are mentioned in collections of canonical hadiths. One hadith divides them with one type flying through the air. Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is, however at least some Muslims believe it essential to the Islamic faith. In Quranic interpretation, the term jinn can be used in two different ways: As invisible entities, who roamed the earth before Adam, created by God out of a "mixture of fire" or "smokeless fire", they are believed to resemble humans in that they eat and drink, have children and die, are subject to judgment, so will either be sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds. But they were stronger than humans; this jinn are distinct from an angelic tribe called Al-jinn, named after Jannah, heavenly creatures created out of the fires of samum in

Lou Bellamy

Lou Bellamy is an American stage director, producer and educator. He is the founder and artistic director, Emeritus of Penumbra Theatre Company in St. Paul, Minnesota, he taught at the University of Minnesota from 1979 until his retirement as an associate professor in 2011. Bellamy received his B. A. in psychology and sociology at Minnesota State University, Mankato in 1967, received his M. A. in theater arts at the University of Minnesota in 1978. At the University of Minnesota he taught classes in acting and communication as well as specialized classes in Black theater. At Penumbra his numerous productions included 23 world premieres, he had a close relationship with playwright August Wilson, Penumbra produced more plays by Wilson than any other theater in the world. Bellamy's directing there has earned an Obie award. In 2014 his daughter Sarah Bellamy succeeded him as leader of Penumbra. Bellamy has been quoted regarding Black theater as saying: "There's a little pressure now to widen my work, with agents and artistic directors asking if I want to do Chekhov.

I can. There are only a few people. I want to use it for putting the lens on black people and showing them in all their beauty, their facets and warts; these are people who I care about and love and want to see in all their complexity on the stage." In 2005 he was awarded IVEY Lifetime Achievement Award In 2007 he won an Obie Award for directing a New York production of Wilson's Two Trains Running. He was named the 2006 Distinguished Artist by the McKnight Foundation. In 2017 he won the Kay Sexton award for his career as a teacher, mentor and promoter of African American Literature

Northwest Territories (electoral district)

Northwest Territories is a federal electoral district represented in the House of Commons of Canada. This riding was created in 1962 from Mackenzie River riding, it was composed of the entire territory of the Northwest Territories. In 1979, the riding was divided into the ridings of Western Nunatsiaq. Following the creation of the territory of Nunavut in 1999, the riding of Western Arctic was made coterminous with the new Northwest Territories. After 1999, Western Arctic was an anomaly in that, unlike Nunavut and Yukon, it did not share the name of the territory with which it was coterminous; this did not change with subsequent representation orders because the electoral boundaries revision process did not affect the territories and the territorial riding names were specified in law. In 2014, at the behest of Western Arctic MP Dennis Bevington, the riding name was changed to Northwest Territories by Bill C-37, which changed the names of several other ridings scheduled to come into effect with the representation order for the next election.

Unlike those names, the change to Northwest Territories came into effect as it involved amending the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act itself. From 1887 to 1905, the only areas of the NWT with representation in Parliament were those areas that became part of present-day provinces. From 1905 to 1947, the NWT was not represented in Parliament. From 1947 to 1962, the southwestern NWT was represented only by the electoral district of Yukon—Mackenzie River and Mackenzie River. In 1962, the electoral district of NWT was created to represent the entire territory, for the first time giving all Canadian territory a representative in Parliament; this riding's boundaries remained the same following the 2012 redistribution. According to the Canada 2016 CensusTwenty most common mother tongue languages: 78.3% English, 3.9% Dogrib, 2.9% French, 1.9% North Slavey, 1.8% South Slavey, 1.8% Tagalog, 1.2% Inuinnaqtun, 1.1% Dene, 0.4% German, 0.4% Vietnamese, 0.3% Gwich'in, 0.3% Arabic, 0.3% Cree, 0.3% Cantonese, 0.3% Inuktitut, 0.3% Spanish, 0.2% Ilocano, 0.2% Bengali, 0.2% Japanese, 0.2% Cebuano, 0.2% Mandarin Following the division into Western Arctic and Nunatsiaq, the riding's first MP was Progressive Conservative MP Dave Nickerson, first elected in 1979 and re-elected twice.

In the 1988 election, Nickerson was defeated by Liberal Ethel Blondin-Andrew who went on to serve as the riding's MP for eighteen years, including two years as Minister of State for Northern Development. In 2006, Blondin-Andrew was defeated by New Democrat Dennis Bevington; the earlier riding of Northwest Territories had been represented by New Democrat Wally Firth from 1972 to 1979. This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Riding associations are the local branches of the national political parties: List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Riding history for Northwest Territories from the Library of Parliament