Henry I of Navarre
Henry the Fat was King of Navarre and Count of Champagne and Brie from 1270 until his death. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Bourbon, during the reign of his childless older brother Theobald II he held the regency during many of Theobalds numerous absences. In 1269, Henry married Blanche of Artois, daughter of the then-reigning King Louis IX of Frances brother Count Robert I of Artois and he was thus in the Angevin circle in international politics. Recognized as heir presumptive during his brothers reign, Henry succeeded to the thrones of the Kingdom of Navarre, Henry Is proclamation at Pamplona, did not take place till the following year,1 March 1271, and his coronation was delayed until May 1273. His first act was the swear to uphold the Fueros of Navarre, Henry came to the throne at the height of an economic boom in Navarre that was not happening elsewhere in Iberia at as great a rate. But by the Treaty of Paris, the English had been ceded rights in Gascony that effectively cut off Navarrese access to the ocean, Henry allowed the Pamplonese burg of Navarrería to disentangle itself from the union of San Cernin and San Nicolás, effected in 1266.
He granted privileges to the towns of Estella, Los Arcos and his relations with the nobility were, on the whole, though he was prepared to maintain the peace of his realm at nearly any cost. Henry initially sought to recover territory lost to Castile by assisting the revolt of King Alfonso X of Castiles brother Philip in 1270 and he eventually declined, preferring to establish an alliance with Castile through the marriage of his son Theobald to Alfonso Xs daughter Violant in September 1272. This failed with the death of the young Theobald after he fell from a battlement at the castle of Estella in 1273, Henry did not long outlive his son. He was suffocated, according to the generally received accounts, by his own fat and his only legitimate child, a one-year-old daughter named Joan, succeeded him under the regency of her mother Blanche. Joans 1284 marriage to Philip the Fair, the future King of France, in the same year united the crown of Navarre to that of France and saw Champagne devolve to the French royal domain.
In the Divine Comedy, Dante Alighieri, a contemporary, sees Henrys spirit outside the gates of Purgatory. Henry is not named directly, but is referred to as the kindly-faced, medieval Lands Project, Henry I, King of Navarre
Isabella of France
Isabella of France, sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France, Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence. Isabella arrived in England at the age of 12 during a period of growing conflict between the king and the powerful baronial factions, Isabella could not tolerate Hugh Despenser and by 1325 her marriage to Edward was at a breaking point. Travelling to France under the guise of a mission, Isabella began an affair with Roger Mortimer. The Queen returned to England with a mercenary army in 1326. Isabella deposed Edward, becoming regent on behalf of her son, many have believed that Isabella arranged the murder of Edward II. In 1330, Isabella’s son Edward III deposed Mortimer in turn, taking back his authority, the Queen was not punished and lived for many years in considerable style—although not at Edward III’s court—until her death in 1358.
Isabella became a popular femme fatale figure in plays and literature over the years, usually portrayed as a beautiful but cruel, manipulative figure. Isabella was born in Paris on an uncertain date – on the basis of the chroniclers and she is described as born in 1292 in the Annals of Wigmore, and Piers Langtoft agrees, claiming that she was 7 years old in 1299. The French chroniclers Guillaume de Nangis and Thomas Walsingham describe her as 12 years old at the time of her marriage in January 1308, placing her birth between January 1295 and of 1296. A papal dispensation by Clement V in November 1305 permitted her immediate marriage by proxy and her parents were King Philip IV of France and Queen Joan I of Navarre, her brothers Louis and Charles became kings of France. Isabella was born into a family that ruled the most powerful state in Western Europe. Indeed, he appeared almost obsessed about building up wealth and lands, Isabellas mother died when Isabella was still quite young, some contemporaries suspected Philip IV of her murder, albeit probably incorrectly.
Isabella was brought up in and around the Château du Louvre, Isabella was cared for by Théophania de Saint-Pierre, her nurse, given a good education and taught to read, developing a love of books. As was customary for the period, all of Philips children were married young for political benefit, Pope Boniface VIII had urged the marriage as early as 1298 but was delayed by wrangling over the terms of the marriage contract. The English king, Edward I attempted to break the engagement several times for political advantage and Edward II were finally married at Boulogne-sur-Mer on 25 January 1308. At the time of her marriage, Isabella was probably about twelve and was described by Geoffrey of Paris as the beauty of beauties, in the kingdom if not in all Europe. Isabella was said to resemble her father, and not her mother, queen regnant of Navarre and this indicates that Isabella was slender and pale-skinned, although the fashion at the time was for blonde, slightly full-faced women, and Isabella may well have followed this stereotype instead
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Charles IV of France
Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was the last direct Capetian King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to his death. Charles was the son of Philip IV, like his father. Beginning in 1323 Charles was confronted with a peasant revolt in Flanders, as duke of Guyenne, King Edward II of England was a vassal of Charles, but he was reluctant to pay homage to another king. In retaliation, Charles conquered the Duchy of Guyenne in a known as the War of Saint-Sardos. In a peace agreement, Edward II accepted to swear allegiance to Charles, in exchange, Guyenne was returned to Edward but with a much-reduced territory. When Charles IV died without heir, the senior lineage of the House of Capet ended. He was succeeded by his cousin Philip of Valois, but the legitimacy was one factor of the Hundred Years War. By virtue of the birthright of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, Charles claimed the title Charles I, King of Navarre. From 1314 to his accession to the throne, he held the title of Count of La Marche and was crowned King of France in 1322 at the cathedral in Reims.
Charles married his first wife, Blanche of Burgundy, the daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, in 1308, after Charles assumed the throne he refused to release Blanche, their marriage was annulled, and Blanche retreated to a nunnery. His second wife, Marie of Luxembourg, the daughter of Henry VII, Charles married again in 1325, this time to Jeanne dÉvreux, she was his first cousin, and the marriage required approval from Pope John XXII. Jeanne was crowned queen in 1326, in one of the better recorded French coronation ceremonies, the coronation was the first appearance of the latterly famous medieval cook, Guillaume Tirel, only a junior servant. During the first half of his reign Charles relied heavily on his uncle, Charles of Valois, for advice, Charles of Valois would have been aware that if Charles died without male heirs, he and his male heirs would have a good claim to the crown. Charles undertook rapid steps to assert his own control, executing the Count of LIsle-Jourdain, a troublesome southern noble, Charles, a relatively well educated king, founded a famous library at Fontainebleau.
During his six-year reign Charles administration became increasingly unpopular and he debased the coinage to his own benefit, sold offices, increased taxation, exacted burdensome duties, and confiscated estates from enemies or those he disliked. He was involved in Jewish issues during the period. Charles father, Philip IV, had confiscated the estates of numerous Jews in 1306, and Charles took vigorous, Charles at least acquiesced, or at worst actively ordered, in the expulsion of many Jews from France following the leper scare. Charles inherited a long-running period of tension between England and France, once Charles took up the throne, Edward attempted to avoid payment again
Carcassonne is a fortified French town in the Aude department, of which it is the prefecture, in the Region of Occitanie. Inhabited since the Neolithic period, Carcassonne is located in the Aude plain between historic trade routes, linking the Atlantic to the Mediterranean sea and the Massif Central to the Pyrénées and its strategic location led successive rulers to expand its fortifications until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. The city is famous for the Cité de Carcassonne, a medieval fortress restored by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1853, Carcassonne relies heavily on tourism but counts manufacture and wine-making as some of its other key economic sectors. Carcassonne is located in the south of France, about 80 kilometres east from the city of Toulouse and its strategic location between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea has been known since the neolithic era. The towns area is about 65 km2, which is larger than the numerous small towns in the Aude department.
The rivers Aude and the Canal du Midi flow through the town, the Volcae Tectosages fortified the oppidum. The folk etymology – involving a châtelaine named Carcas, a ruse ending a siege, Carcas on a column near the Narbonne Gate, is of modern invention. The name can be derived as an augmentative of the name Carcas, Carcassonne became strategically identified when Romans fortified the hilltop around 100 BC and eventually made the colonia of Julia Carsaco, Carcasum. The main part of the courses of the northern ramparts dates from Gallo-Roman times. In 462 the Romans officially ceded Septimania to the Visigothic king Theodoric II who had held Carcassonne since 453 and he built more fortifications at Carcassonne, which was a frontier post on the northern marches, traces of them still stand. Theodoric is thought to have begun the predecessor of the basilica that is now dedicated to Saint Nazaire, in 508 the Visigoths successfully foiled attacks by the Frankish king Clovis. A medieval fiefdom, the county of Carcassonne, controlled the city and it was often united with the County of Razès.
The origins of Carcassonne as a county probably lie in local representatives of the Visigoths, Bello founded a dynasty, the Bellonids, which would rule many honores in Septimania and Catalonia for three centuries. In 1067, Carcassonne became the property of Raimond-Bernard Trencavel, viscount of Albi and Nîmes, through his marriage with Ermengard, in the following centuries, the Trencavel family allied in succession either with the counts of Barcelona or of Toulouse. They built the Château Comtal and the Basilica of St. Nazaire, in 1096, Pope Urban II blessed the foundation stones of the new cathedral. Carcassonne became famous for its role in the Albigensian Crusades, when the city was a stronghold of Occitan Cathars, in August 1209 the crusading army of the Papal Legate, Abbot Arnaud Amalric, forced its citizens to surrender. Raymond-Roger de Trencavel was imprisoned whilst negotiating his citys surrender and died in mysterious circumstances three months in his own dungeon, simon De Montfort was appointed the new viscount.
In 1240, Trencavels son tried to reconquer his old domain, the city submitted to the rule of the kingdom of France in 1247
Louis X of France
Louis was the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Louis uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny, Louis allowed serfs to buy their freedom, abolished slavery, and readmitted French Jews into the kingdom. In 1305, Louis had married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had Joan II of Navarre, Margaret was convicted of adultery and died in prison, possibly murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the kings death, johns untimely death led to a disputed succession. Louis was born in Paris, the eldest son of Philip IV of France and he inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305, being crowned 6 June 1313. On 21 September 1305, at age 16, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Louis was known as the Quarreler as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns.
Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philips reign, in 1314, Margaret and Joan—the latter two being the wives of Louis brothers Charles and Philip, respectively—were arrested on charges of infidelity. Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parliament that year and found guilty and their alleged lovers were executed, and the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment. Philip stood by his wife Joan, who was found innocent. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard, where she died, on the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims on 24 August 1315, Louis was king of Navarre for eleven years and king of France for less than two years. In 1315, Louis X published a decree proclaiming that France signifies freedom and this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Leagues of regional nobles began to form around the country, demanding changes, when these failed, Charles convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marignys execution at Vincennes in April 1315.
Other former ministers were similarly prosecuted and this, combined with the halting of Philips reforms, the issuing of numerous charters of rights and a reversion to more traditional rule, largely assuaged the regional leagues. In practical terms, Louis X effectively abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, Louis continued to require revenues and alighted on a reform of French serfdom as a way of achieving this. Arguing that all men are free, Louis declared in 1315 that French serfs would therefore be freed. A body of commissioners was established to undertake the reform, establishing the peculium, or value, of each serf. For serfs owned directly by the King, all of the peculium would be received by the Crown – for serfs owned by subjects of the King, Louis was responsible for a key shift in policy towards the Jews
The first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhards early 9th Century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros, there are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar, multicolor (i. e. in contrast to the mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba, plain + Basque herri, the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a tribe who populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, not so the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks ever completely subjugated the area, the Vascones included neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century.
In AD778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass and that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of King Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, and even a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided between his sons and it never fully recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom throughout the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads. The native line of kings came to an end in 1234, the Navarrese kept most of their strong laws and institutions. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but keeping a separate status. A Chartered Government was established, and the managed to keep home rule.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a version of home rule was passed in 1839. The relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade, amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in Navarre and the rest of the Basque provinces. The end of the Third Carlist War saw a wave of Spanish centralization directly affecting Navarre. In 1893-1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrids governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat
Guido da Vigevano
Guido da Vigevano or Guido da Pavia was an Italian physician and inventor. Guido da Vigevano was personal physician of queen Joan the Lame, for an envisaged crusade, he drew sketches of armored chariots, wind-propelled carriages and siege engines. He was one of the first to add drawings of organs to his descriptions in a second treatise. His sketches were typically medieval in that they lack perspectivity, invented only at the beginning of the Renaissance by Brunelleschi, Guido created a vehicle that moved using a windmill that relayed force to gear and to the wheels. Some consider this machine to be first car in history, or at least a forerunner
Bar-sur-Seine is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barrois or Barroises, the commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Bar-sur-Seine is located some 20 km south-east of Troyes and 25 km north-west of Montliot-et-Courcelles, access to the commune is by the D671 road from Virey-sous-Bar in the north-west which passes through the town and continues south-east to Celles-sur-Ource. The D443 comes from Magnant in the north-east passing through the village, the D63 goes to Magnant by a slightly longer route. The D4 goes from the town to Ville-sur-Arce in the south-east, the D49 branches from the D443 on the right bank of the Seine and goes north-west to Courtenot. There is the passing through the commune from Saint-Parres-lès-Vaudes in the north-east. Apart from the town there are the hamlets of Avaleur and La Bordé, there are large forests to the north-east and south-west of the town with the rest of the commune farmland.
The Seine river flows through the commune and the town from south-east to north-west and continues north-west to Troyes, the Ource river flows from the south-east and forms part of the south-eastern border before joining the Seine at the border of the commune. The Arce river joins the Seine on the bank on the south-eastern border of the commune. Bar is a Gallic word and perhaps even pre-Gallic which means summit or height, the town was devastated in 1359 by the English, according to Froissart, no fewer than 900 mansions were burnt. Afterwards it suffered greatly in the wars of the 16th century. Bar-sur-Seine was the town of the district in 1790 and sub-prefecture from 1800 until 1926. Bar-sur-Seine minted deniers under Charles the Bald, under the Ancien Regime Bar-sur-Seine was located in the province of Burgundy. Bar-sur-Seine appears as Bar fur Seine on the 1750 Cassini Map, the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years. This area of Aube Champagnes includes other neighbouring communes such as Les Riceys, most of these items are in the Church of Saint Stephen but with many items in other locations. For a complete list of these together with links to descriptions. Communes of the Aube department Bar-sur-Seine Official website
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
College of Navarre
The College of Navarre was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris, rivaling the Sorbonne and renowned for its library. It was founded by Queen Joan I of Navarre in 1305, the queen bequeathed part of her fine hôtel de Navarre in rue Saint André des Arts, together with lands generated rents of 2000 livres p. a. in her counties of Champagne and Brie. Her trustees decided to sell the Paris property and acquire a plot on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, right in the Latin Quarter. The first stone, laid 12 April 1309, was for the college chapel, provision was made for the scholars support,4 Paris sous weekly for the artists,6 for the logicians and 8 for the theologians. These allowances were to continue until the graduates held benefices of the value respectively of 30,40 and 60 livres, the regulations allowed the theological students a fire, from November to March after dinner and supper for one half-hour. The luxury of benches was forbidden by an appointed by Urban V in 1366. On the festival days, the theologians were expected to deliver a collation to their fellow-students of the three classes, the rector at the head of the college, originally appointed by the faculty of the university, was now appointed by the kings confessor.
The students wore a dress and the tonsure and ate in common. Classes bore little resemblance to todays universities, subjects were included that are not taught today, such as rhetoric in its classical meaning. The students were required to speak and write only in Latin, only after graduation were students allowed to write using their own words or discuss the subjects. At least one of the rectors, Claude DEspence became rector before he obtained his doctorate, the College was suppressed at the time of the French Revolution, its library dispersed and its archives lost
Theobald III, Count of Champagne
Theobald III was Count of Champagne from 1197 to his death. He was the son of Henry I, Count of Champagne and Marie. He succeeded as Count of Champagne in 1197 upon the death of his older brother Henry II and these laws were reinforced subsequently in charters that were signed between 1198 and 1231. In 1198, Pope Innocent III called the Fourth Crusade, there was little enthusiasm for the crusade at first, but on 28 November 1199 various nobles of France gathered at Theobalds court for a tournament, including the preacher Fulk of Neuilly. There, they took the cross, and elected Theobald their leader, Theobald married Blanche of Navarre on 1 July 1199 at Chartres. Following Theobalds death on May 24,1201, she was to rule as regent for the following 21 years, during which the succession was contested by Theobalds nieces, Theobald was buried beside his father, Henry, at the Church of Saint Stephen at Troyes