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Jochi

Jochi was a Mongolian army commander, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life. An accomplished military leader, he participated in his father's conquest of Central Asia, along with his brothers and uncles. There is some question as to Jochi's true paternity. Shortly after Börte's marriage to Genghis Khan, she was abducted by members of the Mergid confederation, she was given to a certain Chilger Bökh, the brother of the Yehe Chiledu, as a spoil of war. She remained in Chilger Bökh's captivity for a few months. Shortly afterwards she gave birth to Jochi. By all accounts, Genghis Khan treated Jochi as his first son, but a doubt always remained whether Temüjin or Chilger Bökh was the real father of Jochi; this uncertainty about his paternity was not without consequences. Jochi's descendants, although they formed the oldest branch of Genghis Khan's family, were never considered for the succession in claiming their father's heritage and there were signs of estrangement between Jochi and Genghis Khan.

In 1207, Jochi conquered several of the forest peoples in Siberia, extending the northern border of the Mongol Empire for the first time. On behalf of his father, Jochi led two campaigns against the Kyrgyz, in 1210 and in 1218. Jochi played a major role in the Khwarezm war of 1219–1221 in Central Asia – his forces captured the towns of Signak and Yanikant in April, 1220, during this war. Subsequently, he was given the command of operation against the city of Urgench, the capital of the Khwarezmian Empire. Here the siege of the town suffered delays because Jochi engaged in extensive negotiation with the town to persuade it to surrender peacefully and to save it from destruction. Jochi's brother Chagatai regarded this action as militarily unsound: Chagatai wanted to destroy the city but Genghis Khan had promised the city to Jochi after his victory; this difference of opinion on military affairs deepened a rift between Chagatai. Genghis Khan appointed Ögedei as the commander of the operation. Ögedei resumed the operations vigorously – capturing and destroying the town and massacring its inhabitants.

The differences in tactics between Jochi and Chagatai in early 1221 added to their personal quarrel about the succession. To settle the matter, Genghis Khan called for a "kurultai", a political and military council - a formal meeting used both in familial matters and in matters of state. Temüjin had won election/appointment as Khan of his tribe during a kurultai, he called them during his early campaigns to garner public support for his wars – such meetings were key to Genghis Khan's legitimacy. Tribal tradition was critical; as Genghis Khan's first-born son, Jochi was favored to rule the clan and the empire after his father died. At the familial kurultai called in 1222, Chagatai raised the issue of Jochi's legitimacy. At that meeting, Genghis Khan made. However, he worried. By early 1223 Genghis Khan had selected his third son, as his successor. For the sake of preserving the Empire, both Jochi and Chagatai agreed, but the rift between them never healed, their rift would politically divide the European part of the Mongol Empire from its Asian part permanently.

During the autumn of 1223 Genghis Khan started for Mongolia after completing the Khwarezm campaign. Ögedei and Tolui went with him but Jochi withdrew to his territories north of Aral and Caspian Seas. There he would not see his father again in his lifetime. Genghis Khan had divided his empire into khanates among his four surviving sons during his lifetime. Jochi was entrusted with the westernmost part of the empire lying between Ural and Irtysh rivers. In the Kurultai of 1229 following Genghis Khan's death, this partition was formalized and Jochi's family was allocated the lands in the west up to'as far as the hooves of Mongol horses had trodden'. Following the Mongol custom, Genghis Khan bequeathed only four thousand'original' Mongol troops to each of his three elder sons and 101,000 to Tolui, his youngest son. Jochi's descendants extended their empire with the help of auxiliary troops from the subjugated populations which happened to be Turkic; this was the chief reason. Jochi's inheritance was divided among his sons.

His sons Orda and Batu founded the White Horde and the Blue Horde and would combine their territories into the Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde. Another of Jochi's sons, received territories that lay north of Batu and Orda's Ülüs. Genghis Khan had made Jochi responsible for the conduct of the community hunt. Hunting was a large scale military exercise designed for the training of the army, it encompassed thousands of square kilometers of area, required the participation of several tumens and lasted anywhere between one and three months. Rules and procedure of the conduct of the military exercise were encoded in the Yassa. Certain incidences hint towards the fact that Jochi was of a kinder disposition than Genghis Khan, though the adjective “kind” must be interpreted by the standards of his times and milieu because Jochi

Banco Venezolano de Crédito

Venezolano de Crédito is a Venezuelan general bank based in Caracas, Venezuela. Founded in 1925, it has grown to be one of Venezuela's largest banks. Services provided include deposits and savings accounts, letters of credit, foreign currency transactions, electronic collections and personal loans, custody of securities, travelers checks and investment banking; the institution played a crucial role in the economic development of the country throughout the twentieth century and developing key sectors of the economy, such as agriculture and basic services, including urban development. In 2001 the administration decided to form a universal bank by merging with Soficrédito and Sogecrédito. Since 2003 it has begun a process of rapid expansion, was characterized by specializing in offering services to digital solutions and technology industries; the bank is ranked seventh in size by the SUDEBAN. In 2007 the bank had 103 agencies and offices across the country as well as a branch in the Cayman Islands and an office in Miami.

It was founded on 4 June 1925 by Henrique Pérez Dupuy as Venezuelan Bank of Credit and authorized along with five other banks to issue currency on behalf of Venezuela in the absence of a central bank, making payments of 15.43 million bolivars. During the government of General Eleazar López Contreras, it financed much of the modernization projects of Caracas. In 1940 with the establishment of the Central Bank of Venezuela, banks were required to transfer gold reserves to support the printing of notes, which the bank refused to do; the refusal resulted in it being sued by the state through the Central Bank of Venezuela. However, in 1946 the bank made its first delivery of gold, valued at 10,000,000 bolivars, in exchange for the same amount of silver, but the conflict ended in 1956 when all notes issued by the bank were destroyed. In the 1980s the bank was a pioneer, along with one other bank, in offering the first interconnected ATMs through the technologically advanced Suiche 7B network in Venezuela.

In 1996, it was the first Venezuelan bank to enter the New York Stock Exchange and two years opened an office in the Cayman Islands. In mid-2002 it changed its name to the current Venezolano de Crédito

Tangerine (Led Zeppelin song)

"Tangerine" is a folk rock song by the English band Led Zeppelin. Recorded in 1970, it is included on the second, more acoustic-oriented side of Led Zeppelin III; the plaintive ballad reflects on lost love and features strummed acoustic guitar rhythm with pedal steel guitar. The Yardbirds, with guitarist Jimmy Page, recorded an early version of the song in 1968, titled "Knowing That I'm Losing You"; when it was released on the Page-produced 2017 album Yardbirds'68, Keith Relf's vocal was left out. "Tangerine" has been performed in concert by Led Zeppelin at different points in their career and has been recorded by other musicians. "Tangerine" dates back to Page's time as lead guitarist with the Yardbirds. In April 1968, the group recorded demos for several songs at the Columbia Studios in New York City. Page biographer George Case notes that "Knowing That I'm Losing You" is similar to "Tangerine" and suggests that Jackie DeShannon inspired the tune. Recordings from these sessions and the concert performance used for Live Yardbirds: Featuring Jimmy Page were rejected for release at the time, but were issued in 2017 on the Yardbirds'68 compilation album produced by Page.

While the demo recorded by the Yardbirds featured a vocal by Keith Relf, the 2017 release does not include it. To develop material for a follow-up album to Led Zeppelin II, Page and singer Robert Plant took a working holiday at Bron-Yr-Aur, a rustic retreat in South Snowdonia, Wales. Plant in particular was inspired by the back-to-the-land trends in northern California and the British folk scene. Accompanied only by acoustic guitar, hand-claps, harmonica, the pair created tunes that served as the basis for several songs on Led Zeppelin III and albums. Although written earlier, "Tangerine" reflects this rural sensibility and journalist Nigel Williamson includes it with the acoustic material born of the Bron-yr-aur sojourn. Other earlier influences include songs recorded at Mickie Most's Donovan sessions, when John Paul Jones and Page were studio musicians; the song begins with a guitar figure a pause to set the right tempo. The guitar proceeds with a A minor–G–D guitar progression. Page plays two guitar parts – one on a six-string and the other on a twelve-string acoustic guitar – which, due to the audio mixing sound as one.

Plant sings the first verse accompanied by the backing guitar chords: Bassist John Paul Jones complements Page on mandolin. The second verse contains the chorus, at the beginning of which Jones on bass and drummer John Bonham come in – Jones follows the chord changes and Bonham plays a straightforward, backing beat. Through the use of double tracking, Plant provides a harmony vocal line. Page adds pedal steel guitar fills. For the third verse, Plant returns to singing accompanied by guitar chording; the verses are broken up with an instrumental middle section with Page and Bonham. Page solos on a sustained Gibson Les Paul Standard electric guitar, double tracked. Led Zeppelin biographer Dave Lewis calls it "a smooth woman-tone solo" After a second chorus, the song winds down with pedal steel fills and ends with an acoustic guitar figure. Led Zeppelin recorded the song at Headley Grange, East Hampshire, using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio; the song was engineered and mixed by Andy Johns at Olympic Studios in London.

Although writers do not question who composed the music for the song, there is some disagreement over who wrote the lyrics. In addition to being credited as the songwriter on all Led Zeppelin releases, Page claims to be responsible for the lyrics: "I'd written it after an old emotional upheaval and I just changed a few of the lyrics for the new version". "Tangerine" and "Dazed and Confused" are the only Led Zeppelin songs with lyrics that credit Page as the sole songwriter. However, Case and Williamson identify the Yardbirds' song as a joint or co-composition by Page and Yardbirds' singer and primary lyricist Keith Relf. Yardbirds' drummer Jim McCarty and bassist Chris Dreja both assert that Relf wrote the words for "Knowing That I'm Losing You". "Tangerine" was issued as an album track on Led Zeppelin III on 5 October 1970 in the US and 23 October 1970 in the UK and went to number one on the album charts. It was included on the LP record's second side, which featured more acoustic- and folk-influenced tunes.

Williamson notes that "the song points the way to the future... the acoustic guitar intro can be seen as an early template for'Stairway to Heaven'". During Led Zeppelin's 1971–72 tours, they performed the song and recordings appear on several bootleg albums. Led Zeppelin bootleg recordings List of cover versions of Led Zeppelin songs – "Tangerine" entries Footnotes Citations References Moskowitz, David V.. The 100 Greatest Bands of All Time: A Guide to the Legends Who Rocked the World. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781440803406. Case, George. Jimmy Page: Magus, Man – An Unauthorized Biography. New York City: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-4234-0407-1. Case, George. Led Zeppelin FAQ: All That's Left to Know About the Greatest Hard Rock Band of All Time. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-61713-025-0. Clayson, Alan; the Yardbirds. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-724-2. Clayson, Alan. Led Zeppelin: The Origin of the Species: How and Where It All Began. UK: Chrome Dreams. ISBN 1-84240-345-1. Lewis, Dan. Led Zeppelin: The Concert File.

London: Omnibus Press. IS