High Holborn is a street in Holborn and Farringdon Without, Central London, which forms a part of the A40 route from London to Fishguard. It starts in the west as a turn off Charing Cross Road, near St Giles Circus, runs past the Kingsway and Southampton Row, becoming Holborn at its eastern junction with Gray's Inn Road; the nearest London Underground stations are Tottenham Court Road and Chancery Lane, all on the Central line which runs beneath High Holborn. Landmarks along High Holborn include the Cittie of Yorke, at no. 22, the Embassy of Cuba, at no. 167. The street was a "Feature site" for introduction of the Camden bench. High Holborn is the highest point in the City of London. At 22 metres above sea level, High Holborn is the lowest county top in England. LondonTown.com information
Racing Calendar is the horseracing official publication of the Jockey Club. John Cheny published the first calendar in 1727, titled Historical List, maintained annual publication until his death in 1751. Several calendars appeared, by various publishers. In 1773 the periodical was taken over and published by James Weatherby, who in 1770 had been appointed as Keeper of the Match Book for the Jockey Club. Weatherbys continued to own and publish the calendar until 1902 when the Jockey Club purchased it
British Classic Races
The British Classics are five long-standing Group 1 horse races run during the traditional flat racing season. They are restricted to three-year-old horses and traditionally represent the pinnacle of achievement for racehorses against their own age group; as such, victory in any classic marks a horse as amongst the best of a generation. Victory in two or three of the series marks a horse as exceptional; the five British Classics are: It is common to think of them as taking place in three legs. The first leg is made up of the Newmarket Classics -- 2,000 Guineas. Given that the 1,000 Guineas is restricted to fillies, this is regarded as the fillies' classic and the 2,000, open to both sexes, as the colts' classic, although it is theoretically possible for a filly to compete in both; the second leg is made up of The Derby and/or Oaks, both ridden over 1 1/2 miles at Epsom in early June. The Oaks is regarded as the fillies' classic, the Derby as the colts', although, as with the Guineas, a filly could theoretically contest both.
The final leg is the St. Leger, held over 1 mile 6 1/2 furlongs at Doncaster and is open to both sexes; the variety of distances and racecourses faced in the Classics make them challenging as a series to the best horses. It is rare for a horse to possess both the speed and stamina to compete across all these distances, making the Triple Crown a notable achievement. In fact, in the modern era, it is rare for any attempt on the Triple Crown to be made. Although the oldest race in the series, the St Leger, was first run 1776, the races were not designated'classics' until 1815, shortly after the first running of the 1,000 Guineas. In 1902 Sceptre became the only racehorse to win four British Classic Races outright, winning both Guineas, the Oaks and the St Leger. In 1868, Formosa won the same four races but dead-heated in the 2,000 Guineas. Fifteen horses have won the standard Triple Crown, the last being Nijinsky in 1970. In addition to Sceptre and Formosa above, eight horses have won the fillies' Triple Crown, the last being Oh So Sharp in 1985.
Many horses have won two classics, some of whom have gone on to attempt the Triple Crown, losing in the last leg at Doncaster. The most recent example of this was the Aidan O'Brien trained Camelot, who having won 2,000 Guineas and Derby, finished second in the St Leger in 2012. Formosa 1868 Sceptre 1902 Most wins as a horse Sceptre – 4 wins Most wins as a jockey Lester Piggott – 30 wins Category:British Classic Race winners English Triple Crown race winners French Classic Races Japanese Classic Races Irish Classic Races United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing Canadian Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Aintree Racecourse is a racecourse in Aintree, Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, England. The racecourse is best known for annually holding the world-famous Grand National steeplechase; the course is home of one of the most famous races in the world. Steeplechasing at Aintree was introduced in 1836, though flat racing had taken place there for many years prior to this, it is regarded as the most difficult of all courses to complete with 16 steeplechase fences including renowned obstacles the Chair, Valentine's, Canal Turn and Becher's Brook. These are so infamous that their names strike fear into the most professional of jockeys. All fences bar the water jump are covered with spruce, unlike at any other course in British National Hunt racing. Four other races take place over the National fences; these are the Topham Chase and the Fox Hunters' Chase at the Grand National meeting, the Grand Sefton Handicap Chase and Becher Chase in the December meeting. Within the large National course there is the smaller Mildmay course containing hurdles and fences.
These fences are made of traditional National Hunt material. The National and Mildmay courses used to share the water jump, but the water jump is no longer used on the Mildmay course; the Grand National race is run over 4 miles 514 yards after being re-measured by the BHA in 2015. The race is considered among the most demanding steeplechases in the world; the lead has changed hands during the 494-yard run-in after the final fence. There are 40 horses taking part in the race but fewer than ten may complete the course: for example, 42 horses started in 1928, only two reached the finishing post; the record for the most victories in the Grand National is held by Red Rum, who won three times in the 1970s, in addition to coming second twice. Aintree has been used as a venue for motor racing; the British Grand Prix was staged there on five occasions, in 1955, 1957, 1959, 1961 and 1962. In addition to the Grand Prix, the circuit held 11 non-championship Formula 1 races, known as the Aintree 200, first won by Stirling Moss in 1954 with the last winner being Jack Brabham, in April 1964.
The only driver to have competed in both horse and motor race is Alfonso de Portago, who competed at the Grand National in his early days as well as in a sportscar race. He was to compete at the 1957 British Grand Prix at Aintree. Michael Jackson concluded the European leg of his 1987–1989 Bad World Tour at the venue on 11 September 1988, to more than 125,000 people, it was the biggest concert of the tour. P!nk performed at the venue during her I'm Not Dead Tour on 16 July 2007. Kaiser Chiefs and The Chemical Brothers performed in concert at Aintree Pavilion as part of Liverpool Music Week 2007; the racecourse contains a 9-hole golf driving range within its boundaries. Golfers have the chance to see the famous track from a different perspective and famous features such as Becher's Brook are incorporated into the course, it is accessed from Melling Road. Because of this, the golf facilities are closed when the course is used for motor racing, it was served by Aintree Racecourse railway station until the station closed in 1962.
Listed buildings in Aintree Village Official site of Aintree Racecourse Aintree - Description and Image Gallery Satellite picture by Google Maps
Sandown Park Racecourse
Sandown Park is a horse racing course and leisure venue in Esher, England, located in the outer suburbs of London. It hosts 5 Grade One National Hunt races and one Group 1 flat race, the Eclipse Stakes, it has horse racing during afternoons, evenings and on weekends, hosts many non racing events such as trade shows, wedding fairs, toy fairs, car shows and auctions, property shows and some private events. It was requisitioned by the War Department from 1940-1945 for World War II; the venue has hosted bands such as UB40, Girls Aloud, Spandau Ballet and Simply Red. The racecourse is close to Esher railway station served by trains from London Waterloo. Sandown Park was one of the first courses to charge all for attending, it opened in 1875 and everyone had to pay at least half a crown. The first meeting was over three days, starting on Thursday 22 April, included the Grand National Hunt Chase, now staged at the Cheltenham Festival; the Grand International Steeple Chase took place on the Saturday, worth £2,130 to the winner, was the largest prize for a steeplechase that season, unusually eclipsing that for the Liverpool Grand National.
In 1875, Sandown became the first course in England to have a members' enclosure. Official website Course guide on GG. COM Course guide on At The Races
Leisure has been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, job hunting, domestic chores, education, as well as necessary activities such as eating and sleeping. Situationist International proposes that leisure does not evolve from free time, free-time is an illusory concept, fully "free". Most people's leisure activities are not a free choice and may be constrained by social pressures, e.g. people may be coerced into spending time gardening by the need to keep up with the standard of neighbouring gardens or go to a party because of social pressures. Leisure as experience emphasizes dimensions of perceived freedom and choice, it is done for the quality of experience and involvement. Other classic definitions include Thorsten Veblen's of "nonproductive consumption of time." Different disciplines have definitions reflecting their common issues: for example, sociology on social forces and contexts and psychology as mental and emotional states and conditions.
From a research perspective, these approaches have an advantage of being quantifiable and comparable over time and place. Leisure studies and sociology of leisure are the academic disciplines concerned with the study and analysis of leisure. Recreation differs from leisure in that it is a purposeful activity that includes the experience of leisure in activity contexts. Economists consider that leisure times are valuable to a person like wages that they could earn for the same time spend towards the activity. If it were not, people would have worked instead of taking leisure. However, the distinction between leisure and unavoidable activities is not a rigidly defined one, e.g. people sometimes do work-oriented tasks for pleasure as well as for long-term utility. A related concept is social leisure, which involves leisurely activities in social settings, such as extracurricular activities, e.g. sports, clubs. Another related concept is that of family leisure. Relationships with others is a major factor in both satisfaction and choice.
Leisure has been the privilege of the upper-class. Opportunities for leisure came with more money, or organization, less working time, rising in the mid to late 19th century, starting in Great Britain and spreading to other rich nations in Europe, it spread as well to the United States, although that country had a reputation in Europe for providing much less leisure despite its wealth. Immigrants to the United States discovered. Economists continue to investigate. In a recent book, Laurent Turcot argues that leisure was not created in the 19th century but is imbricated in the occidental world since the beginning of history. In Canada, leisure in the country is related to the decline in work hours and is shaped by moral values, the ethnic-religious and gender communities. In a cold country with winter's long nights, summer's extended daylight, favorite leisure activities include horse racing, team sports such as hockey, roller skating and board games; the churches tried to steer leisure activities, by preaching against drinking and scheduling annual revivals and weekly club activities.
By 1930 radio played a major role in uniting Canadians behind their local or regional hockey teams. Play-by-play sports coverage of ice hockey, absorbed fans far more intensely than newspaper accounts the next day. Rural areas were influenced by sports coverage. Leisure by the mid 19th century was no longer an individualistic activity, it was organized. In the French industrial city of Lille, with a population of 80,000 in 1858, the cabarets or taverns for the working class numbered 1300, or one for every three houses. Lille counted 63 drinking and singing clubs, 37 clubs for card players, 23 for bowling, 13 for skittles, 18 for archery; the churches have their social organizations. Each club had a long roster of officers, a busy schedule of banquets and competitions; as literacy, ease of travel, a broadened sense of community grew in Britain from the mid 19th century onward, there was more time and interest in leisure activities of all sorts, on the part of all classes. Opportunities for leisure activities increased because real wages continued to grow and hours of work continued to decline.
In urban Britain, the nine-hour day was the norm. The movement toward an eight-hour day. Furthermore, system of routine annual vacations came into play, starting with white-collar workers and moving into the working-class; some 200 seaside resorts emerged thanks to cheap hotels and inexpensive railway fares, widespread banking holidays and the fading of many religious prohibitions against secular activities on Sundays. By the late Victorian era, the leisure industry had emerged in all British cities, the pattern was copied across Western Europe and North America, it provided scheduled entertainment of suitable length and convenient locales at inexpensive prices. These include sporting events, music halls, popular theater. By 1880 football was no longer the preserve of the social elite, as it attracted large working-class audiences. Average gate was 5,000 in 1905, rising to 23,000 in 1913; that amounted to 6 million paying customers with a weekly turnover of £400,000. Sports by 1900 generated some three percent of the total gross national product in Britain.
Professionalization of sports was the norm, although some new activities reached an upscale amateur audience, such as lawn tennis a