Tod Browning was an American film actor, film director and vaudeville performer. Browning's career spanned sound film eras. Best known as the director of Dracula and silent film collaborations with Lon Chaney and Priscilla Dean, Browning directed many movies in a wide range of genres. Browning was born as Charles Albert Browning, Jr. in Louisville, the second son of Charles Albert and Lydia Browning, the nephew of baseball star Pete Browning. As a young boy, he put on amateur plays in his backyard, he was fascinated by the circus and carnival life, at the age of 16 he ran away from his well-to-do family to become a performer. Changing his name to "Tod", he traveled extensively with sideshows and circuses, his jobs included working as a talker for the Wild Man of Borneo, performing a live burial act in which he was billed as "The Living Corpse", performing as a clown with the Ringling Brothers Circus. He drew on this experience as inspiration for some of his film work, he performed in vaudeville as an actor and dancer.
He appeared in the Mutt and Jeff and The Lizard and the Coon acts, in a blackface act titled The Wheel of Mirth with comedian Charles Murray. While Browning was working as director of a variety theater in New York City, he met D. W. Griffith, from Louisville, he began acting with Murray on single-reel nickelodeon comedies for Griffith and the Biograph Company. In 1913 Griffith moved to California. Browning followed and continued to act in Griffith's films, now for Reliance-Majestic Studios, including a stint as an extra in the epic Intolerance. Around that time he began directing directing 11 short films for Reliance-Majestic. Between 1913 and 1919, Browning appeared as an actor in 50 motion pictures. In June 1915, he crashed his car at full speed into a moving train, his passengers were George Siegmann. Booth was killed and Siegmann and Browning suffered serious injuries, including in Browning's case a shattered right leg and the loss of his front teeth. During his convalescence, Browning wrote scripts, did not return to active film work until 1917.
Booth's sister, Margaret Booth a famous MGM editor, never forgave Browning for the loss of her brother. Browning's feature film debut was Jim Bludso, about a riverboat captain who sacrifices himself to save his passengers from a fire, it was well received. Browning moved back to New York in 1917, he directed two films for Metro Studios, the Will O' the Wisp and The Jury of Fate. Both starred Mabel Taliaferro, the latter in a dual role achieved with double exposure techniques that were groundbreaking for the time, he moved back to California in 1918 and produced two more films for Metro, The Eyes of Mystery and Revenge. In the spring of 1918, he left Metro and joined Bluebird Productions, a subsidiary of Universal Pictures, where he met Irving Thalberg. Thalberg paired Browning with Lon Chaney for the first time for the film The Wicked Darling, a melodrama in which Chaney played a thief who forces a poor girl from the slums into a life of crime and prostitution. Browning and Chaney made 10 films together over the next decade.
The death of his father sent Browning into a depression. He was laid off by Universal and his wife left him. However, he recovered, reconciled with his wife, got a one-picture contract with Goldwyn Pictures; the film he produced for Goldwyn, The Day of Faith, was a moderate success, putting his career back on track. Thalberg reunited Browning with Lon Chaney for The Unholy Three, the story of three circus performers who concoct a scheme to use disguises to con and steal jewels from rich people. Browning's circus experience shows in his sympathetic portrayal of the antiheroes; the film was a resounding success, so much so that it was remade in 1930 as Lon Chaney's first talkie shortly before his death that same year. Browning and Chaney embarked on a series of popular collaborations, including The Blackbird and The Road to Mandalay; the Unknown, featuring Chaney as an armless knife thrower and Joan Crawford as his scantily clad carnival girl obsession was titled Alonzo the Armless and could be considered a precursor to Freaks in that it concerns a love triangle involving a circus freak, a beauty, a strongman.
London After Midnight was Browning's first foray into the vampire genre and is a sought-after lost film which starred Chaney, Conrad Nagel, Marceline Day. The last known print of London After Midnight was destroyed in an MGM studio fire in 1967. In 2002, a photographic reconstruction of London After Midnight was produced by Rick Schmidlin for Turner Classic Movies. Browning and Chaney's final collaboration was Where East Is East, of which only incomplete prints have survived. Browning's first talkie was The Thirteenth Chair, released as a silent and featured Bela Lugosi, who had a leading part as the uncanny inspector, solving the mystery with the aid of the spirit medium; this film was directed shortly after Browning's vacation trip to Germany. After Chaney's death in 1930, Browning was hired by his old employer Universal Pictures to direct Dracula. Although Browning wanted to hire an unknown European actor for the title role and have him be offscreen as a sinister presence, budget constraints and studio interference necessitated the casting of Bela Lugosi and a more straightforward approach.
After directing the boxing melodrama Iron Man, Browning b
"Be Stiff" is the third single by American new wave band Devo. It was released in 1978; the song was taken from the sessions for Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! produced by Brian Eno. Guitarist Bob Lewis came up with the title concept. With its stop-start rhythms and angular arrangement, "Be Stiff" exemplified Devo's stance against soft rock complacency, it became an anthem for Stiff Records, a minor success in the UK. It was covered multiple times, including on a Stiff-released EP of their own artists' interpretations, it was performed in 1980 and live recordings appear on DEV-O Live and Devo Live 1980. It was performed as an encore on the Freedom of Choice shows of Devo's November 2009 tour, included in the setlist of their 2014 Hardcore Devo Live! tour. An early demo of "Be Stiff" with a different sound appears on the collection Hardcore Devo: Volume Two, recorded in either 1974 or 1975. In early 1978, Devo toured the UK for the first time, Stiff Records released three Devo singles in a row: "Jocko Homo" which charted at number 51, Devo's wildly different arrangement of the Rolling Stones' " Satisfaction" which reached number 41, "Be Stiff" which rose to number 71."Be Stiff" was produced in London in limited quantities on clear and yellow vinyl, released at the same time as five colored vinyl versions of "Whoops-a-Daisy" by Stiff Records artist Humphrey Ocean and the Hardy Annuals.
Following Devo's popular July 1978 performance at the Knebworth Festival, Stiff released an EP featuring six artists from the "Be Stiff'78" tour performing versions of "Be Stiff". The artists were Lene Lovich, Mickey Jupp, Wreckless Eric, Rachel Sweet, Jona Lewie, the Be Stiff Ensemble. A website devoted to Mickey Jupp offers the following review: All versions were recorded on the Stiff mobile at a sound check during the tour one cold October afternoon. Mickey Jupp's version is a twelve-bar; the guitar player, Peter Gosling, said, "We just played a twelve-bar a couple of times, Mickey wrote down some words and we recorded it the third time round. It was all over in half an hour." Wreckless Eric's version was done on the second play-through. He just sang the words, "Be Stiff" over and over again Brady decided to put in a bit out of Hendrix's "Purple Haze". "I fluffed it the first time but got it right two bars later," he reported. It's all there on the record. Rachel's version is plain country and Jona's is just Jona's.
The final version on the album is the full blown live version. It was always moving to see five bands on stage laughing and joking their way through this last number in the set; the rhythm section is great... three drummers! Live recordings of the song from Devo's 1980 tour have been released on DEV-O Live and Devo Live 1980 and an alternate demo version appears on the compilation Recombo DNA. In 1982, Toni Basil released a version of "Be Stiff" on her album Word of Mouth, featuring music recorded by Devo; the version of "Social Fools" featured on the B-side of the single is a Devo-produced studio version. A second studio version produced by Brian Eno was issued as the b-side of the "Come Back Jonee" 7" single. Big Business released a cover of "Be Stiff" on their 2006 Tour EP II. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
A barbershop quartet is a group of four singers who sing music in the barbershop genre of singing, which uses four-part harmony without accompaniment by any instruments such as piano, a style called a cappella. It consists of a lead, the vocal part which carries the tune/melody; the baritone can sing either below the lead singer. Quartets can be male or female, but are not mixed male and female. A female barbershop quartet may be referred to as a Sweet Adelines quartet, the vocal parts have the same labels, since the roles perform similar functions in the quartet though the vocal ranges are different. Most barbershop quartets are male. Barbershop singing originated in the late 1800s and early 1900s of America, a hybrid of both black and white expressive cultural forms at the time; the African-American influence is sometimes overlooked, although these quartets had a formative role in the development of this style of singing. Popularity of the style faded in the 1920s and was revived in the mid-20th century with help by the Society for Preservation and Encouragement of Barber Shop Quartet Singing in America, founded in 1938.
Some researchers view the style as an invented tradition based on the early musical features and the society's application of the barbershop chord with its contests and rules. As a general rule, barbershop quartets use a TTBB arrangement, with the second tenor on lead vocal; the tenor harmonizes above the lead, making the part the highest in the quartet. So as not to overpower the lead singer, who carries the tune, the part is sung in falsetto, of a softer quality than singing in the modal register, though some quartets do make use of tenors with a softer full voice quality. Notable examples of barbershop quartets which made use of the full-voiced tenor include The Buffalo Bills and Boston Common; the range of a tenor in barbershop music does not closely correspond to that of a tenor's range in Classical repertoire being more in the range of the classical countertenor range. Lead sings the main melody. Baritone completes the chord with a medium voice slightly below the lead. Bass always sings and harmonizes the lowest notes setting the root of the chord for root position chords, or singing the lowest note of the chord for inverted chords.
The TV sitcom I Love Lucy used the cast in a barbershop quartet in the 1952 episode, "Lucy's Show-Biz Swan Song. Frasier featured a barbershop quartet in the episode, "Frasier's Curse." An episode of The Simpsons, "Homer's Barbershop Quartet", parodied the journey of The Beatles as though they were each members of a barbershop quartet named "The Be Sharps". The episode starred a quartet who sing on Main Street in Disneyland in California. In every episode of Nick Jr.'s television program Blue's Clues, a barbershop quartet can be heard saying "Mailtime", after which Steve or Joe sings the mail time song before the mail arrives at their house. The Barbershop Harmony Society International Quartet Contest Champions The Buffalo Bills were such a hit in the 1957 Meredith Willson Broadway musical The Music Man that they were cast in the 1962 film adaptation starring Robert Preston as Harold Hill and Shirley Jones as Marian Paroo; the internet webcomic Homestuck features a barbershop cover of the Eddie Morton song, "I'm a Member of the Midnight Crew".
The cover was sung by a fan of the series and was put into the comic on the page, "DD: Ascend more casually." Cuphead, known for its 1900s cartoon style, contains two songs sung by a barbershop quartet: "Don't Deal with the Devil" and "A Quick Break" In a 2019 GEICO television commercial, a barbershop quartet sings while playing a four-on-four basketball game. Gospel quartet Barbershop chorus Barbershop Harmony Society List of Barbershop Harmony Society quartet champions Media related to Barbershop quartets at Wikimedia Commons
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation", as opposed to through natural processes, such as evolution. Creationism covers a spectrum of views including evolutionary creationism, but the term is used for literal creationists who reject various aspects of science, instead promote pseudoscientific beliefs. Literal creationists base their beliefs on a fundamentalist reading of religious texts, including the creation myths found in Genesis and the Quran. For young Earth creationists, these beliefs are based on a literalist interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative and rejection of the scientific theory of evolution. Literalist creationists believe that evolution cannot adequately account for the history and complexity of life on Earth; the first use of the term "creationist" to describe a proponent of creationism is found in an 1856 letter of Charles Darwin describing those who objected on religious grounds to the then-emerging science of evolution.
The basis for many creationists' beliefs is a literal or quasi-literal interpretation of the Old Testament from stories from the book of Genesis: The Genesis creation narrative describes how God brings the Universe into being in a series of creative acts over six days and places the first man and woman in a divine garden. This story is the basis of creationist biology; the Genesis flood narrative tells how God destroys the world and all life through a great flood, saving representatives of each form of life by means of Noah's ark. This forms the basis of creationist geology, better known as flood geology. A further important element is the interpretation of the Biblical chronology, the elaborate system of life-spans, "generations," and other means by which the Bible measures the passage of events from the creation to the Book of Daniel, the last biblical book in which it appears. Recent decades have seen attempts to recast it as science. There are non-Christian forms of creationism, notably Islamic creationism and Hindu creationism.
Several attempts have been made to categorize the different types of creationism, create a "taxonomy" of creationists. Creationism covers a spectrum of beliefs which have been categorized into the general types listed below. Young Earth creationists such as Ken Ham and Doug Phillips believe that God created the Earth within the last ten thousand years as described in the Genesis creation narrative, within the approximate time-frame of biblical genealogies. Most young Earth creationists believe. A few assign a much older age to the universe than to Earth. Creationist cosmologies give the universe an age consistent with the Ussher chronology and other young Earth time frames. Other young Earth creationists believe that the Earth and the universe were created with the appearance of age, so that the world appears to be much older than it is, that this appearance is what gives the geological findings and other methods of dating the Earth and the universe their much longer timelines; the Christian organizations Institute for Creation Research and the Creation Research Society both promote young Earth creationism in the US.
Another organization with similar views, Answers in Genesis —based in both the U. S. and the United Kingdom—has opened the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Kentucky, to promote young Earth creationism. Creation Ministries International promotes young Earth views in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, the US, the UK. Among Roman Catholics, the Kolbe Center for the Study of Creation promotes similar ideas. In 2007, Ken Ham founded the Creation Ark Encounter in northern Kentucky. Old Earth creationism holds that the physical universe was created by God, but that the creation event described in the Book of Genesis is to be taken figuratively; this group believes that the age of the universe and the age of the Earth are as described by astronomers and geologists, but that details of modern evolutionary theory are questionable. Old Earth creationism itself comes in at least three types: Gap creationism called "restoration creationism," holds that life was created on a pre-existing old Earth; this version of creationism relies on a particular interpretation of Genesis 1:1–2.
It is considered that the words formless and void in fact denote waste and ruin, taking into account the original Hebrew and other places these words are used in the Old Testament. Genesis 1:1–2 is translated: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." "And the earth was without form, void. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."Thus, the six days of creation start sometime after the Earth was "without form and void." This allows an indefinite "gap" of time to be inserted after the original creation of the universe, but prior to the creation according to Genesis. Gap theorists can therefore agree with the scientific consensus regarding the age of the Earth and universe, while maintaining a literal interpretation of the biblical text; some gap creationists expand the basic version of creationism by proposing a "primordial creation" of biological life within the "gap" of time. This is thought to be "the world that was" mentioned in 2 Peter 3:3–7. Discoveries of fossils and archaeological ruins older than 10,000 years are ascribed to this "
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Hardcore Devo: Volume One
Hardcore Devo: Volume One is the first of two collections of demos by the American new wave band Devo. It was released in August 1990, on the label Rykodisc, it was out of print for over twenty years. The Hardcore Devo albums are collections of 4-track basement demos recorded by the band between 1974 and 1977; some tracks are earlier versions of some of Devo's best known tracks that would be re-recorded and used on subsequent Devo records, but a majority of the tracks were never re-used and remained unreleased until the Hardcore Devo compilations. There was a limited vinyl issue in Europe; some pressings, including the European vinyl version, combine "Auto Modown" and "Space Girl Blues" on a single track. DevoGerald Casale – lead and background vocals.