Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Daniel James White was a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors who killed San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, on Monday, November 27, 1978, at City Hall. In a controversial verdict that led to the coining of the legal slang "Twinkie defense", White was convicted of manslaughter rather than murder in the deaths of Milk and Moscone. White served five years of a seven-year prison sentence. Less than two years after his release he returned to committed suicide. White was born in Long Beach, the second of nine children, he was raised by Irish-American, working class parents in the Visitacion Valley neighborhood of San Francisco. He attended Riordan High School, he went on to attend Woodrow Wilson High School. White enlisted in the United States Army in June 1965, he was a sergeant in the 101st Airborne Division in the Vietnam War from 1969 to 1970 and was honorably discharged in 1971. White worked as a security guard at A. J. Dimond High School in Anchorage, Alaska, in 1972.
He returned to San Francisco to work as a police officer. According to a SF Weekly newspaper account, he quit the force after reporting another officer for beating a handcuffed suspect. White joined the San Francisco Fire Department. While on duty, according to the SF Weekly story, White's rescue of a woman and her baby from a seventh-floor apartment in the Geneva Towers was covered by the San Francisco Chronicle; the city's newspapers referred to him as "an all-American boy". In 1977, White was elected as a Democrat to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors from District 8, which included several neighborhoods near the southeastern limits of San Francisco. At that time, supervisors were elected by district and not "at-large", as they had been before and were again in the 1980s and 1990s, he had strong support from the firefighter unions. His district was described by The New York Times as "a white, middle-class section, hostile to the growing homosexual community of San Francisco." The New York Times stated that as a supervisor, White saw himself as the board's "defender of the home, the family and religious life against homosexuals, pot smokers and cynics".
Despite their personal differences and Supervisor Harvey Milk had several areas of political agreement and worked well together. Harvey Milk was one of three people from the city hall invited to the baptism of White's newborn child shortly after the election. White persuaded Dianne Feinstein president of the board of supervisors, to appoint Milk chairman of the Streets and Transportation Committee; the Catholic Church in April 1978 proposed a facility for juvenile offenders who had committed murder, arson and other crimes, to be operated by the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, in White's district. White was opposed, while Milk supported the facility, their difference of opinion led to a conflict between the two. White held a mixed record on gay rights, opposing the anti-gay Briggs Initiative, yet voting against an ordinance prohibiting discrimination against gays in housing and employment. After a disagreement over a proposed drug rehabilitation center in the Mission District, White clashed with Milk, as well as other members of the board.
On November 10, 1978, White resigned his seat as supervisor. The reasons he cited were his dissatisfaction with what he saw as the corrupt inner workings of San Francisco city politics, as well as the difficulty in making a living without a police officer's or firefighter's salary, jobs he could not retain while serving as a supervisor. White had opened a baked-potato stand at Pier 39, he reversed his resignation on November 14, 1978, after his supporters lobbied him to seek reappointment from George Moscone. Moscone agreed to White's request, but refused the appointment at the urging of Milk and others. On November 27, 1978, White visited San Francisco City Hall with the later-declared intention of killing not only Moscone and Milk, but two other San Francisco politicians, California Assembly Speaker and S. F. mayor Willie Brown, Supervisor Carol Ruth Silver, whom he blamed for lobbying Moscone not to reappoint him. He arrived that day by climbing through a first-floor window on the side of City Hall carrying a Smith & Wesson Model 36.38 caliber revolver and 10 rounds of ammunition.
By entering the building through the window, White managed to avoid the installed metal detectors. After entering Moscone's office, White pleaded to be reinstated as supervisor. White killed Moscone by shooting him in the shoulder and chest, twice in the head, he walked to the other side of City Hall to Milk's office, reloaded the gun, fatally shot Milk five times, the final two shots fired with the gun's barrel touching Milk's skull, according to the medical examiner. White fled City Hall, turning himself in at the San Francisco's Northern Police Station where he had been a police officer. While being interviewed by investigators, White recorded a tearful confession, stating, "I just shot him." At the trial, White's defense team argued that his mental state at the time of the killings was one of diminished capacity due to depression. They argued, therefore, he was not capable of premeditating the killings, thus was not guilty of first-degree murder. Forensic psychiatrist Martin Blinder testified that White was suffering from depression and pointed to several behavioral symptoms of that depression, including the fact that White had gone from being health-conscious to consuming sugary foods and drinks.
A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students, or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and high schools. In higher education, the students' union is accorded its own building on the campus, dedicated to social, organizational activities and academic support of the membership. In the United States, student union only refers to a physical building owned by the university with the purpose of providing services for students without a governing body; this building is referred to as a student activity center, although the Association of College Unions International has hundreds of campus organizational members. Outside the US, student union and students' union refer to a representative body, as distinct from a student activity centre. Depending on the country, the purpose, assembly and implementation of the group might vary. Universally, the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students in some fashion.
In some cases, students' unions are run by independent of the educational facility. The purpose of these organizations is to represent students both within the institution and externally, including on local and national issues. Students' unions are responsible for providing a variety of services to students. Depending on the organization's makeup, students can get involved in the union by becoming active in a committee, by attending councils and general meetings, or by becoming an elected officer; some students' unions are politicized bodies, serve as a training ground for aspiring politicians. Students' unions have similar aims irrespective of the extent of politicization focusing on providing students with facilities and services; some students' unions officially recognize and allocate an annual budget to other organizations on campus. In some institutions, postgraduate students are within the general students' unions, whereas in others they have their own postgraduate representative body. In some cases, graduate students lack formal representation in student government.
As mentioned before universally the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students. Many times student's unions focusing on providing students with facilities and services. Simple variations on just the name include the name differences between the United States and other countries. Depending on the country there are different methods of representation compulsory education to Higher education or tertiary. In Australia, all universities have one or more student organizations. Australian student unions provide such services as eateries, small retail outlets, student media and support for a variety of social, political, special interest and sporting clubs and societies. Most operate specialized support services for female, LGBT, international and indigenous students. Many expressed concerns over the introduction of voluntary student unionism in 2006. In 2011, the Government passed legislation to allow universities to charge students a compulsory service fee to fund amenities such as sporting facilities and counselling, as well as student media and "advocating students’ interests".
The legislation passed. The National Union of Students of Australia represents most undergraduate students' unions at a national level. Azerbaijan Students Union was established by students from Baku on 15 September 2008. ASU is an organization, established on basis of international experience and it was the first student organization which united students irrespective of gender, creed, nationality. During its action period ASU has formed stable structure, presented new suggestions about student policy to appropriate bodies, made close relations with international and regional student organizations, prepared new action plan according to the universities-students-companies' relations in Azerbaijan. ASU considered international relations important. For the first time ASU's delegates were participants of the First Asia IAESTE Forum in Shanghai during 12–15 November 2009. After that forum ASU established close relations with IAESTE, one of the biggest student exchange organizations; as a result of relations on 21 January 2010 ASU was accepted a member of IAESTE.
Our union gained right to represent Azerbaijan students in IAESTE. That membership was the union's first success on international level. During 20–27 January Azerbaijan Students Union was accepted as associative member of IAESTE in 64th Annual Conference in Thailand. Azerbaijan Students Union has been a full member of European Students' Union until 2015. In China, the student body is referred to as 学生会 or 学生联合会. Membership in different universities has different functions; some universities may give the membership a task of recording the students' attendance and the complex grades. Student associations of Chinese universities are under the leadership of Communist Youth League of China, which to a large extent limit its function as an organization purely belonging to students themselves. All universities in Hong Kong have students' unions. Most of these students' unions are members of the Hong Kong Federation of Students. Many secondary schools have students' unions or the equivalent. India
Ragweeds are flowering plants in the genus Ambrosia in the aster family, Asteraceae. They are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas North America, where the origin and center of diversity of the genus are in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Several species have been introduced to the Old World and some have naturalized and have become invasive species. Ragweed species are expected to continue spreading across Europe in the near future in response to ongoing climate change. Other common names include burrobrushes; the genus name is from the Greek ambrosia, meaning "food or drink of immortality". Ragweed pollen is notorious for causing allergic reactions in humans allergic rhinitis. Up to half of all cases of pollen-related allergic rhinitis in North America are caused by ragweeds. Ragweeds are shrubs. Species may well exceed four meters in height; the stems are erect, decumbent or prostrate, many grow from rhizomes. The leaves may be arranged oppositely, or both.
The leaf blades come in many shapes, sometimes palmately into lobes. The edges are toothed; some are hairy, most are glandular. Ragweeds are monoecious, most producing inflorescences that contain both staminate and pistillate flowers. Inflorescences are in the form of a spike or raceme made up of staminate flowers with some pistillate clusters around the base. Staminate flower heads have stamens surrounded by purplish florets. Pistillate flower heads have fruit-yielding ovules surrounded by many phyllaries and fewer, smaller florets; the pistillate flowers are wind pollinated, the fruits develop. They are burs, sometimes adorned with wings, or spines. Many Ambrosia species occur in desert and semi-desert areas, many are ruderal species that grow in disturbed habitat types. Ragweed pollen is a common allergen. A single plant may produce about a billion grains of pollen per season, the pollen is transported on the wind, it causes about half of all cases of pollen-associated allergic rhinitis in North America, where ragweeds are most abundant and diverse.
Common culprits are great ragweed. Concentration of ragweed pollen—in the absence of significant rainfall, which removes pollen from the air—is the lowest in the early morning hours, when emissions starts, pollen concentration peaks at midday. Ragweed pollen can remain airborne for days and travel great distances, affecting people hundreds of miles away, it can be carried 300 to 400 miles out to sea. Ragweeds native to the Americas have been introduced to Europe starting in the nineteenth century and during World War I, have spread there since the 1950s. Eastern Europe Hungary, has been badly affected by ragweed since the early 1990s, when the dismantling of Communist collective agriculture led to large-scale abandonment of agricultural land, new building projects resulted in disturbed, un-landscaped acreage; the major allergenic compound in the pollen has been identified as Amb a 1, a 38 kDa nonglycosylated protein composed of two subunits. It contains other allergenic components, such as profilin and calcium-binding proteins.
Ragweed allergy sufferers may show signs of oral allergy syndrome, a food allergy classified by a cluster of allergic reactions in the mouth in response to the consumption certain fruits and nuts. Foods involved include beans, cumin, kiwifruit, potatoes, melons and zucchini; because cooking denatures the proteins that cause the reaction, the foods are more allergenic when eaten raw. Signs of reaction can include itching and swelling of the mouth and throat, runny eyes and nose, and, less vomiting, diarrhea and anaphylaxis; these symptoms are due to the abnormal increase of IgE antibodies which attach to a type of immune cell called mast cells. When the ragweed antigen attaches to these antibodies the mast cells release histamine and other symptom evoking chemicals. Merck & Co, under license from allergy immunotherapy company ALK, has launched a ragweed allergy immunotherapy treatment in sublingual tablet form in the US and Canada. Allergy immunotherapy treatment involves administering doses of the allergen to accustom the body to induce specific long-term tolerance.
Chemical spraying has been used for control in large areas. Because ragweed only reacts to some of the more aggressive herbicides, it is recommended to consult professionals when deciding on dosage and methodology near urban areas. Effective active ingredients include those that are glyphosate-based, sulfosate-based, glufosinate ammonium-based. In badly infested areas, 2 to 6.5 liters per hectare are dispersed. In 2007 several Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations were glyphosate resistant in the USA. Where herbicides cannot be used, mowing may be repeated about every three weeks, as it grows back rapidly. In the past, ragweed was cut down, left to dry, burned; this method is used less now, because of the pollution caused by smoke. Manually uprooting ragweed is ineffective, skin contact can cause allergic reaction. If uprooting is the method of choice, it should be performed before flowering. There is evidence that mechanical and chemical control methods are no more effective in the long run than leaving the weed in place.
Fungal rusts and the leaf-eating beetle Ophrae
George Richard Moscone was an American attorney and Democratic politician. He was the 37th mayor of San Francisco, California from January 1976 until his assassination in November 1978, he was known as "the people's mayor", who opened up City Hall and its commissions to reflect the diversity of San Francisco. Moscone served in the California State Senate from 1967 until becoming Mayor. In the Senate, he served as Majority Leader. Moscone was born in the Italian-American enclave of California, his father was George Joseph Moscone, a prison guard at nearby San Quentin, his mother, was a homemaker who went to work to support herself and her son after she separated from her husband. Moscone attended St. Brigid's, St. Ignatius College Preparatory, where he was a noted debater and an all-city basketball star, he attended College of the Pacific on a basketball scholarship and played basketball for the Tigers. Moscone studied at University of California, Hastings College of the Law, where he received his law degree.
He married Gina Bondanza, who he had known since she was in grade school, in 1954. The Moscones would go on to have four children. After serving in the United States Navy, Moscone started private practice in 1956; as a young man playing basketball and as a young lawyer, Moscone became close friends with John L. Burton, who would become a member of the U. S. House of Representatives. John Burton's older brother, Phillip, a member of the California State Assembly, recruited Moscone to run for an Assembly seat in 1960 as a Democrat. Though he lost that race, Moscone would go on to win a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1963. On the Board, Moscone was known for his defense of the poor, racial minorities and small business owners, as well as supporting the first successful fight in San Francisco to block construction of a proposed freeway that would have cut through Golden Gate Park and several neighborhoods. In 1966 Moscone ran for and won a seat in the California State Senate, representing the 10th District in San Francisco County.
Moscone was rising through the ranks of the California Democratic Party and became associated with a loose alliance of progressive politicians in San Francisco led by the Burton brothers. This alliance was known as the Burton Machine and included John Burton, Phillip Burton, Assemblyman Willie Brown. Soon after his election to the State Senate, Moscone was elected by his party to serve as Majority Leader, he was reelected to the 10th District seat in 1970 and to the newly redistricted 6th District seat, representing parts of San Francisco and San Mateo Counties, in 1974. He sponsored legislation to institute a school lunch program for California students, as well as a bill legalizing abortion, signed into law by Governor Ronald Reagan. In 1974 Moscone considered a run for governor of California, but dropped out after a short time in favor of California Secretary of State Jerry Brown. Moscone was considered ahead of his time as an early proponent of gay rights. In conjunction with his friend and ally in the Assembly, Willie Brown, Moscone managed to pass a bill repealing California's sodomy law.
The repeal was signed into law by California Governor Jerry Brown. On December 19, 1974, Moscone announced. In a close race in November of 1975, Moscone placed first with conservative city supervisor John Barbagelata second and supervisor Dianne Feinstein coming in third. Moscone and Barbagelata thus both advanced to the mandated runoff election in December where Moscone narrowly defeated the conservative supervisor by fewer than 5,000 votes. Liberals won the city's other top executive offices that year as Joseph Freitas was elected District attorney and Richard Hongisto was re-elected to his office of Sheriff. Moscone ran a grassroots mayoral campaign which drew volunteers from organizations like Glide Methodist Memorial Church, Delancey Street and the People's Temple, known as a church preaching racial equality and social justice but turned into a fanatic cult. For the rest of his life, Barbagelata maintained that the People's Temple had committed massive election fraud on behalf of Moscone by bussing people in from out of town to vote multiple times under the names of deceased San Francisco residents.
The Peoples Temple worked to get out the vote in precincts where Moscone received a 12 to 1 vote margin over Barbagelata. After Peoples Temple's work and votes by Temple members were instrumental in delivering a close victory for Moscone, Moscone appointed Temple leader Jim Jones as Chairman of the San Francisco Housing Commission. Moscone's first year as Mayor was spent preventing the San Francisco Giants professional baseball team from moving to Toronto and advocating a citywide ballot initiative in favor of district election to the Board of Supervisors. Moscone was the first mayor to appoint large numbers of women and lesbians and racial minorities to city commissions and advisory boards. In 1977, he appointed Del Martin, the first gay woman and Kathleen Hardiman Arnold, now Kathleen Rand Reed, the first Black woman, as Commissioners on the San Francisco Commission on the Status of Women. Moscone appointed liberal Oakland Police Chief Charles Gain to head the San Francisco Police Department.
Gain became unpopular among rank and file San Francisco police officers for proposing a settlement to a lawsuit brought by minorities claiming discriminatory recruiting practices by the police force. In April 1977 Moscone stood up to officials in Washington by supporting 25-day occupation of San Francisco's
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can be driven by heat, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle and settlement patterns; the idea of preserving food dates back to at least Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars; the introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails.
Settlements were developing in infertile parts of the country, filled with newly discovered natural resources. These new settlement patterns sparked the building of large cities which are able to thrive in areas that were otherwise thought to be inhospitable, such as Houston and Las Vegas, Nevada. In most developed countries, cities are dependent upon refrigeration in supermarkets, in order to obtain their food for daily consumption; the increase in food sources has led to a larger concentration of agricultural sales coming from a smaller percentage of existing farms. Farms today have a much larger output per person in comparison to the late 1800s; this has resulted in new food sources available to entire populations, which has had a large impact on the nutrition of society. As quite similar criteria shall be fulfilled by working fluids applied to heat pumps, refrigeration and ORC cycles, several working fluids are applied by all these technologies. Ammonia was one of the first refrigerants. Refrigeration can be defined as "The science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of surrounding atmosphere".
It means continuous extraction of heat from a body whose temperature is below the temperature of its surroundings. The seasonal harvesting of snow and ice is an ancient practice estimated to have begun earlier than 1000 BC. A Chinese collection of lyrics from this time period known as the Shijing, describes religious ceremonies for filling and emptying ice cellars. However, little is known about the construction of these ice cellars; the next ancient society to harvest ice may have been the Jews according to the book of Proverbs, which reads, “As the cold of snow in the time of harvest, so is a faithful messenger to them who sent him.” Historians have interpreted this to mean that the Jews used ice to cool beverages rather than to preserve food. Other ancient cultures such as the Greeks and the Romans dug large snow pits insulated with grass, chaff, or branches of trees as cold storage. Like the Jews, the Greeks and Romans did not use ice and snow to preserve food, but as a means to cool beverages.
The Egyptians developed methods to cool beverages, but in lieu of using ice to cool water, the Egyptians cooled water by putting boiling water in shallow earthen jars and placing them on the roofs of their houses at night. Slaves would moisten the outside of the jars and the resulting evaporation would cool the water; the ancient people of India used this same concept to produce ice. The Persians stored ice in a pit called a Yakhchal and may have been the first group of people to use cold storage to preserve food. In the Australian outback before a reliable electricity supply was available where the weather could be hot and dry, many farmers used a "Coolgardie safe"; this consisted of a room with hessian "curtains" hanging from the ceiling soaked in water. The water would evaporate and thereby cool the hessian curtains and thereby the air circulating in the room; this would allow many perishables such as fruit and cured meats to be kept that would spoil in the heat. Before 1830, few Americans used ice to refrigerate foods due to a lack of ice-storehouses and iceboxes.
As these two things became more available, individuals used axes and saws to harvest ice for their storehouses. This method proved to be difficult and did not resemble anything that could be duplicated on a commercial scale. Despite the difficulties of harvesting ice, Frederic Tudor thought that he could capitalize on this new commodity by harvesting ice in New England and shipping it to the Caribbean islands as well as the southern states. In the beginning, Tudor lost thousands of dollars, but turned a profit as he constructed icehouses in Charleston, Virginia and in the Cuban port town of Havana; these icehouses as well as better insulated ships helped reduce ice wastage from 66% to 8%. This efficiency gain influenced Tudor to expand his ice market to other towns with icehouses such as New Orleans and Savannah; this ice market further expanded as harvesting ice became faster and cheaper after one of Tudor’s suppliers, Nathaniel Wyeth, invented a horse-drawn ice cutter in 1825. This invention as well as Tudor’s success inspired others to get involved in the ice trade and the ice industry grew.
Ice became a mass-market commodity by the early 1830s with the price of ice dropping from six cents per pound to a half of a cent per pound. In New York City, ice consumption increased from 12,000 tons in 1843 to 100,000 tons in 1856. Boston’s consumption leapt from 6,000 tons to 85,000 tons during that same period. Ice harvesting created a “cooling cultur
Santa Monica Mountains
The Santa Monica Mountains is a coastal mountain range in Southern California, paralleling the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Transverse Ranges; because of its proximity to densely populated regions, it is one of the most visited natural areas in California. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is located in this mountain range; the range extends 40 miles east-west from the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles to Point Mugu in Ventura County. The western mountains, separating the Conejo Valley from Malibu end at Mugu Peak as the rugged, nearly impassible shoreline gives way to tidal lagoons and coastal sand dunes of the alluvial Oxnard Plain; the mountain range contributed to the isolation of this vast coastal plain before regular transportation routes reached western Ventura County. The eastern mountains form a barrier between the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, separating "the Valley" on the north and west-central Los Angeles on the south; the Santa Monica Mountains are parallel to Santa Susana Mountains, which are located directly north of the mountains across the San Fernando Valley.
The range is of moderate height, with no craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak and Boney Mountains area. While rugged and wild, the range hosts a substantial amount of human activity and development. Houses, roads and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains. A number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the western end of the San Fernando Valley the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park defining the easternmost extent of the mountains; the Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people. The mountains were part of their regional homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish; the Spanish mission system had a dramatic impact on their culture and by 1831, their population had dropped from over 22,000 to under 3,000.
Geologists consider the northern Channel Islands to be a westward extension of the Santa Monicas into the Pacific Ocean. The range was created by repeated episodes of uplifting and submergence by the Raymond Fault that created complex layers of sedimentary rock. Volcanic intrusions have been exposed, including the poorly named, andesitic, "Sandstone Peak" the highest in the range at 3,111 feet. Malibu Creek, which eroded its own channel while the mountains were uplifted, bisects the mountain range; the Santa Monica Mountains have dry summers with frequent coastal fog on the ocean side of the range and wet, cooler winters. In the summer, the climate is quite dry, which makes the range prone to wildfires during dry "Santa Ana" wind events. Snow is unusual in the Santa Monica Mountains, since they are not as high as the nearby San Gabriel Mountains; the highest slopes of the central and western Santa Monica Mountains average as much as 27 inches of rain per year, but 18-22 inches is more typical of the range.
The bulk of the rain falls between March. Rainfall is higher in the central and western parts of the range; this is reflected in the vegetation. The central and western portions of the range support more widespread woodlands than the eastern part of the range, where trees are restricted to the stream courses. On January 17, 2007, an unusually cold storm brought snow in the Santa Monica Mountains; the hills above Malibu picked up three inches of snow - the first measurable snow in five decades. Snow was reported on Boney Peak, in the winter of 2005. Snow fell on the peak of Boney Mountain in late December 2008; the latest recorded snowfall in the area was in February of 2019 where an unusual amount of snowfall accumulated in low passes in the mountains. The storm system brought rare snowfall to the Los Angeles area. Much of the mountains are located within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Preservation of lands within the region are managed by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, the National Park Service, the California State Parks, County and Municipal agencies.
Today, the Santa Monica Mountains face pressure from local populations as a desirable residential area, in the parks as a recreational retreat and wild place that's rare in urban Los Angeles. In 2014 the California Coastal Commission and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved the Santa Monica Mountains Local Coastal Program, a land-use plan that will distinguish between the private lands that need strict protection and property that could be developed in strict conformance with this detailed plan. Over twenty individual state and municipal parks are in the Santa Monica Mountains, including: Topanga State Park, Leo Carrillo State Park, Malibu Creek State Park, Point Mugu State Park, Will Rogers State Historic Park, Point Dume State Beach, Griffith Park, Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park, Charmlee Wilderness Park, Franklin Canyon Park, Runyon Canyon Park, King Gillette Ranch Park, Paramount Ranch Park. At the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains are Griffith Park and lastly Elysian Park.
Griffith Park is separated from the rest of the Santa Monica Mountains to the west by the Cahuenga Pass, over which the 101 Freeway passes from the San Fernando Valley into Hollywood. Elysian Park is in the easternmost part of the mountains and is bordered