Den Danske Vitruvius
Den Danske Vitruvius I-II is a richly illustrated 18th-century architectural work on Danish monumental buildings of the period, written by the Danish Baroque architect Lauritz de Thurah. It was commissioned by Christian V in 1735 and published in two volumes between 1746 and 1749, the title refers to the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius, who published De architectura in the 1st century AD, am authoritative treaties on the architecture of the time. The direct inspiration for de Thurahs Den Danske Vitruvius was Colen Campbells Vitruvius Britannicus, a facsimile edition published in 1966-67 includes a third volume, based on an until unpublished manuscript kept at the Royal Danish Library. It covers buildings completed than 1749 and his architectural writings can be seen as a natural continuation of this interest. In 1735 de Thurah received a grant to collect information and to write a comprehensive work on architecture in Denmark. It appeared between 1746 and 1749, published at the Kings expense, and printed by the best Danish printer at that time, Den Danske Vitruvius provides a richly illustrated documentation of monumental Danish buildings of the period.
Like Campbells work, it is not a treaties in the empirical vein, descriptions are short and text appears in Danish and German in parallel columns. First volume, with 121 plates, covers the most important buildings in Copenhagen within all categories, the second volume has 161 plates and covers all royal palaces and other buildings of note in the rest of Denmark. Buildings are shown in plan and elevation as well as many birds-eye perspective, all prospects are drawn by Johan Jacob Bruun. Many of the plates were executed by Michael Keyl and C. L, wüst, two German engravers who were commissioned by Thurah especially for the project. Den Danske Vitruvius is a source of knowledge about the design of many buildings and landscaped gardensin mid-18th century Denmark. Some, like Copenhagens city gates, have been demolished, while others, still others have simply been dedesigned to satisfy new tastes and functions. The book is an important source of information on the architecture of the time. Lauritz de Thurah Architecture of Denmark
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IVs many architectural projects. It was built in the Dutch Renaissance style, typical of Danish buildings during this period, architects Bertel Lange and Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger are associated with the structural planning of the castle. The castle was used by Danish regents as a residence until around 1710. After the reign of Frederik IV, Rosenborg was used as a residence only twice. The first time was after Christiansborg Palace burned down in 1794, located on the third floor, the Long Hall was completed in 1624. It was originally intended as a ballroom, around 1700 it was used as Royal Reception Room and for banquets. It was not until the half of the 19th century that it became known as the Knights Hall. Christian V had the hall partly modernised with twelve tapestries depicting the Kings victories in the Scanian War, the stucco ceiling seen today is from the beginning of the 18th century.
It shows the Danish Coat of Arms surrounded by the Orders of the Elephant, side reliefs depict historical events from the first years of the reign of Frederik IV, including the liberation of the serfs, the founding of the dragoons and of the land militia among them. The frescos in the ceiling by Hendrick Krock, represent the Regalia, among the main attractions of Rosenborg are the coronation chair of the absolutist kings and the throne of the queens with the three silver lions standing in front. The Long Hall contains a collection of silver furniture. Some of these once belonged to the nobility and the aristocracy. The castle, now property, was opened to the public in 1838. Of special interest to tourists is a Schatzkammer displaying the Crown Jewels, a Coronation Carpet is stored there. The Throne Chair of Denmark is located in the castle, in the summer time, flowers bloom in front of the castle in the castle garden. The castle is situated in Kongens Have, known as Rosenborg Castle Garden, the Rosenborg Castle Garden is the countrys oldest royal garden and was embellished in the Renaissance style by Christian IV shortly before the construction of the main castle.
Today, the gardens are a popular retreat for the people of Copenhagen, next to the castle are barracks where the Royal Life Guards is garrisoned
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway as the wife of King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway. She was born in Castle Schonberg, to Christian Heinrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach by his wife and she was raised at the court of the Queen of Poland, Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, in Saxony. King Frederick IV of Denmark allowed his son, Crown Prince Christian and she came from a small, relatively poor and large German princely family, the King gave his permission. In the Crown Princes letters he wrote that he fell for the Sophie Magdalenes intense religiosity and it would affect his reign. The wedding took place on 7 August 1721 at Pretzsch Castle in Saxony, a French envoy to the Danish court sent a description home of the 20-year-old Crown Princess. Shes a proud, impressive woman, although she is not high growth or of beautiful forms. Shes not exactly pretty, but her attitude was notorious. Her skin is white, her face-range is fine and soulful with light blue eyes.
She dressed with the greatest splendor and used a lot of diamonds, about the Crown Prince, the French diplomat made one unflattering description. Hes a small, sickly-looking gentleman and his face is elongated, somewhat haggard, his nose is very big. The eyes are prominent and mouth pulled up in a forced, stereotyped smile. She never forgot that she came from a noble family. As a queen, she received several of her relatives in Denmark and her younger sister, Sophie Caroline, Dowager Princess of Ostfriesland, was appointed by her as abbess at Vallø, with an annual pension of 16,600 thalers, a large sum in those times. At the National Archives was store a letter from Sophie Magdalene to her husband and she asked him to allow the return of her sister to Ostfriesland. The reason was that the queen was jealous of her. The king replied that he with all his heart was willing to let her go, if with this he could win his wifes confidence and heart, at end, Sophie Caroline was not expelled. Sophie Magdalene and her grandson, the King Christian VII, had a warm and he could find at the side of his grandmother a loving refuge from his strict overhofmester, Ditlev Reventlow.
In addition, Sophie Magdalene hosted almost all Christians birthdays celebrations, for Sophie Magdalene was source of great concern and disappointment that none of her two surviving children inherited the strict ideals and lifestyle of their parents. Despite their Pietism, the couple loved the splendor and luxury
Slagelse is a small town in Denmark located in west Zealand. It is about 100 km southwest of Copenhagen, in the 11th century, Slagelse had a mint and was an important trading centre. The city has an 11th-century church, and nearby is Trelleborg, hans Christian Andersen studied in the grammar school in this city for a few years but described it as a nuisance. Slagelse is twinned with Aberdare and Stargard Szczeciński, Poland
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply
Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has added to UNESCOs World Heritage Sites list. The castle is situated on the northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres wide, the castles story dates back to a stronghold, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, from 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, in 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle has a church within its walls, in 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty.
In 1785 the castle ceased to be a residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a renovation it was opened to the public. The castles story dates back to a fortress, built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to all navigation through the Sound. The castle was built on Ørekrog, a tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a curtain wall with a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the kings residence, the building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel, large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.
King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59, from 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years War in 1570, the main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and the fortification works were completed in 1577
Profusely illustrated throughout, it is a valuable source of knowledge as to the appearance of Copenhagen in the middle of the 18th century. It compliments, with some overlap, de Thurahs other major work Den Danske Vitruvius, in 1967, Rosenkilde & Bagger published a facsimile edition, edited by Svend Cedergreen Bech. Hafnia Hodierna is Latin for Copenhagen of today and his architectural writings can be seen as a natural continuation of this interest. In 1735 he received a grant to collect information and to write a comprehensive work on architecture in Denmark. Hafnia Hodierna appeared in 1748, published at the Kings expense, published as a single quarto volume, Hafnia Hodierna contains 110 plates. All the views are the work of the skillful drawer Johan Jacob Bruun, while the plans and elevations were made by others, text appears in Danish and German in parallel columns. Lauritz de Thurah Den Danske Vitruvius Architecture of Denmark
Danish art is the visual arts produced in Denmark or by Danish artists. It goes back thousands of years with significant artifacts from the 2nd millennium BC, for many early periods, it is usually considered as part of the wider Nordic art of Scandinavia. Art from what is today Denmark forms part of the art of the Nordic Bronze Age, Danish medieval painting is almost entirely known from church frescos such as those from the 16th-century artist known as the Elmelunde Master. The Reformation greatly disrupted Danish artistic traditions, and left the body of painters and sculptors without large markets. Thereafter for an extended period art in Denmark was either imported from Germany, from the late 18th century on, the situation changed radically and beginning with the Danish Golden Age, a distinct tradition of Danish art has continued to flourish until today. Due to generous art subsidies, contemporary Danish art has a big production per capita, lurs are a distinctive type of giant curving Bronze Age horn, of which 35 of the 53 known examples have been found in bogs in Denmark, very often in pairs.
They are normally made of bronze, and often decorated, a possibly alien find in Denmark is the Gundestrup cauldron, a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date to the 1st century BC. It was found in 1891 in a bog near the hamlet of Gundestrup in north-eastern Jutland. The silversmithing of the plates is very skilled, the bowl,70 cm across, was beaten from a single ingot. Now in the National Museum of Denmark, it is the largest known example of European silver work from the period, the style and workmanship suggest Thracian origin, while the imagery seems Celtic, so it may not reflect local styles. Danish sites have given their names to two of the six main styles of Viking or Norse art, Jelling style and its successor Mammen style, only one Danish ship burial is known, from Ladbyskibet. The images on the runestones at Jelling are probably the best known Danish works of the period, church wall paintings are to be found in some 600 churches across Denmark, probably representing the highest concentration of surviving church murals anywhere in the world.
Most of them back to the Middle Ages. They lay hidden for centuries as after the Reformation in Denmark, of most interest to Danish art are the Gothic paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters. Adopting the Biblia pauperum approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the Old, albrecht Dürers portrait of her father Christian II of Denmark, painted in Brussels in 1521, has not survived, though portraits of him by other foreign artists have. After a period of development its pupils were indeed to lead the creation of a distinct Danish style, leading Danish artists teaching at the Academy included Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel, later Director. Among his works are the series of statues of Christ. Motifs for his works were mostly from Greek mythology, but he created portraits of important personalities, as in his tomb monument for Pope Pius VII in St Peters Basilica
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus