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Johann Elert Bode

Johann Elert Bode was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularisation of the Titius–Bode law. Bode suggested the planet's name. Bode was born in Hamburg; as a youth, he suffered from a serious eye disease which damaged his right eye. His early promise in mathematics brought him to the attention of Johann Georg Büsch, who allowed Bode to use his own library for study, he began his career with the publication of a short work on the solar eclipse of 5 August 1766. This was followed by an elementary treatise on astronomy entitled Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels, the success of which led to his being invited to Berlin by Johann Heinrich Lambert in 1772 for the purpose of computing ephemerides on an improved plan. There he founded, in 1774, the well-known Astronomisches Jahrbuch, 51 yearly volumes of which he compiled and issued, he became director of the Berlin Observatory in 1786, from which he retired in 1825. There he published the Uranographia in 1801, a celestial atlas that aimed both at scientific accuracy in showing the positions of stars and other astronomical objects, as well as the artistic interpretation of the stellar constellation figures.

The Uranographia marks the climax of an epoch of artistic representation of the constellations. Atlases showed fewer and fewer elaborate figures until they were no longer printed on such tables. Bode published another small star atlas, intended for astronomical amateurs, he is credited with the discovery of Bode's Galaxy. Comet Bode is named after him. Asteroid 998 Bodea, discovered on 6 August 1923 by Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg, was christened in his honour, the letter'a' added to its name to fulfil the convention that asteroids were given feminine names, his name became attached to the'law' discovered by Johann Daniel Titius in 1766. Bode first makes mention of it in the Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels in a footnote, although it is officially called the Titius–Bode law, it is commonly just called Bode's law; this law attempts to explain the distances of the planets from the Sun in a formula although it breaks down for the planet Neptune, discovered in Berlin. It was the discovery of Uranus at a position predicted by the law which aroused great interest in it.

There was a gap between Mars and Jupiter, Bode urged a search for a planet in this region which culminated in a group formed for this purpose, the so-called "Celestial Police". However before the group initiated a search, they were trumped by the discovery of the asteroid Ceres by Giuseppe Piazzi from Palermo in 1801, at Bode's predicted position. Latterly, the law fell out of favour when it was realised that Ceres was only one of a small number of asteroids and when Neptune was found not to be in a position required by the law; the discovery of planets around other stars has brought the law back into discussion. Bode himself was directly involved in research leading from the discovery of a planet – that of Uranus in 1781. Although Uranus was the first planet to be discovered by telescope, it is just about visible with the naked eye. Bode consulted older star charts and found numerous examples of the planet's position being given while being mistaken for a star, for example John Flamsteed, Astronomer Royal in Britain, had listed it in his catalogue of 1690 as a star with the name 34 Tauri.

These earlier sightings allowed an exact calculation of the orbit of the new planet. Bode was responsible for giving the new planet its name; the discoverer William Herschel proposed to name it after George III, not accepted so in other countries. Bode opted for Uranus, with the apparent logic that just as Saturn was the father of Jupiter, the new planet should be named after the father of Saturn. There were further alternatives proposed, but Bode's suggestion became the most used – however it had to wait until 1850 before gaining official acceptance in Britain when the Nautical Almanac Office switched from using the name Georgium Sidus to Uranus. In 1789, Bode's Royal Academy colleague Martin Klaproth was inspired by Bode's name for the planet to name his newly discovered element "uranium". From 1787 to 1825 Bode was director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. In 1794, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In April 1789 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

Bode died in Berlin on 23 November 1826, aged 79. 1768 Anleitung zur Kentniss des Gestirnten Himmels 1774-1957 Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch für 1776–1959 1776 Sammlung astronomischer Tafeln 1776 Erläuterung der Sternkunde, an introductory book on the constellations and their tales, reprinted more than ten times 1782 Vorstellung der Gestirne... des Flamsteadschen Himmelsatlas Verzeichniss 1801 Uranographia sive Astrorum Descriptio Allgemeine Beschreibung und Nachweisung der Gestirne His works were effective in diffusing throughout Germany a taste for astronomy. Schwemin, Friedhelm. Der Berliner Astr

Code of Criminal Procedure (India)

The Code of Criminal Procedure called Criminal Procedure Code is the main legislation on procedure for administration of substantive criminal law in India. It was enacted in 1973 and came into force on 1 April 1974, it provides the machinery for the investigation of crime, apprehension of suspected criminals, collection of evidence, determination of guilt or innocence of the accused person and the determination of punishment of the guilty. It deals with public nuisance, prevention of offences and maintenance of wife and parents. At present, the act contains 2 schedules and 56 forms; the sections are divided into 37 chapters. In medieval India, subsequent to the law set by the Muslims, the Mohammedan Criminal Law came into prevalence; the British rulers passed the Regulating Act of 1773 under which a Supreme Court was established in Calcutta and on at Madras and in Bombay. The Supreme Court was to apply British procedural law while deciding the cases of the Crown's subjects. After the Rebellion of 1857, the crown took over the administration in India.

The Criminal Procedure Code, 1861 was passed by the British parliament. The crpc was created first time in 1882 and amended in 1898 According to 41st law commisssion report in 1973. Cognizable offences are those offences for which a police officer may arrest without a court-mandated warrant in accordance with the first schedule of the code. For non-cognizable cases the police officer may arrest only after being duly authorized by a warrant. Non-cognizable offences are relatively less serious offences than cognizable ones. Cognizable offences reported under section 154 Cr. P. C while non-cognizable offences reported under section 155 Cr. P. C. For non-cognizable offences the Magistrate empowered to take cognizance under section 190 Cr. P. C. Under section 156 Cr. P. C the Magistrate is competent to direct the police to register the case, investigate the same and submit the challan/report for cancellation. Ingredients of Section 154It is an information, given to police officer. Information must relate to a cognizable offence.

It is an information of offence first in point of time. The investigation starts after recording the FIR; the information may be given in writing. A copy of the FIR shall be given to the informant free of cost immediately. Under Section 204 of the code, a Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence is to issue summons for the attendance of the accused if the case is a summons case. If the case appears to be a warrant case, he may issue summons, as he sees fit. Section 2 of the Code defines summons-case as, a case relating to an offence, not being a warrant-case. Section 2 of the Code defines warrant-case as, a case relating to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years; the Criminal Procedure Code is applicable in the whole of India. The Parliament's power to legislate in respect of Jammu & Kashmir was curtailed by Article 370 of the Constitution of India, but now the Parliament has revoked Article 370 from Kashmir. Thus CrPC is applicable to whole India Provided that the provisions of this Code, other than those relating to Chapters VIII, X and XI thereof, shall not apply- to the State of Nagaland, to the tribal areas, However the concerned State Government may, by notification apply any or all of these provisions in these areas.

Moreover, the Supreme Court of India has ruled that in these areas, the authorities are to be governed by the substance of these rules Supreme Court of India High Courts District and Session Judge and Additional District Judges Judicial Magistrates Executive Magistrates Police Public prosecutors Defence Counsels Correctional services personnel The Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate may pass any sentence authorised by law except a sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years. The Courts of Judicial Magistrate of First Class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or of fine not exceeding ten thousand rupees, or of both; the Courts of Judicial Magistrate of Second Class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or of fine not exceeding five thousand rupees, or of both. The Court of a Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall have the powers of the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate and the court of a Metropolitan Magistrate, shall have the powers of the Courts of Judicial Magistrate of First Class There is no definition of the term "bail" under the code though the terms "bailable" and "non-bailable" have been defined.

It has however been defined by the Black's Law Lexicon as security for the appearance of the accused person on giving which he is released pending trial or investigationThe First Schedule to the Code, classifies the offences defined in the Indian Penal Code. Besides specifying whether an offence is Bailable or Non-Bailable it specifies if it is Cognizable or Non-Cognizable, which Court has the jurisdiction to try the said offence, the minimum and maximum amount of punishment that can or shall be awarded for the said offence; the Supreme Court of India can and has from time to time made certain bailable offences, non-bailable or vice-a-versa by special directions, to curb increasing menace of certain crimes in the society. The State Government has the power to make certain offences bailable or non-bailable in their respective States. Section 260 Clause 2 of the Code lists certain offences which may be summarily tried by any Chief Judicial Magistrate, any Metropolit

Vargas Fernandes

Eduardo Moreira Fernandes, better known as Vargas Fernandes is a Capeverdean footballer who played as a midfielder. His first club was Sporting Clube da Praia in his native place, he would lead to win the 1998 regionals. In 2000, he played in Portugal, the first for the next five seasons, his first club there was Gil Vicente in the Portuguese SuperLiga, he played as a midfielder there with different clubs, in the 2004-05 season, he played with FC Alverca, in the lower Liga de Honra. With the club, Vargas Fernandes reached in the second tier Segunda Liga, but released him due to financial problems, he was one of the first Capeverdeans to play with a Finnish club up north in Tampere and played with Tampereen Peli-Pojat-70, in the Second Division, he scored two goals, a season he spend the next four seasons in Portugal, after his return, he played in Moreirense, Portimonense and Olvieirense, of the goals he scored, he only scored a goal with Portimonense, each in the Segunda Liga. In 2009, he became the first Capeverdean to play with an Azeri club, Standard Sumgayit, early in the season, Valdas Ivanauskas was coach.

After the end of the season, the club was eleventh and was relegated into the national Second Division, he scored not a single goal there. Vargas returned to his home country to play with Sporting Clube da Praia in 2010 for the next five seasons, he would become one of the oldest players in the club that played. During that time, his achievement was the 2012 national championships, the club's ninth and recent title, his next two successes were regional titles won in 2013 and 2014. Statistics accurate as of match played 9 September 2007 Vargas Fernandes at WorldFootball.net

Hindmarsh Island

Hindmarsh Island is a sacred inland river island located in the lower Murray River near the town of Goolwa, South Australia. The island is a tourist destination, which has increased in popularity since the opening of the Hindmarsh Island bridge in 2001. Hindmarsh Island is 100.1 kilometres south east of the Adelaide city centre, around a 1-hour and 30 minute drive. Prior to European colonisation, the island was occupied by Aboriginal tribes of the Ngarrindjeri people. 1830: The first European to set foot on Hindmarsh Island was Captain Charles Sturt. Sturt used the Island from there he sighted the Murray Mouth. 1831: Captain Collet Barker surveyed the Murray Mouth but was killed by Indigenous Australians after swimming across the mouth. 1837: The island was named by Captain John William Dundas Blenkinsop after South Australia's first Governor, Sir John Hindmarsh. 1849: Dr. John Rankine was granted an occupational licence to become the island's first grazier, his nephew James Rankine was an longtime settler.

1853: Charles Price purchased section 20 on the island. 1856: A flour mill was constructed. 1857: A signal mast was erected at Barker Knoll to convey safe passage condition messages to vessels wishing to pass through the mouth. 1858: A public ferry began operations between Goolwa and the island. In the same year the first inter colonial telegraph line passed through the island to link Adelaide with Melbourne. 1861: The cemetery was surveyed. 1880s: Alberto and Selberto Forest were planted. 1868: Hereford cattle and Shropshire sheep arrived in South Australia, when Charles Price introduced them onto the island. 1900: A cheese factory was established by Percy Heggaton. 1914: An experimental barrage was constructed to link Hindmarsh Island with Mundoo Island. 1935: Construction of the permanent barrages took place with the aim of maintaining a consistent water level around the river Port of Goolwa and keeping salt water from the northern shore improving agricultural opportunities. 1965: Mains electricity arrived on the island 1970: Little penguins were present on Hindmarsh Island.

Today, the colony is extinct. 1985: Approximately an area of 1,405 square kilometres including the island was listed as a "wetland of international importance" under the Ramsar convention under the name of Coorong and Lakes Alexandrina and Albert Wetland.2001: Approximately a third of the island, the 10.81 square kilometres Wyndgate property, was added to the Coorong National Park. 2005: Coorong Quays Hindmarsh Island boasts the title of the largest freshwater marina in the Southern Hemisphere. Present: Hindmarsh Island today has fresh water on its northern shore and salt water on the southern shores, the waters being separated by a series of barrages. Length: 319 metres Height: 19 metres Width: 11 metres Clearance Height: 14 metres Building Company: Built Environs Construction Commenced: October 1999 Construction Finished: March 2001 March 4, 2001 saw the official opening of the Hindmarsh Island Bridge linking the island to Goolwa; the bridge became a focus of national controversy when a group of local Indigenous people and some landowners objected to its construction.

It was alleged that the Ngarrindjeri objectors fabricated the cultural significance of the island in order to help fight the development. A Royal Commission decided that the Secret Women's Business was made up. Construction was blocked by the Keating Government but given the go-ahead by the Howard Government in 1996. Five years after the Royal Commission findings, the Ngarrindjeri who had stated the bridge desecrated sites sacred to women were vindicated. Federal Court Judge, Mr Justice John von Doussa, in Chapman v Luminis Pty Ltd found that "the evidence received by the Court on this topic is different to that, before the Royal Commission. Upon the evidence before this Court I am not satisfied that the restricted women's knowledge was fabricated or that it was not part of genuine Aboriginal tradition'. Further, Justice von Doussa found the nine Ngarrindjeri women who testified about their beliefs to be'credible witnesses who genuinely hold the beliefs and recollections expressed by them'. Area: 45.5 square kilometres Coastline: 43.7 kilometres Highest Elevation: 25 metres Salt Lakes Total: 49 Terrain: grassland, wooded forest, salt lakes and mangroves Mundoo Island is a medium-sized island off the east coast of the island.

Mundoo Island is a owned cattle station. The road acts as a barrage to prevent the river water flowing through Murray Mouth into the ocean. Area: 13.4 square kilometres Perimeter: 27.3 kilometres Distance from Hindmarsh Island: 103 metres Rat Island/Grindstone Island is a small private owned island 320 metres off the easternmost point of the island. It covers 13 hectares of land. Area: 12 hectares Perimeter: 1.8 kilometres Distance from Hindmarsh Island: 344 metres Varcoe Island is an small island, with a population of 0. Area: 913 square metres Perimeter: 117 metres Distance from Hindmarsh Island: 380 metres Bird Island/Gull Island is small-sized island which has a population of 0, it is 100 metres off the southernmost point of the island. Area: 46 hectares Perimeter: 2.7 kilometres Distance from Hindmarsh

Christopher Pinchbeck

Christopher Pinchbeck called Catarrón was a London clockmaker and maker of musical automata. He was born in Clerkenwell, but worked in Fleet Street, he is the most famous member of the Pinchbeck family, which took its name from a small village in Lincolnshire. In the 18th century Pinchbeck invented his eponymous alloy, a cheap substitute for gold, he made an exquisite musical clock, worth about £500, for Louis XIV, a fine organ for the Great Mogul, valued at £300. His eldest son named Christopher became King's Clockmaker by appointment to George III: among his timepieces is an important astronomical clock made for the King, now in Buckingham Palace. A number of clocks and watches made by both Christopher Pinchbecks still exist. Nowadays the term'Pinchbeck Watch' may mean a watch made by Christopher senior or junior, a watch made by another maker and housed in a Pinchbeck case, or a watch made by Harold Pinchbeck, the 21st-century family watchmaking business in England, he died in 1732, at the age of 62.

The term "pinchbeck" has entered the English language to signify the alloy Pinchbeck created. Because the alloy could be used to replace gold, the word is used to signify something less than genuine.

1813 United States House of Representatives elections in New Jersey

New Jersey kept its delegation at six seats but changed from electing its Representatives on a statewide general ticket to using three plural districts of two seats each. These districts were used only for the 1812 election, the state returned to using a single at-large district in 1814; this was only the second time. There was a statewide at-large election held in November 1812, invalidated: In October 1812, when the Federalists captured the State Legislature, both parties had nominated their tickets for Presidential Electors and Congress; that election was scheduled for November 1812. However, … the Federalist, now controlling the legislature, changed the method of selecting Presidential Electors, from popular vote, to a choice by the Legislature and as a result the election for Presidential Electors was invalidated. In addition to changing the method of choosing Presidential electors, the Federalist decided to alter the election of congressmen from state wide At-Large to Districts; the scheduled November elections were postponed and three separate Districts were created, each electing two Congressmen.

This election was held January 12th and 13th 1813. Some towns, either because word of the these changes did not reach them in time, or most in defiance, went ahead and held elections; the Republican ticket received all of the votes cast, with the Federalist getting only a single votes in two towns, which suggests they were protesting the changes made by the Legislature. These returns were never reported in the newspapers. United States House of Representatives elections, 1812 and 1813 List of United States Representatives from New Jersey