SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Johann Strauss I

Johann Strauss I was an Austrian Romantic composer. He was famous for his waltzes, he popularized them alongside Joseph Lanner, thereby setting the foundations for his sons to carry on his musical dynasty, he is best known for his composition of the Radetzky March. Strauss was born in Leopoldstadt. Strauss's parents, Franz Borgias Strauss and Barbara Dollmann, were innkeepers, he was born a Roman Catholic. His mother died of'creeping fever' when he was seven and five years his father drowned as a result of suicide, in the Danube river. Strauss' guardian, the tailor Anton Müller, placed him as an apprentice to the bookbinder, Johann Lichtscheidl. Contrary to a story told by his son Johann II, Strauss completed his bookbinder appreciation in 1822, he studied music with Johann Polischansky during his apprenticeship and managed to secure a place in a local orchestra, headed by Michael Pamer. Strauss left the orchestra to join a popular string quartet known as the Lanner Quartet, formed by his would-be rivals Joseph Lanner and the Drahanek brothers and Johann.

This string quartet playing Viennese Waltzes and rustic German dances expanded into a small string orchestra in 1824. Strauss became deputy conductor of the orchestra to assist Lanner in commissions after it became so popular during the Fasching of 1824 and Strauss was soon placed in command of a second smaller orchestra, formed as a result of the success of the parent orchestra. In 1825, he decided to form his own band and began to write music for it to play after he realized that he could possibly emulate the success of Lanner in addition to putting an end to his financial struggles. By so doing, he would have made Lanner a serious rival although the rivalry did not entail hostile consequences as the musical competition was productive for the development of the waltz as well as other dance music in Vienna, he soon well loved dance composers in Vienna. During the carnival of 1826, Strauss inaugurated his long line of triumphs by introducing his band to the public of Vienna at the Schwan in the suburb of Roßau where his Täuberln-Walzer at once established his reputation.

He toured with his band to Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The conducting reins and management of this Strauss Orchestra would be passed on to the hands of his sons until its disbandment by Eduard Strauss in 1901. On a trip to France in 1837 he heard the quadrille and began to compose them himself, becoming responsible for introducing that dance to Austria in the 1840 Fasching, where it became popular, it was this trip which has proved Strauss' popularity with audiences from different social backgrounds and this paved the way to forming an ambitious plan to perform his music in England for the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838. Strauss adapted various popular melodies of his day into his works so as to ensure a wider audience, as evidenced in the incorporation of the Oberon overture into his early waltz, "Wiener Carneval", Op. 3, the French national anthem "La Marseillaise" into his "Paris-Walzer", Op. 101. Strauss married Maria Anna Streim in 1825 in the Roman Catholic Lichtental Parish Church in Vienna.

The marriage was unhappy due to his prolonged absences caused by frequent tours abroad which led to a gradual alienation. They had seven children. Strauss Sr. had two daughters, born in 1829, Therese, born in 1831. His third son, born in 1834, lived only ten months; the family home was called'Hirschenhaus' but was better known in Vienna as the'Goldener Hirsch'. Strauss was a strict disciplinarian and demanded that none of his sons pursue careers in music, despite their display of musical talent. Johann Junior was to study banking his brother Josef Strauss was destined for a military career, whereas the youngest Eduard Strauss was expected to join the Austrian consulate. By 1834 Strauss had taken Emilie Trampusch, with whom he had eight children; when her husband acknowledged his paternity of a daughter born to Emilie in 1844, Maria Anna sued for divorce. With the ending of the marriage Anna Strauss determined to further Johann Strauss II's musical career, allowing him to develop his skills as a composer.

Despite family problems, Strauss senior continued to tour and was always prepared to write novelty pieces for numerous charitable organizations. His waltzes were developed from a rustic peasant dance into one which posterity would recognize as the Viennese Waltz, they were written in three-quarter time with a short introduction. While he did not possess a musical talent as rich as his eldest son's, nor a business mind as astute, he was among the handful of early waltz composers along with Joseph Lanner to write pieces with individual titles — with the view to boost sales of their sheet music — which enabled music enthusiasts to recognize those pieces. In fact, duri

Varsha (2005 film)

Varsha is a 2005 Kannada-language Indian feature film directed by S. Narayan and produced by Rockline Productions, starring Vishnuvardhan in the lead role supported by Ramesh Aravind and Manya; the film is the remake of the 1996 Malayalam-language film Hitler starring Mammootty directed by Siddique. Sathya has come up in life the hard way as he lost his mother when he was a small boy and his father was framed and arrested on criminal charges. Sathya, unaware of his father's innocence, takes custody of his five young sisters. Sathya's father Bhadra was cheated by his brother-in-law who poisons his sister's mind to leave her husband, but she commits suicide and her son Sathya is left with his five sisters. Sathya take care of his sisters well and educates them, but they are under his strict control and any person who plays foul with them faces his wrath, but he finds himself in trouble because of this tough character. Meanwhile, Sathya's father is released from prison and now wants to take revenge on his brother-in-law but the latter joins hands with some villains who want to settle scores with Bhadra and his son.

They hatch. Will Sathya reunite his family again, prove his father's innocence form the climax. Vishnuvardhan Ramesh Aravind Anu Prabhakar Manya Komal Doddanna Srinivasa Murthy Shobaraj Pramila Joshai Asharani Padmini Prakash Shwetha Chengappa Tennis Krishna M. N. Lakshmidevi Hemashree S. A. Rajkumar composed the film's background score and music for its soundtrack, with the lyrics written by S. Narayan; the soundtrack album consists of six tracks

La Prensa (Managua)

La Prensa is a Nicaraguan newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua. Its current daily circulation is placed at 42,000. La Prensa was founded by Pedro Belli, Gavry Rivas and Enrique Belli on March 2, 1926. In 1930, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Zelaya became editor-in-chief, in 1932 he bought the paper with the intention of promoting the principles of the Conservative Party of Nicaragua, as well as publicising historical studies of Nicaragua. In 1931 the office building that housed La Prensa was destroyed, for the first time out of many, in an earthquake that hit Managua. La Prensa suffered its first censorship in 1934 under the orders of Juan Bautista Sacasa, for being overly critical of the government; this began a long history of censorship under many different governments. 1936 began another series of censorship by Anastasio Somoza Garcia, who came into power through a coup d'état. Threats against La Prensa for their anti-Somocista stance became customary. However, it was not until 1945, under the guise of national security, that La Prensa was ordered to shut down for an indefinite amount of time.

In 1952, after the death of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, his eldest son, became the new editor of La Prensa, is credited with the improvement of La Prensa's fortunes. Chamorro Cardenal increased the anti-Somoza rhetoric of his editorials, placing La Prensa under graver threat by the Somoza Regime. Somoza subsequently increased his pressure on the editors of La Prensa. On May 22, 1953, one of Somoza's cronies, General Andrès Murillo, sent Somocista mobs to assault La Prensa's new building in Managua. Pedro was arrested, sent to military court and tortured for several months before his release. In 1956, Luis Somoza Debayle succeeded his father, Anastasio Somoza Garcia after his assassination, ascended to power in Nicaragua. Like his father, Debayle had little tolerance for the heavy criticism against his regime deriving from La Prensa, which claimed to have argued for responsible government, participatory democracy, neoliberal economic policies; that year, La Prensa was once again occupied by Somoza's forces, Pedro was charged with aiding the conspirators who killed Debayle's father.

He was subsequently forced to publish condolences to the former Somoza. La Prensa was henceforth subjected to prolonged censorship by the regime. In 1959, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal went to Havana, Cuba, to meet with the new revolutionary leader, Fidel Castro, in order to bargain a deal for arms and munitions. After prolonged negotiations, disagreements between the two figures assured that no deal was created. However, by May of that year, Pedro had gathered enough capital and weapons to land 120 men, including himself, in the provinces of Boaco and Chontales, in an attempt to overthrow Luis Somoza Debayle; the invasion, the so-called Guerrilla de Olama y Mollejones and Pedro was captured and sentenced to several years in prison. In 1963, La Prensa was praised for launching a literacy campaign, a concept, adopted by the Marxist–Leninist FSLN. With modest tools La Prensa caused a nationwide sensation by publishing over 100,000 primers that were the backbone of the National Literacy Campaign.

They circulated maps of Nicaragua to millions who had never had the opportunity the study one in school. The program was distributed by UNESCO to local "teachers". Notably, future Sandinistas such as Ernesto Cardenal, Sergio Ramirez, Gioconda Belli Murillo, Carlos Mejía Godoy all contributed to the campaign. However, that year Somoza ordered the dissolution of the Patriotic Literacy Campaign's National Committee. December 23, 1972 saw the destruction of La Prensa due to a massive earthquake that leveled most of Managua. La Prensa was rebuilt on the "North Highway" and reopened in March 1973; the next years saw an increase of pressure by the people of Nicaragua against Somoza. La Prensa continued to be a voice of opposition as several radio talk shows and media outlets were being shut down by the government. In August 1978, La Prensa loaned 50,000 Cordobas to a Sandinista operation, never repaid. On January 10, 1978, Pedro was blocked by a green Toyota on his way to work in the morning, he was shot by several rounds from a shotgun and died in an ambulance on the way to a nearby hospital.

It is believed in Nicaragua that Somoza's son, "El Chigüin", was behind the murder. Chamorro became a martyr, his death helped ignite widespread opposition to the Somoza government. Many of the middle and upper classes supported the Sandinista insurgency after his murder, his assassination sparked off the beginning of the final mass insurrection against Somoza. As Somoza made his exit from Nicaragua, he ordered a final destruction of La Prensa by his Guardsmen, who used kerosene to light La Prensa ablaze. La Prensa was rebuilt within months. After the fall of the government, Chamorro's widow, served on the five-member Junta of National Reconstruction; however and the middle-class supporters of the revolution had a different vision for the country than the Sandinistas. When it became apparent that these differences could not be resolved, Violeta Chamorro resigned from the junta in 1980 and began to oppose the Sandinistas. At this point there was a split in La Prensa; the editor Xavier Chamorro Cardenal, together with 80% of the staff, left the paper to form El Nuevo Diario.

This was a more pro-Sandinista paper. Soon after the passing of new laws, freedom of the press once again became answerable to many political criteria. On July 22, 1979 the Law of National Emergency would allow all media in Nicaragua to be placed under government control. On September 10, 1980, decrees 511 and 512 established prior censorship for matters of national security. In this period the US