Johannesburg CBD

The Central Business District called Johannesburg CBD, is one of the main business centres of Johannesburg, South Africa. It is the most dense collection of skyscrapers in Africa, however due to white flight and urban blight, many of the buildings are unoccupied as tenants have left for more secure locations in the Northern Suburbs, in particular Sandton and Rosebank. There are significant movements to revive the area; the area, the Central Business District has been the central area of Johannesburg nearly since its inception. Its central location in the city as well as careful planning led to it to be chosen as the best location for residential and commercial development during the economically prosperous 1960s and 1970s. Many large commercial products were completed in this period, such as the Carlton Centre, still the tallest building in Africa. Under apartheid, the Central Business District was classified as a whites-only area, meaning that black people were allowed to work and shop there but could not live there.

Application of the Group Areas Act became lax in the 1980s, among other things because courts were not able to handle all the cases, when the Act was abolished more disadvantaged black people moved into the City Centre taking over whole buildings by overfilling them with people that the previous middle class white tenants found unacceptable neighbours. This is not only true of established residential areas such as Hillbrow on the periphery of the CBD but of former office blocks in the heart of the CBD, that were converted to residential accommodation as businesses fled the centre in the late-1980s and 1990s. A crime wave swept through the city as businesses left the CBD, which made walking around the area dangerous. Many businesses and people fled the Central Business District and surrounding areas such as Braamfontein and Yeoville for more secured houses or offices in the Northern Suburbs. By the late 1990s, the Central Business District was a virtual ghost town. All its former glory was lost, the city was shattered by the loss of the Carlton Hotel.

The situation has improved since. The provincial government of Gauteng is based in the CBD. There have been significant movements to redevelop the city centre; the Johannesburg city government installed CCTV cameras all over the Central Business District, which decreased crime dramatically. Several historical buildings have been developed and turned into condominiums, which developers hope will draw new residents to the area; the process of gentrification and redevelopment is ongoing as of 2016. Johannesburg Central Business District Redevelopment Plan


Goyocephale is an extinct genus of pachycephalosaurian ornithischian that lived in Mongolia during the Late Cretaceous about 76 million years ago. It was first described in 1982 by Perle, Teresa Maryańska and Osmólska for a disarticulated skeleton with most of a skull, part of the forelimb and hindlimb, some of the pelvic girdle, some vertebrae. Perle et al. named the remains Goyocephale lattimorei, from the Mongolian goyo, meaning "decorated", the Ancient Greek kephale, for head. The species name honours Owen Lattimore. Goyocephale is known from a partial skull, including both mandibles, the skull roof, part of the occiput, part of the braincase region, the posterior skull, the premaxilla, the maxilla; the posterior edge of the skull roof, at the edge of the squamosal bones, has many small bony bumps, which would have been the base of small horns in life. A feature shared with pachycephalosaurids, Goyocephale had a heterodont dentition, with large caniniform premaxilla teeth, followed by a diastema between the premaxilla and the maxilla, the regular sub-triangular teeth in the maxilla.

Teeth in the premaxilla become larger farther posterior, with the last being the largest. The mandible teeth are similar, with the first tooth being caniniform, the remainder low and sub-triangular. Of the vertebrae, only the atlas bone and the sacrum and tail vertebrae are preserved; the sacrum includes four vertebrae, which are not fused and incomplete. On the ventral surface of the second sacral centrum is a length-wise ridge, with a groove along its midline; the first and second tail vertebrae were found articulated with the sacrum, although they are much weakly fused than the sacral vertebrae. In addition, they can be distinguished from the sacrum because they possess zygapophyses that are not fused together, although they preserve a ventral groove; the limb and girdle bones are well-preserved, show many features. The humerus is bowed, with a nearly equal expansion on the distal and proximal ends, it shows a thick but weak deltopectoral crest, weakly separated condyles on the distal end. The ilium bone shows a morphology typical for pachycephalosaurs, with a thin and horizontally elongate preacetabular process, a wide ridge extending outwards from the top edge of the postacetabular process.

The two preacetabular processes are diverged in dorsal view, in lateral view the ilium is straight and the postacetabular process is sub-rectangular. The tibia shows a pachycephalosaur design, no tarsal bones appear to be articulated; the foot of Goyocephale is preserved, at least three digits were present. On each toe, the unguals are triangular but not recurved, with the ungulate of the third toe being the largest. Goyocephale is a primitive pachycephalosaurian, was included in the family Homalocephalidae, which united the genus with Homalocephale, which has a flat skull roof. Goyocephale is distinguished from Homalocephale by its overall proportions, the shape of its supratemporal fenestra, heterodont dentition, although the two share multiple features. However, many more recent phylogenetic analyses tend to find Homalocephalidae to be a paraphyletic family, with the genera included being consecutive branches sister to Pachycephalosauridae, or as consecutive branches primitive to Prenocephale but within Pachycephalosauridae.

A cladogram illustrating the latter hypothesis is shown below. However, one phylogenetic analysis did support a monophyletic Homalocephalidae, with Goyocephale and Wannanosaurus being the most derived pachycephalosaurians, their sister taxa being Prenocephale and Tylocephale; this positioning of all the taxa from Asia as most derived would support that pachycephalosaurians evolved in North America, where they retained their greatest diversity, before migrating to Asia. In addition, the oldest genera that belong in the group are North American, which provides further support for this position. Timeline of pachycephalosaur research

Neil Rautenbach

Neil Rautenbach is a South African-born rugby union player for the Boland Cavaliers in the Currie Cup and the Rugby Challenge. His regular position is hooker, he represented Western Province at high school level, playing for their Under-16 side at the Grant Khomo Week in 2007 and for their Under-18 Craven Week side in 2009. He joined their academy and played for the Western Province U19 side in the 2010 Under-19 Provincial Championship and for the Western Province U21 side in the 2011 and 2012 Under-21 Provincial Championships, he played Varsity Cup rugby for the UCT Ikey Tigers since 2011, winning the competition with them twice in 2011 and 2014, when he made nine appearances and played the first 72 of the final as they secured a dramatic 39–33 comeback victory. He made his first class debut in the 2014 Vodacom Cup competition, starting their Quarter Final match against the Pumas in Nelspruit; that turned out to be his only appearance in the competition, as Western Province lost 13–8. He was included in their squad for the 2014 Currie Cup Premier Division and named on the bench for their Round Two clash against the Blue Bulls.

Rautenbach signed a contract to join the Free State Cheetahs from 1 July 2015. In October 2014, Rautenbach was called up to the Namibian national team for the first time prior to their end-of-year tour to Europe