Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada
The Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada was the lower house of the legislature for the Province of Canada, which consisted of the former provinces of Lower Canada known as Canada East and the province of Quebec, Upper Canada known as Canada West and the province of Ontario. It was created by The Union Act of 1840. Canada East and Canada West each elected 42 members to the assembly; the upper house of the legislature was called the Legislative Council. The first session of parliament began in Kingston in Canada West in 1841; the second parliament and the first sessions of the third parliament were held in Montreal. On April 25, 1849, rioters protesting the Rebellion Losses Bill burned the parliament buildings; the remaining sessions of the third parliament were held in Toronto. Subsequent parliaments were held in Quebec City and Toronto, except for the last session in 1866 of the eight and final parliament, held in Ottawa, the capital chosen for the Dominion of Canada; the British North America Act of 1867 divided the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, each province having its own Legislative Assembly, as well as representation in the Parliament of Canada.
Parliament for the United Provinces of Canada drifted around the cities of Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City and Ottawa: 1841–1843 three sessions were held at the 3 storey Kingston General Hospital 1843 Parliament moves to Montreal and sites at renovated St. Anne's Market. 1849 temporary sites for Parliament at Bonsecours Market and the Freemason's Hall, Montreal for single session. 1849–1850 Parliament returns to Toronto to the site of the Third Parliament Buildings at Front and Simcoe Streets. 1851 Parliament relocates to Quebec City in 1851 to the Quebec Parliament Building until fire destroys the building in 1854. 1854–1859 Parliament remains in Quebec City and relocates to Quebec Music Hall and Quebec City Courthouse. 1859 Parliament returns to Toronto to the site of the last parliament held there in 1849-1851 sessions. 1860–1865 Parliament returns to Quebec to the newly re-built Parliament Buildings, Quebec at Parc Montmorency. This tradition carried onto the role of the Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada.
Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada – Legislature replaced by the Legislature of the Province of Canada Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada – Legislature replaced by the Legislature of the Province of Canada Legislative Assembly of Ontario – succeeding legislature for Canada West Legislative Assembly of Quebec – succeeding legislature for Canada East House of Commons of Canada – succeeding parliament replacing the Legislature of the Province of Canada List of by-elections in the Province of Canada Upper Canadian politics in the 1850s, University of Toronto Press Ontario's parliament buildings.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
Fathers of Confederation
The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage. Queen Victoria has been called the "Mother of Confederation", her role in Confederation is recognized by the celebration of Victoria Day in Canada. Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation; the leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are referred to as Fathers of Confederation. The provisional government established by Louis Riel negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870; the leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871.
The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation". Of the 36 Fathers, 11 were Freemasons, notably Macdonald, but including Bernard, Carter, Galt, Haviland, Henry and Tilley. List of Prime Ministers of Canada List of national founders Persons of National Historic Significance Anti-Confederation Party Careless, J. M. C. "George Brown and Confederation," Manitoba Historical Society Transactions, Series 3, Number 26, 1969-70 online Coucill, Irma. Canada's Governors General and Fathers of Confederation. Pembroke Publishers. ISBN 1-55138-185-0. Fathers of Confederation - Library and Archives Canada
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Mount Royal Cemetery
Opened in 1852, Mount Royal Cemetery is a 165-acre terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont, Quebec, Canada. Temple Emanu-El Cemetery, a Reform Judaism burial ground is within the Mount Royal grounds; the burial ground shares the mountain with the much larger adjacent Roman Catholic cemetery, Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery, the Shaar Hashomayim Cemetery, a Ashkenazi Jewish cemetery. Mount Royal Cemetery is bordered on the southeast by Mount Royal Park, on the west by Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery and on the north by Shaar Hashomayim Cemetery. Although the cemetery is non-denominational today, it continues to be governed by its original charter with a board of trustees representing the founding Protestant denominations; the cemetery is a private non-profit organization. Burial rights have always been offered in perpetuity, with the commitment that no graves would be reused or abandoned; the founding charter stipulates that all profits should be devoted to the embellishment and improvement of the property.
Mount Royal Cemetery is in operation and the old portion of the cemetery still has some burial sites available. The first crematory in Canada was built by Sir Andrew Taylor in 1901 on the eastern side of the Mount Royal Cemetery property with funds donated by Sir William Christopher Macdonald, a well-known tobacco tycoon and great philanthropist; this building is the oldest of its kind in the country and it remained the only crematorium in Quebec until 1975. The first cremation took place on April 18, 1902. Built with Montreal limestone, the original building had a chapel, a room for the cremation chambers, a large winter storage vault and a conservatory filled with exotic plants. In the 1950s, for maintenance reasons, the conservatory was demolished but the original chapel, on the left of the building, is still intact with a beautiful hand made mosaic floor; the cemetery contains 459 war graves of Commonwealth service personnel, 276 from World War I and 183 from World War II, most of which form two War Plots in Section G.
A Cross of Sacrifice stands on the boundary with Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery. Military graves at Mount Royal did not take significance until World War I, when Canada lost over 60 000 soldiers. After this event, the population of the city started looking toward public memory more and gave an entire section to war veterans and fallen soldiers. A few of the prominent people interred in the cemetery are: Sir John Abbott, prime minister of Canada Sir Hugh Allan and shipping magnate Sir Montagu Allan, Hockey Hall of Fame member Richard Bladworth Angus, banker William Thomas Benson, politician Frank Calder, National Hockey League executive William Cecil Christmas, Canada's Sports Hall of Fame William Clark-Kennedy, Scots-born Victoria Cross recipient Sir Arthur Currie, First World War military commander, educator Sir Mortimer Barnett Davis and philanthropist J. William Dawson, educator George Mercer Dawson, scientist William Dow and businessman Sir George Alexander Drummond, entrepreneur William Henry Drummond, Irish-Canadian poet, doctor Edith Maude Eaton, author, a.k.a.
"Sui Sin Far" Charles Edward Frosst, pharmaceuticals manufacturer Henry Fry, ship-broker, ship owner and commission merchant based in Quebec City. Sir Alexander Galt, statesman, Father Of Confederation Horatio Gates, statesman Samuel Gerrard, businessman Hugh Graham, 1st Baron Atholstan, newspaper publisher Joseph Guibord, temporarily interred here six years pending litigation about his disputed burial in Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery in 1875 Charles Melville Hays, Grand Trunk Railway executive and Titanic victim Charles Heavysege, poet Sir Herbert Holt, financier C. D. Howe, American-born politician and engineer Anna Leonowens, founder of Nova Scotia College of Art and Design Robert Mackay, statesman Sir William C. Macdonald, tobacco manufacturer, philanthropist John Wilson McConnell, philanthropist David Ross McCord, philanthropic founder of the McCord Museum of Canadian History Air Vice Marshall F. S. McGill, professional athlete, businessman, RCAF officer John Jones McGill, philanthropist Peter McGill, municipal politician Duncan McIntyre, businessman Charles Meredith, president of the Montreal Stock Exchange Frederick Edmund Meredith, chancellor of Bishop's University Sir Vincent Meredith, 1st Baronet of Montreal, president of the Bank of Montreal William Campbell James Meredith, Dean of Law, McGill University Shadrach Minkins, American-born fugitive slave rescued from federal custody in Boston in 1851.
Hartland Molson, brewing magnate, World War II fighter pilot, statesman John Molson, brewing tycoon Howie Morenz, Hall of Fame ice hockey player Henry Morgan, opened first department store in Canada Arthur Deane Nesbitt, decorated soldier of World War II, stockbroker Arthur J. Nesbitt, cofounder of Nesbitt Thomson & Co. and Power Corporation of Canada J. Aird Nesbitt, owner/operator of Ogilvy's department store in Montreal William Notman and businessman Alexander Walker Ogilvie (1829–1
Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby
Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, known as Frederick Stanley until 1886 and as Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886 and 1893, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and the sixth Governor General of Canada, from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England, is famous in North America for presenting Canada with the Stanley Cup. Stanley was one of the original inductees of the Hockey Hall of Fame. Derby was the second son of Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, the Hon. Emma Caroline, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale, he was educated at Eton and Sandhurst. He received a commission in the Grenadier Guards. Derby left the army for politics. In government, he served as a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, Financial Secretary to the War Office, Secretary to the Treasury, War Secretary and Colonial Secretary. In 1886, he was created Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster.
He served as President of the Board of Trade, remaining in that office until he was appointed Governor General of Canada. Derby was a Freemason. Stanley was appointed the Governor General of Canada and Commander in Chief of Prince Edward Island on 1 May 1888. During his term as Governor General, he travelled and throughout the country, his visit to western Canada in 1889 gave him a lasting appreciation of the region's great natural beauty as well as permitting him to meet the people of Canada's First Nations and many western ranchers and farmers. During his visit he dedicated Stanley Park, named after him, he experienced the joys of fishing and avidly pursued the sport whenever his busy schedule allowed. As governor general, Stanley was the third holder of that office to whom Queen Victoria granted the power of granting pardons to offenders or remitting sentences and fines and the power of mitigating capital or any other sentence; when Sir John A. Macdonald died in office of heart failure on 6 June 1891, Stanley lost the close friendship he had enjoyed with the Prime Minister.
He asked Sir John Abbott to take over as prime minister. Once the government was in place, Abbott resigned for health reasons and turned the government over to Sir John Thompson. Stanley helped cement the non-political role of the governor general when, in 1891, he refused to agree to a controversial motion in the House of Commons; the motion called on him as governor general to disallow the government of Quebec's Jesuit Estates Act, which authorized paying $400,000 as compensation for land granted to the Jesuits by the King of France. The opposition to the bill was introduced by the other provinces who were motivated by mistrust of the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Stanley declined citing the proposed disallowal as unconstitutional. In holding to this decision, he gained popularity by refusing to compromise the viceregal position of political neutrality. Stanley's wife, whom Sir Wilfrid Laurier described as "an able and witty woman", made a lasting contribution during her husband's term of office.
In 1891, she founded the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses on Rideau Street, the first nursing school in Ottawa. She was an enthusiastic fan of hockey games at the Rideau Rink. Stanley's sons became avid ice hockey players in Canada, playing in amateur leagues in Ottawa, Lord and Lady Stanley became staunch hockey fans. In 1892, Stanley gave Canada a treasured national icon, the Stanley Cup, known as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup, he donated the trophy as a challenge cup for Canada's best amateur hockey club, but in 1909, it became contested by professional teams exclusively. Since 1926, only teams of the National Hockey League have competed for the trophy; this now-famous cup bears Stanley's name as tribute to his encouragement and love of outdoor life and sport in Canada. In recognition of this, he was inducted into the Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945 in the "Honoured Builders" category; the original size of the Stanley Cup is now around 36 inches and 35 pounds. Stanley's term as Governor General of Canada was due to end in September 1893.
However, in April of that year, his elder brother, the 15th Earl of Derby, died. Stanley succeeded him as the 16th Earl of Derby; as a result, now known as Lord Derby, left Canada on 15 July 1893 and returned to England. An administrator was appointed to fulfil his duties. In 1893, Toronto's "New Fort York" was renamed The Stanley Barracks in honour of Lord Stanley. Back with his family in England, he soon became the Lord Mayor of Liverpool and the first Chancellor of the University of Liverpool. Stanley Park, Liverpool is named after him. In November 1901 Lord Derby was elected Mayor of Preston for the following year, took part in the 1902 Preston Guild. During the last years of his life, he dedicated himself to philanthropic work, he helped fund the Coronation Park, Ormskirk, in 1905. Derby married Lady Constance Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, on 31 May 1864, she was born in 1840. They had two daughters, her Ladyship remained and several of their children lived in Canada throughout his term as Governor General.
She was responsible for the foundation of the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses in Ottawa, Ontari