John Warner Backus was an American computer scientist. He directed the team that invented and implemented FORTRAN, the first used high-level programming language, was the inventor of the Backus–Naur form, a used notation to define formal language syntax, he did research into the function-level programming paradigm, presenting his findings in his influential 1977 Turing Award lecture "Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?" The IEEE awarded Backus the W. W. McDowell Award in 1967 for the development of FORTRAN, he received the National Medal of Science in 1975 and the 1977 ACM Turing Award "for profound and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, for publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages". He retired in 1991 and died at his home in Ashland, Oregon on March 17, 2007. Backus grew up in nearby Wilmington, Delaware, he studied at The Hill School in Pottstown and was not a diligent student.
After entering the University of Virginia to study chemistry, he quit and was conscripted into the U. S. Army, he began medical training at Haverford College and, during an internship at a hospital, he was diagnosed with a cranial bone tumor, removed. After moving to New York City he trained as a radio technician and became interested in mathematics, he graduated from Columbia University with a bachelor's degree in 1949 and a master's degree in 1950, both in mathematics, joined IBM in 1950. During his first three years, he worked on the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator. In 1953 Backus developed the language Speedcoding, the first high-level language created for an IBM computer, to aid in software development for the IBM 701 computer. Programming was difficult at this time, in 1954 Backus assembled a team to define and develop Fortran for the IBM 704 computer. Fortran was the first high-level programming language. Backus served on the international committees that developed ALGOL 58 and the influential ALGOL 60, which became the de facto worldwide standard for publishing algorithms.
Backus developed the Backus–Naur form, in the UNESCO report on ALGOL 58. It was a formal notation able to describe any context-free programming language, was important in the development of compilers. A few deviations from this approach were tried—notably in Lisp and APL—but by the 1970s, following the development of automated compiler generators such as yacc, Backus–Naur context-free specifications for computer languages had become quite standard; this contribution helped Backus win the Turing Award in 1977. Backus worked on a function-level programming language known as FP, described in his Turing Award lecture "Can Programming be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?". Sometimes viewed as Backus's apology for creating Fortran, this paper did less to garner interest in the FP language than to spark research into functional programming in general; when Backus publicized the function-level style of programming, his message was misunderstood as being the same as traditional functional programming style languages.
FP was inspired by Kenneth E. Iverson's APL using a non-standard character set. An FP interpreter was distributed with the 4.2BSD Unix operating system, but there were few implementations of the language, most of which were used for educational purposes. Backus spent the latter part of his career developing FL, a successor to FP. FL was an internal IBM research project, development of the language stopped when the project was finished. Only a few papers documenting it remain, the source code of the compiler described in them was not made public. FL was at odds with functional programming languages being developed in the 1980s, most of which were based on the lambda calculus and static typing systems instead of, as in APL, the concatenation of primitive operations. Many of the language's ideas have now been implemented in versions of the J programming language, Iverson's successor to APL. Named an IBM Fellow Awarded W. W. McDowell Award Received National Medal of Science Awarded ACM Turing Award Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Doctor honoris causa Université Henri-Poincaré Awarded Draper Prize Awarded Computer History Museum Fellow Award "for his development of FORTRAN, contributions to computer systems theory and software project management."
Asteroid 6830 Johnbackus named in his honor † List of pioneers in computer science Biography at School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland Biography at The History of Computing Project Can Programming Be Liberated From the von Neumann Style? 1977 Turing Award Lecture The FL project "Obituary for John W. Backus". New York Times. March 20, 2007. IBM Archives About BNF Hall of Martin. "Obituary: John Backus:Inventor of science's most widespread programming language, Fortran". Nature. 446: 998. Doi:10.1038/446998a. PMID 17460658. Memorial delivered at the 2007 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
General Henry William Breton was a British Army officer who became General Officer Commanding South-West District. Breton was commissioned as an ensign in the 4th Regiment of Foot in March 1815, he became commanding officer of the 53rd Regiment of Foot in 1848 and a brigade commander in India in April 1850. Promoted to major-general in 1851, he became General Officer Commanding South-West District in February 1855 and commander of the troops in Mauritius in 1857, he served as the twelfth and final colonel of the 56th Regiment of Foot from 1860 to 1881, when the regiment amalgamated with the 44th Foot to form the Essex Regiment. He continued afterwards as the Colonel of the 2nd Battalion of the Essex regiment, he was promoted Lieutenant-General 15 December 1861. He was buried at Highland Road Cemetery in Portsmouth
The Dwyer Stakes is an American Grade III stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred racehorses held annually at Belmont Park racetrack in Elmont, Long Island, New York. Run in early July, it is open to three-year-old horses and is raced over a distance of 1 mile on dirt, it offers a purse of $500,000. Inaugurated in 1887 as the Brooklyn Derby at the now defunct Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, in 1918 it was renamed for the Dwyer brothers, Mike & Phil, who dominated thoroughbred racing in the late 19th century. At one time, it was a Grade I stakes race, a major part of the American Thoroughbred racing season, it was known as the Dwyer Handicap from 1957 to 1978. Since inception, the race has been contested at various distances: 1 mile: 2015 to present 1 1⁄16 miles - 1887-1924, 1935–1939, 1994 to 2014 1 1⁄8 miles - 1888-1897, 1915–1924, 1935–1939, 1975–1993, 2010 1 3⁄16 miles - 1956-1959 1 1⁄4 miles - 1910-1914, 1925, 1940–1955, 1960–1974 1 5⁄16 miles - 1925 1 1⁄2 miles - 1887, 1898–1909, 1926–1934The race has been held at: Gravesend Race Track - 1887-1910 Old Aqueduct Racetrack - 1913-1955 Aqueduct Racetrack - 1960-1974, 1976 Jamaica Race Course - 1956, 1959 Belmont Park - 1977 to presentIn 1908 Fair Play was the first of three generations to win the Dwyer.
His son, Man o' War, won it in 1920. The 1920 Dwyer turned into a match race when the owner of John P. Grier was the only one willing to run their horse against Man o' War. However, confronting John P. Grier proved to be one of his hardest races; the two horses raced head-to-head for most of the distance until John P. Grier put his nose in front at the eighth pole, but Man o' War came back to win by more than a length; this race was downgraded to a Grade III for its 2014 running. Speed record: at 1 mile - 1:33.74 - Firenze Fire at 1 1⁄16 miles - 1:40.02 - Medallist Most wins by a jockey: 6 - Jerry D. Bailey Most wins by a trainer: 9 - Jim Fitzsimmons Most wins by an owner: 6 - Belair Stud 6 - Greentree Stable The 2009 Dwyer Stakes at the NTRA The Dwyer Stakes at Pedigree Query
"You Are Killing Me" is a song by American alternative rock band The Dandy Warhols, released as the sole single from their ninth studio album Distortland. "You Are Killing Me" was described by The A. V. Club as featuring a "sparse arrangement consisting of straightforward, overdriven guitar, multi-tracked vocals, off kilter harmonies"; the music video features the actor and Warhol superstar, Joe Dallesandro and is seen as a semi-autobiographical story about his alcohol addiction. Pryor Stroud of PopMatters described the song as "a straightforward, chomp-rock ballad that glides forward with a spry Magnetic Fields-esque melody". Video on YouTube
Nonny Hogrogian is an Armenian-American writer and illustrator, known best for children's picture books. She has won two annual Caldecott Medals for U. S. children's book illustrations. Since childhood she prefers folk and fairy tales, poetry and stories. Hogrogian was born in New York City to parents born in Armenia, her parents were amateur painters and her sister became an interior designer. Hogrogian earned a B. A. in Fine Arts from Hunter College in 1953. Afterward, Hogrogian worked as a book designer at Thomas Y. Crowell Co.. In 1960, Crowell published her first works in the book, King of the Kerry Fair, by Nicolete Meredith, which Hogrogian illustrated with woodcuts. Subsequently she has worked as a designer at as a freelance illustrator. In 1971 Hogrogian married a writer and editor. For two years they lived in Lyme Center, New Hampshire, where he was the state "poet-in-the-schools." The state university library is one repository for their works. Hogrogian has illustrated other works for publication.
Hogrogian won the Caldecott Medal for illustration in 1966 and 1972. The American Library Association award annually recognizes the previous year's "most distinguished American picture book for children". Always Room for One More was written by Sorche Nic Leodhas and published by Holt and Winston in 1965. One Fine Day, an old Armenian tale that she retold and illustrated, was published by Macmillan US in 1971. Hogrogian received a Caldecott Honor in 1977 for The Contest, another story she retold and illustrated. King of the Kerry Fair in libraries Always room for one more, Library of Congress Catalog Record One fine day, LC Catalog Record Nonny Hogrogian at Library of Congress Authorities, with 69 catalog records
122 Foregate Street is a building at the corner of the north side of Foregate Street and the east side of Bath Street, Cheshire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building; the building was designed by the local architect John Douglas for Prudential Assurance, constructed in 1902. It has since been used by the Lombard Bank and as a shop. In the late 2000s it was a beauty salon and in 2009 planning permission was given by Cheshire West and Chester Borough Council for it to be converted into a café and offices; the building is constructed in red sandstone rubble and it has a red clay tile roof. Its style is "Douglas' Germanic 17th-century manner"; the building has two storeys plus a loft in the roof. It stands adjacent to the terrace of houses designed by Douglas in Bath Street; the corner of the building between the streets is angled with an arched doorway in the ground floor. The upper storey is carried on consoles over pilasters flanking the door.
This storey contains a mullioned three-light sash window over, a cornice and a carving of the Chester City coat of arms. Above this a Baroque-shaped gable containing a two-light window and at its summit is an obelisk finial; the front facing Foregate Street contains three arched windows on the ground floor, the middle one being narrow than the others. The upper storey has eight sash windows over which are a cornice. Over the easterly six windows is another Baroque-shaped gable similar to that over the entrance door, but larger; the front facing Bath Street has two arched windows at the north end an arched doorway. Beyond this in the south bay, are two sash windows. In the upper storey are nine sash windows. Over the south bay is a plain gable with a short finial. In the roof facing Foregate Street and in that facing Bath Street is a lucarne with a finial. Two brick chimney stacks rise from the roof. A stone screen with a balustrade links the building to the house at number 1 Bath Street. Grade II listed buildings in Chester List of non-ecclesiastical and non-residential works by John Douglas