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John Bardeen

John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer. He is the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; the transistor revolutionized the electronics industry, making possible the development of every modern electronic device, from telephones to computers, ushering in the Information Age. Bardeen's developments in superconductivity—for which he was awarded his second Nobel Prize—are used in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and medical magnetic resonance imaging. In 1990, Bardeen appeared on LIFE Magazine's list of "100 Most Influential Americans of the Century." Bardeen was born in Madison, Wisconsin, on May 23, 1908. He was the son of the first dean of the University of Wisconsin Medical School. Bardeen attended the University High School at Madison, he graduated from the school in 1923 at age 15. He could have graduated several years earlier, but this was postponed because he took courses at another high school and because of his mother's death.

He entered the University of Wisconsin in 1923. While in college, he joined the Zeta Psi fraternity, he raised the needed membership fees by playing billiards. He was initiated as a member of Tau Beta Pi engineering honor society, he chose engineering. He felt that engineering had good job prospects. Bardeen received his Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1928 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he graduated in 1928 despite taking a year off to work in Chicago. He took all the graduate courses in physics and mathematics that had interested him, he graduated in five years instead of the usual four; this allowed him time to complete his Master's thesis, supervised by Leo J. Peters, he received his Master of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1929 from Wisconsin. Bardeen furthered his studies by staying on at Wisconsin, but he went to work for Gulf Research Laboratories, the research arm of the Gulf Oil Corporation, based in Pittsburgh. From 1930 to 1933, Bardeen worked there on the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys.

He worked as a geophysicist. After the work failed to keep his interest, he applied and was accepted to the graduate program in mathematics at Princeton University; as a graduate student, Bardeen studied physics. Under physicist Eugene Wigner, he ended up writing his thesis on a problem in solid-state physics. Before completing his thesis, he was offered a position as Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University in 1935, he spent the next three years there, from 1935 to 1938, working with to-be Nobel laureates in physics John Hasbrouck van Vleck and Percy Williams Bridgman on problems in cohesion and electrical conduction in metals, did some work on level density of nuclei. He received his Ph. D. in mathematical physics from Princeton in 1936. From 1941 to 1944, Bardeen headed the group working on magnetic mines and torpedoes and mine and torpedo countermeasures at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. During this period his wife Jane gave birth to a son and a daughter. In October 1945, Bardeen began work at Bell Labs.

He was a member of a solid-state physics group, led by chemist Stanley Morgan. Other personnel working in the group were Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore and several technicians, he moved his family to New Jersey. The assignment of the group was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers, their first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments mysteriously failed every time in all sorts of materials; the group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states, they met daily to discuss the work; the rapport of the group was excellent, ideas were exchanged. By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review.

Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers, which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments; the pace of the work picked up when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes. Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal and suggested that they use glycol borate, a viscous chemical that didn't evaporate, they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley, put a voltage on a droplet of gu placed across a p–n junction. On December 23, 1947, Bardeen and Brattain were working without Shockley when they succeeded in creating a point-contact transistor that achieved amplification. By the next month, Bell Labs' patent attorneys started to work on the patent applications.

Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered that Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MES

Kemajl Avdiu

Kemajl Avdiu is a Swedish former footballer. Continuing his career at Bury from Esbjerg fB, Avdiu stayed with the Shakers until 2000, totaling 27 appearances and one goal. Meanwhile, his family was trying to survive the Kosovo War, afraid to leave due to the threat of the Yugoslavian army, his family, including himself supported the NATO bombing of the country, but some of his relatives had not been accounted for though most fled to Albania. The 22-year old, feeling fortunate to be safe expressed concern for his Austria-based friend, thinking of enrolling in the Kosovo Liberation Army; when the conflict was over, Avdiu hoped. Loaned out to Partick Thistle from April to May 1999, the Swede put the Jags 2-0 up over East Fife on debut, but they came back 2-2. Despite this, he remained a fans' favorite; the day before, he volunteered to pack supplies to help people affected by the Kosovo War, expressing disquiet at the situation but fortunate that there were lots of volunteers. Profile at Soccerbase Profile

R v Thomas

R v Thomas was an Australian court case decided in the Victorian Court of Appeal on 18 August 2006. It concerned the conviction in February 2006 of Joseph Thomas on terrorism-related charges receiving funds from Al Qaeda; the appeal revolved around the admissibility of a confession Thomas made during an interrogation in Pakistan in 2003. The court found that the evidence, crucial to Thomas' convictions, was inadmissible because it had not been given voluntarily; the court accordingly quashed his convictions, but after further hearings ordered on 20 December 2006 that he be retried rather than acquitted. Joseph Thomas is an Australian citizen. On 23 March 2001 he left Australia and travelled by air to Pakistan, crossing into Afghanistan by land. For the next three months, he was alleged to have trained at the Al Farouq training camp near the city of Kandahar, before travelling to Kabul in July 2001. Over the next eighteen months or so, Thomas stayed in various Al Qaeda safe houses, is alleged to have made contact with several Al Qaeda officials.

On 4 January 2003, Thomas was apprehended by Pakistani immigration officials at an airport in the city of Karachi, taken into custody. Thomas had with him items including an Australian-issue passport, an airline ticket for travel to Indonesia, about $3,800 in cash; the passport, issued on 19 May 1993, had been tampered with, for the intention of concealing the details of Thomas' movements after his departure from Australia in 2001. He was blindfolded, driven to an unknown location, where he was questioned for about two hours by two Pakistani men and two Americans, he was questioned several times over the next few days, before being taken to another location, which Thomas described as "some sort of mansion house", where he was kept in a small cell for the next two weeks and questioned on a number of occasions. He maintained a fabricated story, that he was a student, travelling in Pakistan, but he revealed the truth, that he had been in contact with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, he said that he was motivated to change his story by several incidents, including one in which one of the Pakistani interrogators pulled on the collar of his hood, so as to strangle him, incidents in which interrogators said that he would be electrocuted and executed.

According to Thomas, he was told that his cooperation was welcome and that he would be returned home. After the two weeks, Thomas was blindfolded and shackled, flown to Islamabad, where he remained in custody. There he was visited by an Australian consular representative, who gave evidence that Thomas did not appear to have been maltreated, or denied food or water. However, the representative did testify that while Thomas was on the phone to his parents in Australia, he told them "I'm not going to Cuba", to which a Pakistani official replied, "No, that's not correct."Between 25 January and 29 January, Thomas was interviewed four times by members of the Australian Federal Police and by members of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, accompanied by Pakistani officials. During one of these interviews, a Pakistani official said to Thomas "we told you that you have to prove it... that you are not a terrorist... you have to prove it that you are an innocent man and why you are sitting here."

Thomas was transferred again, this time to the city of Lahore, where he was kept for another three weeks, interrogated by Pakistani officials and an American official referred to as "Joe". This man suggested that Thomas return to Afghanistan with a recording device, to obtain information on Al Qaeda figures, a suggestion Thomas rejected because he feared he would be killed. Joe threatened Thomas that he would be sent to Afghanistan where he would be tortured by having his testicles twisted, implied that agents would be sent to Australia to rape Thomas' wife. Thomas was returned to Islamabad. On 8 March, Thomas was interviewed again by two members of the AFP, who had made special arrangements with the Pakistani Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence to have the interview conducted pursuant to Australian law the requirements of the federal Evidence Act 1995 and Crimes Act 1914, so that admissible evidence could be gathered. ISI allowed the interview, but with a limited timeframe, did not allow Thomas to have access to legal advice.

During this interview, Thomas made several self-incriminatory statements, which were key to his convictions and the admissibility of, the central issue in the appeal. In the statements, Thomas admitted that he had tampered with his passport to conceal the amount of time he had been in Pakistan, admitted that the money and airline ticket had been given to him by Tawfiq bin Attash, a high ranking Al Qaeda lieutenant involved with the 1998 United States embassy bombings and the USS Cole bombing. On 10 March, the AFP wrote again to the ISI, reiterating the requirements of the Australian legislation, saying that "the admissibility of in Australian Courts has been compromised."On 6 June 2003, Thomas was released from Pakistani custody, at which point he was deported to Australia. He spent nearly a year and a half subsequently living with his family in the Melbourne suburb of Werribee, before he was arrested by the AFP on 18 November 2004 and charged with several federal offences, including one count of possessing a false passport, one count of receiving funds from a terrorist organisation and two counts of providing resources to a terrorist organisation.

Thomas was tried in the Supreme Court of Victori

Guirane N'Daw

Guirane N'Daw is a Senegalese football midfielder who plays for French amateur club AS Algrange. He played for Sochaux, Saint-Étienne, Lens in France, for Zaragoza in Spain, for Birmingham City and Ipswich Town in England, for Asteras Tripolis in Greece. N'Daw began his career with Sochaux, he appeared in over 120 matches, which included the 2007 Coupe de France Final as Sochaux beat Olympique Marseille on penalties, scored five goals for the club before moving to Nantes in 2008. After Nantes were relegated to Ligue 2 at the end of his first season with the club, N'Daw joined Saint-Étienne on loan for the 2009–10 Ligue 1 season; the deal included a clause by which the move would be made permanent if Saint-Étienne retained their top-flight status. After a successful campaign, the loan was made permanent for a fee of €4m. On 24 January 2011 N'Daw joined Spanish club Real Zaragoza on loan until the end of the season. On 23 August 2011, N'Daw joined English Championship club Birmingham City on loan until January 2012, with an option to extend the contract until the end of the season.

He made his debut for the club in a 3–1 defeat to Braga in the group stages of the Europa League. After several Europa League appearances, N'Daw made his Football League debut as a second-half substitute in a 2–1 defeat at Hull City in December, he established himself alongside Keith Fahey in Birmingham's midfield, shortly before he left for the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations, his loan was extended to the end of the season. Following Senegal's early elimination from the tournament, N'Daw's form and fitness levels dipped, he suffered recurrent hamstring injuries, including one sustained after 67 minutes of the visit to West Ham United in early April, in which he produced a strong performance protecting his defence. He returned for the play-off semi-final at Blackpool alongside Jordon Mutch coming back from injury, but was "rusty and lacked sharpness to impose", the pairing gave the ball away too much. In the home leg, he came on for the injured Jonathan Spector, helped his team stage a recovery from two goals behind to draw the match but lose the play-off on aggregate.

Over the season, he made 29 appearances, of which 19 were without scoring. N'Daw joined English Championship club Ipswich Town on 24 August 2012 on loan for the 2012–13 season. After his Saint-Étienne contract expired, N'Daw signed a one-year deal with Greek Superleague club Asteras Tripolis on 4 September 2013. In summer 2014, N'Daw joined Ligue 1 FC Metz on a two-year deal, he left in October 2016, having failed to make an appearance in the 2015–16 season and following the arrival of coach Alain Casanova he left Ligue 2 side Lens. On 31 January 2019, N'Daw joined French amateur club AS Algrange. N'Daw first played for the Senegal national football team in 2004; as of August 2011, he had scored three goals. He was named in the 23-man squad for the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations, played in two of their three group match defeats as Senegal failed to qualify for the stages of the tournament. Scores and results list Senegal's goal tally first. Sochaux Coupe de France: 2007 Guirane N'Daw – French league stats at LFP Guirane N'Daw at Soccerway

The Big Chapel

The Big Chapel is a novel written by Thomas Kilroy, shortlisted for the 1971 Booker Prize and recipient of the Guardian Fiction Prize as well as the Heinemann Prize. The Big Chapel – part of the Liberties Revival series – centers around an infamous clerical scandal in Victorian Ireland. Within this story comes the ideas of humanity and ideology, taking a detailed look at the community and depicting life in Ireland with a focus on history and folklore in the region. It's a book. At times the book is humorous; the main character Father Lannigan struggles with his revolution while Master Scully is stuck with too many choices. And there is Horace Percy Butler and the landlord and amateur scientist who presents a whole tragic comic character; the major themes in The Big Chapel center around: humanity, ideology and religion, depicted through tragic comedy. It is about community, dealing with choice, it is littered with one man being forced to make a choice set in historic Ireland. The Big Chapel was nominated for the Booker Prize in 1971, won the Guardian Fiction Prize and the Heinemann Prize.

In February 2008 Kilroy was presented with the PEN Ireland Cross Award for his contribution to literature. According to Brian Friel, in The Guardian, “…what will keep it permanently vital will be the response it evokes once more from its astonished and grateful readers.” Tony Messenger describes the book as “a complex but rewarding work.” He adds that it is an: “extremely well researched novel about dogma, rigidly sticking to one’s views, character definition and the little complexities in life.”

Gabriel Vahanian

Gabriel Vahanian was a French Protestant Christian theologian, most remembered for his pioneering work in the theology of the "death of God" movement within academic circles in the 1960s, who taught for 26 years in the U. S. before finishing a prestigious career in Strasbourg, France. Vahanian was born Gabriel Antoine Vahanian in Marseille, France, to a family of refugees of the Armenian Genocide, he received his French baccalaureate in 1945 from the Lycee of Valence in France and graduated from the Protestant Faculty of Theology in Paris, his master's degree in Theology in 1950 from Princeton Theological Seminary, his Ph. D. in 1958 from PTS. His dissertation was entitled "Protestantism and the Arts." He served on the faculty of Syracuse University for 26 years. At Syracuse he held the Eliphalet Remington chair in Religion from 1967 to 1973, the Jeanette Kittredge Watson chair in Religion from 1973-1984, founded in 1968 and was the first director of the graduate studies program in religion, he moved in 1984 to the Université des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg, for a post considered France's most prominent theological professorship of Protestantism.

He ended his career as Professor Emeritus of Cultural Theology at the Université Marc Bloch and its successor, the combined University of Strasbourg. He criticized efforts to modernize Christianity. Vahanian was educated in the Reformed theological stream of John Calvin and of Karl Barth, he translated Barth's The Faith of the Church, he was distinguished in his interests in the relationship between literature and theology, between culture and religion. One French Protestant contemporary of his was social critic Jacques Ellul. Vahanian was a founding member of the first board of directors of the American Academy of Religion in 1964, his first book, entitled The Death of God: The Culture of our Post-Christian Era, was hailed by Rudolf Bultmann as a landmark of theological criticism. During the 1960s the theological writings of Vahanian, Harvey Cox, Paul Van Buren, William Hamilton, Thomas J. J. Altizer, Richard Rubenstein came to be regarded by many observers as a new Christian and Jewish movement advocating the death of God.

However, as the conservative evangelical John Warwick Montgomery noted, Vahanian's position was deemed to be "hopelessly conservative by the advocates of Christian atheism.". Vahanian expressed his understanding of the "death of God" as happening when God is turned into a cultural artifact. Vahanian was alarmed at the objectification of God: The Christian era has bequeathed us the'death of God,' but not without teaching us a lesson. God is not necessary, he cannot be used as a hypothesis, whether epistemological, scientific, or existential, unless we should draw the degrading conclusion that'God is reasons.' On the other hand, if we can no longer assume that God is, we may once again realize that he must be. God is not necessary, he is wholly present. Faith in him, the conversion of our human reality, both culturally and existentially, is the demand he still makes upon us, he contributed articles on wide-ranging topics to journals and magazines such as The Nation, The Christian Century and Réforme or Foi et Vie and the Biblioteca dell'Archivio di filosofia.

He was the recipient of the American Council of Learned Societies and served as a consulting member of the Presidential Commission on biomedical ethics. He lectured throughout North America, Latin America and Asia. In 2005, he was invited to be the keynote speaker at the annual convention of the Association of Christian Studies, where he lectured on "A Secular Christ: Against the Religious Parochialism of East and West", his more recent publications include Anonymous God and the New Religious Paradigm, Praise of the Secular. His personal papers from the period 1945–1971 are held in the archives of Syracuse University; the Death of God: The Culture of Our Post-Christian Era. Wait Without Idols. No Other God. God and Utopia: The Church in a Technological Civilization. ISBN 0-8164-0355-4 L'utopie chrétienne. ISBN 2-220-03244-2 La foi, une fois pour toutes: meditations kierkegaardiennes. ISBN 2-8309-0836-8 Anonymous God: An Essay on Not Dreading Words. ISBN 1-888570-57-1 Tillich and the New Religious Paradigm.

ISBN 1-888570-62-8 Praise of the Secular. ISBN 978-0813927039 John Warwick Montgomery, The'Is God Dead?' Controversy. John Warwick Montgomery, The Suicide of Christian Theology. ISBN 0-87123-521-8 Mack B. Stokes, "The Nontheistic Temper of the Modern Mind," Religion in Life, vol. 24, pp. 245–57. Death of God theology God is dead Postmodern Christianity Gabriel Vahanian, "The Otherness of Time: Secularisation as Worlding of the Word and the Hallowing of Time," Journal for Cultural and Religious Theory, 1, 1. "The'God is Dead' Movement," Time Magazine, October 22, 1965. Thomas J. J. Altizer and William Hamilton, Radical Theology and the Death of God. E. David Willis, "Iconoclasm in Paperback," Theology Today, 23, 2, p. 275