Shirt of Nessus
In Greek mythology, Nessus was a famous centaur who was killed by Heracles, and whose tainted blood in turn killed Heracles. He was the son of Centauros and he fought in the battle with the Lapiths. He became a ferryman on the river Euenos, Nessus is known for his role in the story of the Tunic of Nessus. After carrying Deianeira, the wife of Heracles, across the river, Heracles saw this from across the river and shot a Hydra-poisoned arrow into Nessuss breast. As a final act of malice, Nessus told Deianeira, as he lay dying, when her trust began to wane because of Iole, she spread the centaurs blood on a robe and gave it to her husband. Heracles went to a gathering of heroes, where his passion got the better of him, Deianeira accidentally spilled a portion of the centaurs blood onto the floor. To her horror, it began to fume by the light of the rising sun and she instantly recognized it as poison and sent her messenger to warn Heracles but it was too late. Heracles lay dying slowly and painfully as the robe burned his skin—either in actual flames or by the heat of poison and he died a noble death on a funeral pyre of oak branches.
Heracles was taken to Mount Olympus by Zeus and welcomed among the gods for his heroic exploits, a similar theme appears in certain versions of the story of Medea. Sophocles play Trachiniae is extensively based on a retelling of this myth, in Dante Alighieris Inferno, Nessus is among the centaurs that patrols the outer rings of the Circle of Violence making sure those immersed in the Phlegethon dont get out of their position. He was appointed by Chiron to guide Dante and Virgil alongside the Phlegethon, Nessus appears as an antagonist in the Disney movie Hercules voiced by Jim Cummings. In the film, he is portrayed as a lecherous river guardian, Hercules defeats him in battle and saves Megara from him, but it is revealed that Megara had been sent by Hades to recruit Nessus for his cause. Nessus appears in the game based on the film. One of the characters in Larry Nivens series of books from the Ringworld universe is called Nessus. He is of a race with body akin to horses. Nessus appears in Dantes Inferno, An Animated Epic voiced by Charlotte Cornwell and this version is depicted as a female and is a good friend of Virgil.
She helps Dante and Virgil across the Phlegathon, F. Diez de Velasco, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Munich-Zurich, Artemis Verlag, vol. VI,1,1992, 838-847 & VI,2,1992, 534-555
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Dædalus, the Academys quarterly journal, is widely regarded as one of the worlds leading intellectual journals. The Academy is headquartered in Cambridge, the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4th,1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people. The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political, the first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several foreign honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, and the Proceedings followed in 1846, in the 1950s the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. The Academy has sponsored a number of awards throughout its history and its first award, established in 1796 by Benjamin Thompson, honored distinguished work on heat and light and provided support for research activities.
Additional prizes recognized important contributions in the sciences, social sciences, since the second half of the twentieth century, policy research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as a concern of the Academy. The Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina, in 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 60 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program, robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, and Duke Ellington. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman to be elected to the Academy, the current membership encompasses over 4,900 Fellows and 600 Foreign Honorary Members on the roster, including more than 250 Nobel laureates and more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twenty-four sections, Class I – Mathematical and Physical Sciences Section 1.
Applied Mathematics and Statistics Section 2, astronomy and Earth Science Section 5. Engineering Sciences and Technologies Section 6, computer Sciences Class II – Biological Sciences Section 1. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section 2, cellular and Developmental Biology and Immunology Section 3. Neurosciences, Cognitive Sciences, and Behavioral Biology Section 4, evolutionary and Population Biology and Ecology Section 5. Medical Sciences, Clinical Medicine, and Public Health Class III – Social Sciences Section 1, Social and Developmental Psychology and Education Section 2. Political Science, International Relations, and Public Policy Section 4, Anthropology, Sociology and Demography Class IV – Arts and Humanities Section 1
University at Buffalo
The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States. It is commonly referred to as the University at Buffalo or SUNY Buffalo, the university was founded in 1846 as a private college, but in 1962 merged with the State University of New York system. By enrollment, UB is the largest in the SUNY system, UB has the largest endowment and research funding, as a comprehensive university center in the SUNY system. As of 2017, the university enrolls 29,806 students in 13 colleges, the university offers over 100 bachelors,205 masters,84 doctoral, and 10 professional areas of study. According to the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the University at Buffalo is a Doctoral University with the Highest research activity. In 1989, UB was elected to the Association of American Universities, the university was founded by U. S. President and U. S. Vice President, Millard Fillmore, who served as the schools first chancellor, in the Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education 2017 inaugural ranking, UB was ranked as the #1 public university in New York and #28 in the nation.
Buffalo has consistently placed in the top cluster of U. S, U. S. News and World Reports 2017 edition of Americas Best Colleges ranked UB 99th on their list of best national universities and 43rd among public universities. City leaders of Buffalo sought to establish a university in the city from the earliest days of Buffalo and this university was chartered by the state on April 8,1836. However, the collapsed and no classes were ever offered. James Platt White was instrumental in obtaining a charter for the University of Buffalo from the legislature in 1846. He taught the first class of 89 men in obstetrics, State Assemblyman Nathan K. Hall was particularly active in procuring the charter. The doors first opened to students in 1847 and after associating with a hospital for teaching purposes, founder Millard Fillmore served as the schools first chancellor. Upon his ascension to the presidency after President Taylors death, Fillmore stayed on as part-time chancellor, the first lectures were delivered in a wooden building over the old post office, corner of Seneca and Washington streets.
The first building built for the university was a stone building at the corner of Main and Virginia streets, built in 1849–50, through donations, public subscription. There were continuous expansions to the medical programs, including a separate pharmacy division. In 1887, a law school was organized in Buffalo, which became associated with Niagara University just to the north of Buffalo. After four years, in 1891, the law school was acquired by the University of Buffalo as the University of Buffalo Law School, the establishment may have been influenced by the 1910 Flexner Report which criticized the preparation of the medical students at the university
Lost in the Funhouse
Lost in the Funhouse is a short story collection by American author John Barth. The postmodern stories are extremely self-conscious and self-reflexive and are considered to exemplify metafiction, though Barths reputation rests mainly on his long novels, the stories Night-Sea Journey, Lost in the Funhouse and Life-Story from Lost in the Funhouse are widely anthologized. Lost in the Funhouse took these ideas to an extreme, for which it was praised and condemned by critics. Each story can be considered complete in itself, and in several of them were published separately before being collected. Barth insists, however, on the nature of the stories. Barth shows his pessimism in the stories, and says he identifies with Anonymiad, when Barth began attending Johns Hopkins University in 1947, he enrolled in one of only two creative writing courses available in the US at the time. He went on to one of the first full-time professors of creative writing. The stories in Lost in the Funhouse display a professorial concern with fictional form, Barth cited a number of contemporary writers, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Samuel Beckett, and especially Jorge Luis Borges, as important examples of this.
The essay came to be seen by some as a description of postmodernism. Barth has described the stories of Lost in the Funhouse as mainly late modernist and postmodernist, Jorge Luis Borges was a primary influence, as acknowledged by Barth a number of times, most notably in The Literature of Exhaustion. Written between 1966 and 1968, several of the stories had already published separately. Lost in the Funhouse came out in 1968, and was followed in 1972 by Chimera, the book opens with Frame-Tale, a story in which ONCE UPON A TIME THERE and WAS A STORY THAT BEGAN are printed vertically, one on each side of the page. This is intended to be cut out by the reader, and this results in a regressus ad infinitum, a loop with no beginning or end. Night-Sea Journey follows, the story of a human spermatozoon on its way to fertilize an egg. The tale allegorically recapitulates the story of life in condensed form. In Menalaiad, Barth leads the reader in and out of seven metaleptic layers, menalaus despairs as his story progresses through layer after layer of quotation marks, as one story is framed by another and another.
Autobiography, which is meant for monophonic tape and visible but silent author, three of the stories - Ambrose, His Mark, Water-Message, and the title story, Lost in the Funhouse - concern a young boy named Ambrose and members of his family. The first story is told in first person, leading up to describing how Ambrose received his name, the second is told in third-person, written in a deliberately archaic style
American Academy of Arts and Letters
The American Academy of Arts and Letters is a 250-member honor society, its goal is to foster and sustain excellence in American literature and art. The Academys galleries are open to the public on a published schedule, opened in 2014, a permanent exhibit is the recreated studio of composer Charles Ives. The auditorium is sought out by musicians wishing to live because the acoustics are considered among the worlds finest. The Academy was created in 1904 by the membership of the National Institute of Arts, the first seven academicians were elected from ballots cast by the entire membership. In 1908 poet Julia Ward Howe was elected, and thus became the first female academician, in 1976 the two groups combined under the name American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. In 1992 members adopted the current organizational title, the oldest organization associated with the group was founded in 1865 at Boston. The American Social Science Association produced the National Institute of Arts, the qualification for membership in this body was to have made notable achievements in art, music, or literature.
The membership was at first limited to 150, in 1904 the membership was increased by the Institutes introducing a two-tiered structure,50 elite members and 200 regular members. The people in the group were gradually elected over the next several years. The larger group was called the Institute, while the group was called the Academy. The strict two-tiered system persisted for 72 years, in 1976 members created an organization called the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. The combined Academy/Institute structure had a maximum of 250 living United States citizens as members, plus up to 75 foreign composers, artists and it established the annual Witter Bynner Poetry Prize in 1980 to support the work of a young poet. The two-tiered system persisted until 1993, when it was completely abandoned, the Academy holds a Congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare Title 36 corporations in the United States. The 1916 statute of incorporation established this institution amongst a number of other patriotic.
The federal incorporation was originally construed primarily as an honor, the special recognition neither implies nor accords Congress any special control over the Academy, which remains free to function independently. Active sponsors of Congressional action were Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, the process which led to the creation of this federal charter was accompanied by controversy, and the first attempt to gain the charter in 1910 failed. Sen. Lodge re-introduced legislation which passed the Senate in 1913, the Academy was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in 1914, which factors in decision-making which resulted in Congressional approval in 1916. The Academy occupies three buildings on the west end of the Audubon Terrace complex created by Archer M. Huntington, the heir to the Southern Pacific Railroad fortune and a noted philanthropist
The Atlantic is an American magazine, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts. Since 2006, the magazine is based in Washington, D. C, created as a literary and cultural commentary magazine, it has grown to achieve a national reputation as a high-quality review organ with a moderate worldview. The magazine has recognized and published new writers and poets. It has published leading writers commentary on abolition, the periodical has won more National Magazine Awards than any other monthly magazine. The first issue of the magazine was published on November 1,1857, the magazines initiator and founder was Francis H. Underwood, an assistant to the publisher, who received less recognition than his partners because he was neither a humbug nor a Harvard man. After experiencing financial hardship and a series of changes, the magazine was reformatted as a general editorial magazine. Focusing on foreign affairs and the cultural trends, it is now primarily aimed at a target audience of serious national readers.
In 2010, The Atlantic posted its first profit in a decade, in profiling the publication at the time, The New York Times noted the accomplishment was the result of a cultural transfusion, a dose of counterintuition and a lot of digital advertising revenue. The magazine, subscribed to by over 425,000 readers, the Atlantic features articles in the fields of the arts, the economy, foreign affairs, political science, and technology. The Atlantics president is Bob Cohn, in April 2005, The Atlantics editors decided to cease publishing fiction in regular issues in favor of a newsstand-only annual fiction issue edited by longtime staffer C. Michael Curtis. They have since re-instituted the practice, on January 22,2008, TheAtlantic. com dropped its subscriber wall and allowed users to freely browse its site, including all past archives. TheAtlantic. com covers politics, entertainment, health, international affairs, and more. In December 2011, a new Health Channel launched on TheAtlantic. com, incorporating coverage of food, as well as related to the mind, sex, family.
TheAtlantic. com has expanded to visual storytelling with the addition of the In Focus photo blog, curated by Alan Taylor. A leading literary magazine, The Atlantic has published significant works. It was the first to publish pieces by the abolitionists Julia Ward Howe, for example, Emily Dickinson, after reading an article in The Atlantic by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asked him to become her mentor. In 2005, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for fiction, the magazine published many of the works of Mark Twain, including one that was lost until 2001. Editors have recognized major cultural changes and movements, for example, the magazine has published speculative articles that inspired the development of new technologies
Cambridge is a city in Dorchester County, United States. The population was 12,326 at the 2010 census and it is the county seat of Dorchester County and the countys largest municipality. Cambridge is the fourth most populous city in Marylands Eastern Shore region, after Salisbury, settled by English colonists in 1684, Cambridge is one of the oldest colonial cities in Maryland. At the time of English colonization, the Algonquian-speaking Choptank Indians were already living along the river of the same name, during the colonial years, the English colonists developed farming on the Eastern Shore. The largest plantations were devoted first to tobacco, and mixed farming, planters bought enslaved Africans to farm tobacco and mixed farming. The town was a center for the area. The town pier was the center for trading for the region. It was incorporated officially in 1793, and occupies part of the former Choptank Indian Reservation, Cambridge was named after the town and county in England. The town became a stop on the railroad, which had an extensive network of safe houses for slaves escaping to the north.
Cambridge developed food processing industries in the late 19th century, canning oysters, industrial growth in Cambridge was led by the Phillips Packing Company, which eventually grew to become the areas largest employer. The company won contracts with the Department of Defense during the First, at its peak, it employed as many as 10,000 workers. Changing tastes brought about a decline in business leading Phillips to downsize its operations, by the early 1960s the company ceased operations altogether. This led to unemployment and added to the citys growing social problems. During the period from 1962 until 1967, Cambridge was a center of protests during the Civil Rights Movement as African Americans sought equal access to employment and they sought to end racial segregation of schools and other public accommodations. Riots erupted in Cambridge in 1963 and 1967, and the Maryland National Guard were deployed to the city to assist local authorities with peace-keeping efforts, the leader of the movement was Gloria Richardson.
With the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, public segregation in Cambridge officially ended, in 2002, the citys economy was boosted by jobs and tourism associated with the opening of the 400-room Hyatt Regency Chesapeake Bay resort. This resort includes a course and marina. The resort was the site of the 2007 US House Republican Conference, Cambridge was designated a Maryland Main Street community on July 1,2003
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a person who professes being usually an expert in arts or sciences, in much of the world, the unqualified word professor is used formally to indicate the highest academic rank, informally known as full professor. Professors conduct original research and commonly teach undergraduate, graduate, or professional courses in their fields of expertise, in universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation. Professors typically hold a Ph. D. another doctorate or a different terminal degree, some professors hold a masters degree or a professional degree, such as an M. D. as their highest degree. The term professor was first used in the late 14th century to one who teaches a branch of knowledge. As a title that is prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706, the hort form prof is recorded from 1838.
The term professor is used with a different meaning, ne professing religion. This canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, a professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the professor is the highest academic rank at a university. In the United States and Canada, the title of professor is the highest rank, in these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are often given office or lab space, and use of libraries, the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in some European countries. In Australia, the associate professor is used in place of reader, ranking above senior lecturer.
However, such professors usually do not undertake academic work for the granting institution, in general, the title of professor is strictly used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, place, a professor typically earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in her institution earns additional income, some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, or giving speeches or coaching executives. Some fields give professors more opportunities for outside work, the anticipated average earnings with performance-related bonuses for a German professor is €71,500. The salaries of civil servant professors in Spain are fixed in a basis, but there are some bonus related to performance and seniority
Postmodern works are seen as a response against dogmatic following of Enlightenment thinking and Modernist approaches to literature. Postmodern literature, like postmodernism as a whole, tends to resist definition or classification as a movement, Postmodern works tend to celebrate chance over craft, and further employ metafiction to undermine the texts authority or authenticity. In the 1910s, artists associated with Dadaism celebrated chance, playfulness, tristan Tzara claimed in How to Make a Dadaist Poem that to create a Dadaist poem one had only to put random words in a hat and pull them out one by one. Another way Dadaism influenced postmodern literature was in the development of collage, artists associated with Surrealism, which developed from Dadaism, continued experimentations with chance and parody while celebrating the flow of the subconscious mind. André Breton, the founder of Surrealism, suggested that automatism and he used automatism to create his novel Nadja and used photographs to replace description as a parody of the overly-descriptive novelists he often criticized.
Surrealist René Magrittes experiments with signification are used as examples by Jacques Derrida, Foucault uses examples from Jorge Luis Borges, an important direct influence on many postmodernist fiction writers. He is occasionally listed as a postmodernist, although he started writing in the 1920s, the influence of his experiments with metafiction and magic realism was not fully realized in the Anglo-American world until the postmodern period. Ultimately, this is seen as the highest stratification of criticism among scholars, other early 20th-century novels such as Raymond Roussels Impressions dAfrique and Locus Solus, and Giorgio de Chiricos Hebdomeros have been identified as important postmodern precursor. Both modern and postmodern literature represent a break from 19th century realism, in addition, both modern and postmodern literature explore fragmentariness in narrative- and character-construction. The Waste Land is often cited as a means of distinguishing modern and postmodern literature, the poem is fragmentary and employs pastiche like much postmodern literature, but the speaker in The Waste Land says, these fragments I have shored against my ruins.
Postmodernists, often demonstrate that this chaos is insurmountable, the artist is impotent, gertrude Steins playful experiment with metafiction and genre in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas has been interpreted as postmodern, as with all stylistic eras, no definite dates exist for the rise and fall of postmodernisms popularity. 1941, the year in which Irish novelist James Joyce and English novelist Virginia Woolf both died, is used as a rough boundary for postmodernisms start. Irish novelist Flann OBrien completed The Third Policeman in 1939 and it was rejected for publication and remained supposedly lost until published posthumously in 1967. A revised version called The Dalkey Archive was published before the original in 1964, notwithstanding its dilatory appearance, the literary theorist Keith Hopper regards The Third Policeman as one of the first of that genre they call the postmodern novel. The prefix post, does not necessarily imply a new era, rather, it could indicate a reaction against modernism in the wake of the Second World War.
It could imply a reaction to significant post-war events, the beginning of the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement, some further argue that the beginning of postmodern literature could be marked by significant publications or literary events. For others the beginning is marked by moments in critical theory, Jacques Derridas Structure, though postmodernist literature does not include everything written in the postmodern period, several post-war developments in literature have significant similarities
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo KBE was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature. Borges works have contributed to literature and the fantasy genre. However, some critics consider Borges to be a predecessor and not actually a magical realist and his late poems dialogue with such cultural figures as Spinoza, Camões, and Virgil. In 1914, Borges family moved to Switzerland, where he studied at the Collège de Genève, the family travelled widely in Europe, including Spain. On his return to Argentina in 1921, Borges began publishing his poems and he worked as a librarian and public lecturer. In 1955, he was appointed director of the National Public Library and he became completely blind by the age of 55, as he never learned braille, he became unable to read. Scholars have suggested that his progressive blindness helped him to create innovative literary symbols through imagination, in 1961, he came to international attention when he received the first Formentor prize, which he shared with Samuel Beckett.
In 1971, he won the Jerusalem Prize and his work was translated and published widely in the United States and Europe. Borges himself was fluent in several languages and he dedicated his final work, The Conspirators, to the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Writer and essayist J. M. Coetzee said of him, He, more than anyone, renovated the language of fiction, Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo was born into an educated middle-class family on 24 August 1899. They were in comfortable circumstances but not wealthy enough to live in downtown Buenos Aires so the family resided in Palermo, Borgess mother, Leonor Acevedo Suárez, came from a traditional Uruguayan family of criollo origin. Her family had been involved in the European settling of South America and the Argentine War of Independence. His 1929 book, Cuaderno San Martín, includes the poem Isidoro Acevedo, commemorating his grandfather, Isidoro de Acevedo Laprida, a soldier of the Buenos Aires Army. A descendant of the Argentine lawyer and politician Francisco Narciso de Laprida, de Acevedo Laprida fought in the battles of Cepeda in 1859, Pavón in 1861, de Acevedo Laprida died of pulmonary congestion in the house where his grandson Jorge Luis Borges was born.
Borgess own father, Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam was a lawyer, Borges Haslam was born in Entre Rios of Spanish and English descent, the son of Francisco Borges Lafinur, a colonel, and Frances Ann Haslam, an Englishwoman. Borges Haslam grew up speaking English at home, the family frequently traveled to Europe. Borges Haslam wed Leonor Acevedo Suarez and was father of the painter Norah Borges. At age nine, Jorge Luis Borges translated Oscar Wildes The Happy Prince into Spanish and it was published in a local journal, but his friends thought the real author was his father
Postmodernism describes a broad movement that developed in the mid to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts and criticism which marked a departure from modernism. Accordingly, postmodern thought is characterized by tendencies to epistemological and moral relativism, irreverence. The term postmodernism has been applied both to the era following modernity, and to a host of movements within that era that reacted against tendencies in modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical critical interpretations of culture, art, history, economics, fiction, feminist theory, and literary criticism. Postmodernism is often associated with schools of such as deconstruction and post-structuralism, as well as philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard. The term postmodern was first used around the 1880s, John Watkins Chapman suggested a Postmodern style of painting as a way to depart from French Impressionism. In 1921 and 1925, postmodernism had been used to new forms of art. In 1942 H. R. Hays described it as a new literary form, however, as a general theory for a historical movement it was first used in 1939 by Arnold J.
Toynbee, Our own Post-Modern Age has been inaugurated by the general war of 1914–1918. Peter Drucker suggested the transformation into a post modern world happened between 1937 and 1957, post-structuralism resulted similarly to postmodernism by following a time of structuralism. It is characterized by new ways of thinking through structuralism, contrary to the original form, postmodernist describes part of a movement, Postmodern places it in the period of time since the 1950s, making it a part of contemporary history. Martin Heidegger rejected the philosophical basis of the concepts of subjectivity and objectivity, instead of resisting the admission of this paradox in the search for understanding, Heidegger requires that we embrace it through an active process of elucidation he called the hermeneutic circle. He stressed the historicity and cultural construction of concepts while simultaneously advocating the necessity of an atemporal, in this latter premise, Heidegger shares an affinity with the late Romantic philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, another principal forerunner of post-structuralist and postmodernist thought.
Instead, Foucault focused on the ways in which such constructs can foster cultural hegemony and his writings have had a major influence on the larger body of postmodern academic literature. These metanarratives still remain in Western society but are now being undermined by rapid Informatization, Richard Rorty argues in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature that contemporary analytic philosophy mistakenly imitates scientific methods. For Baudrillard, “simulation is no longer that of a territory and it is the generation by models of a real without origin or a reality, a hyperreal. In Analysis of the Journey, a journal birthed from postmodernism, Douglas Kellner insists that the assumptions and his terms defined in the depth of postmodernism are based on advancement and adaptation. Extensively, Kellner analyzes the terms of theory in real-life experiences and examples. Kellner used science and technology studies as a part of his analysis