Postmodern literature is a form of literature, characterized by the use of metafiction, unreliable narration, self-reflexivity and which thematizes both historical and political issues. This style of experimental literature emerged in the United States in the 1960s through the writings of authors such as Kurt Vonnegut, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth. Postmodernists challenge authorities, seen as a symptomatic of the fact that this style of literature first emerged in the context of political tendencies in the 1960s; this inspiration is, among other things, seen through how postmodern literature is self-reflexive about the political issues it speaks to. Precursors to postmodern literature include Laurence Sterne’s Tristram Shandy and Jack Kerouac's On the Road, but postmodern literature was prominent in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 21st century, American literature still features a strong current of postmodern writing, like the postironic Dave Eggers’ A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius and Jennifer Egan’s A Visit from the Goon Squad.
These works, however further develop the postmodern form. Sometimes the term "postmodernism" is used to discuss many different things ranging from architecture, to historical theory, to philosophy and film; because of this fact, several people distinguish between several forms of postmodernism and thus suggest that there are three forms of postmodernism: Postmodernity is understood as a historical period from the mid-1960s to the present, different from the theoretical postmodernism, which encompasses the theories developed by thinkers such as Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and others. The third category is the “cultural postmodernism,” which includes film, visual arts, etc. that feature postmodern elements. Postmodern literature is, in this sense, part of cultural postmodernism. Playwrights who worked in the late 19th and early 20th century whose thought and work would serve as an influence on the aesthetic of postmodernism include Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, the Italian author Luigi Pirandello, the German playwright and theorist Bertolt Brecht.
In the 1910s, artists associated with Dadaism celebrated chance, parody and challenged the authority of the artist. Tristan Tzara claimed in "How to Make a Dadaist Poem" that to create a Dadaist poem one had only to put random words in a hat and pull them out one by one. Another way Dadaism influenced postmodern literature was in the development of collage collages using elements from advertisement or illustrations from popular novels. Artists associated with Surrealism, which developed from Dadaism, continued experimentations with chance and parody while celebrating the flow of the subconscious mind. André Breton, the founder of Surrealism, suggested that automatism and the description of dreams should play a greater role in the creation of literature, he used automatism to create his novel Nadja and used photographs to replace description as a parody of the overly-descriptive novelists he criticized. Surrealist René Magritte's experiments with signification are used as examples by Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault.
Foucault uses examples from Jorge Luis Borges, an important direct influence on many postmodernist fiction writers. He is listed as a postmodernist, although he started writing in the 1920s; the influence of his experiments with metafiction and magic realism was not realized in the Anglo-American world until the postmodern period. This is seen as the highest stratification of criticism among scholars. Other early 20th-century novels such as Raymond Roussel's Impressions d'Afrique and Locus Solus, Giorgio de Chirico's Hebdomeros have been identified as important "postmodern precursor". Both modern and postmodern literature represent a break from 19th century realism. In character development, both modern and postmodern literature explore subjectivism, turning from external reality to examine inner states of consciousness, in many cases drawing on modernist examples in the "stream of consciousness" styles of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf, or explorative poems like The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot.
In addition, both modern and postmodern literature explore fragmentariness in narrative- and character-construction. The Waste Land is cited as a means of distinguishing modern and postmodern literature; the poem is fragmentary and employs pastiche like much postmodern literature, but the speaker in The Waste Land says, "these fragments I have shored against my ruins". Modernist literature sees fragmentation and extreme subjectivity as an existential crisis, or Freudian internal conflict, a problem that must be solved, the artist is cited as the one to solve it. Postmodernists, however demonstrate that this chaos is insurmountable. Playfulness is present in many modernist works and they may seem similar to postmodern works, but with postmodernism playfulness becomes central and the actual achievement of order and meaning becomes unlikely. Gertrude Stein's playful experiment with metafiction and genre in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas has been interpreted as postmodern; as with all stylistic eras, no definite dates exist for the rise and fall of postmodernism's popularity.
1941, the year in which Irish novelist James Joyce and English novelist Virginia Woolf both died, is sometimes used as a rough boundary for postmodernism's start. Irish novelist Flann O'Brien completed The Third Policeman in 1939, it was
Corinium Dobunnorum was the Romano-British settlement at Cirencester in the present-day English county of Gloucestershire. Its 2nd-century walls enclosed the second-largest area of a city in Roman Britain, it was the tribal capital of the Dobunni and is thought to have been the capital of the Diocletian-era province of First Britain. A Roman fort was established at Corinium in the territory of the friendly tribe of the Dobunni about a year after the Roman conquest of Britain; the main settlement in the area at the time was the hillfort at Bagendon. Three main Roman roads met in Corinium: the Fosse Way, Akeman Street, Ermin Street. By the mid-70s CE, the military had abandoned the fort and the site became the tribal capital of the Dobunni. Over the next twenty years, a street grid was laid out and the town was furnished with an array of large public stone buildings, two market places, numerous shops and private houses; the forum and basilica were bigger than any other in Britain, apart from Londinium's.
The basilica was decorated with beautifully carved Corinthian capitals, Italian marble wall veneers and Purbeck Marble mouldings. It was built over the ditch of the old fort and the walls cracked and sank, forcing a major rebuilding project in the mid-2nd century. There appears to have been a cattle market adjoining the forum with a market hall and several butchers' shops. A system of wooden water pipes indicates there was an aqueduct but no public baths have been identified; the amphitheatre stood to the south-east of the town in the area now called the Querns. It was built on the site of an old quarry aligned with an unusual feature; as yet, no temples have been located, although numerous fine sculptures show much religious activity in the town. The missing Christian bishop represented by a deacon at the Council of Arles in 314 may come from Corinium; the town was fortified in the late 2nd century. There were five gates and polygonal towers were added to the walls. About fifty years after their construction, there appears to have been a partial collapse and the complex was rebuilt to include small chambers around the circuit.
These may have been convict cells, or small shrines. Corinium seems to have been the home to a number of early private stone houses of wealthy individuals; some date from the 110s. Such buildings continued to be built and occupied throughout the life of the town, but were luxurious during the 4th century, when mosaic floors and fine sculpture were much in evidence, it has been suggested that the town was the centre of both a stone-carving industry, under a certain Sulinus son of Brucetus, a mosaic industry with two schools of art, based on images of the saltire and Orpheus. There were bakers, glass makers and goldsmiths within the walls. Development continued until the 4th century, it remains unclear just where the Diocletian-era provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" were located, but Corinium is now thought to have been the capital of Britannia Prima. Around the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, the town walls were repaired and the forum continued to be cleaned, it was abandoned around 430.
The amphitheatre was the site of a large timber building associated with 5th and 6th-century pottery. It may have been the fortified retreat of King Cyndyddan who fought at the Battle of Dyrham in 577; the grass-covered bowl of the amphitheatre known as the "Bull Ring", is in the care of English Heritage. A small section of the old Roman wall can be seen in the Abbey Park. A large collection of artefacts from Corinium are on display in the Corinium Cirencester. In Robert E. Howard's story "Men of the Shadows", taking place at the time of Roman rule in Britain, a rich merchant of Corinium offers a thousand pieces of gold to anyone who would deliver to him the beautiful sister of Bran Mak Morn, King of the Picts. However, five hundred Roman soldiers who set out across Hadrian's Wall, seeking to gain the reward, are ambushed by the Picts and killed. Wacher, John; the Towns of Roman Britain. London: B T Batsford. Alan McWhirr: Roman Gloucestershire, Gloucester 1981 ISBN 0-904387-63-1, 21-58 Alan McWhirr: Cirencester Excavations III, Houses in Roman Cirencester, Cirencester 1986 ISBN 0950772224
Iași railway station is the main railway station in Iași, one of the oldest in Romania. It is part of the Pan-European Corridor IX. Opened in 1870, the Grand Railway Station first connected Iași to Chernivtsi in Bukovina, Austria-Hungary and, after two years, to Bucharest; the original building designed by Julian Oktawian Zachariewicz-Lwigród and inspired by the Doge's Palace of the Republic of Venice, is 133.8 metres long, has 113 rooms and is listed in the National Register of Historic Monuments. In 1928-1930, two additional wings were symmetrically added to each side of the building. In 1980, a new separate building was constructed on the north side of the complex station and named Iași Nord; the main buildings of the station have been restored with modern additions.- As of 2013, Iași railway station serves about 110 trains in a typical day, including domestic trains to and from a majority of Romanian cities. Additionally, international trains run in the Republic of Moldova; the main lines in Iași are Făurei -- Tecuci -- Iași -- Pașcani.
The station is served by several tram and bus lines operated by CTP Iaşi, the local transit operator. Bus route 50 provides direct service to the Iași International Airport, at specific times of day, correlated with flight arrivals and departures. Arad: 732 km Bacău: 158 km Baia Mare: 533 km Brașov: 453 km București: 406 km Constanța: 430 km Craiova: 631 km Galați: 255 km Oradea: 610 km Suceava: 136 km Timișoara: 788 km Timișoara: 847 km Belgrad: 966 km Berlin: 1,718 km Budapest: 1,279 km Budapest: 858 km Chișinău: 130 km Frankfurt am Main: 1,260 km Kiev: 916 km Kiev: 619 km Sofia: 945 km Venice: 1,710 km Vienna: 1,130 km Trains timetable