Institute of Pacific Relations
The Institute of Pacific Relations was an international NGO established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of problems and relations between nations of the Pacific Rim. The International Secretariat, the center of most IPR activity over the years, consisted of professional staff members who recommended policy to the Pacific Council and administered the international program; the various national councils were responsible for national and local programming. Most participants were elite members of the business and academic communities in their respective countries. Funding came from businesses and philanthropies the Rockefeller Foundation. IPR international headquarters were in Honolulu until the early 1930s when they were moved to New York and the American Council emerged as the dominant national council. IPR was founded in the spirit of Wilsonianism, an awareness of the United States' new role as a world power after World War I, a belief that liberal democracy should be promoted throughout the world.
To promote greater knowledge of issues, the IPR supported conferences, research projects and publications, after 1932 published a quarterly journal Pacific Affairs. After World War II, Cold War charges that the IPR was infiltrated with Communists led to Congressional hearings and loss of tax exempt status. Many IPR members had liberal left orientations typical of internationalists of the 1930s, some ten IPR associates were shown to have been Communists, others were sympathetic to the Soviet Union, the anti-imperialist tone of the leadership aroused resentment from some of the colonial powers, but the more dramatic charges, such as that the IPR was responsible for the fall of China, have not been accepted; the IPR was the result of two sets of one in New York, another in Hawai'i. The New York-based effort was organized by Edward C. Carter, after graduating from Harvard in 1906, joined the Student Volunteer Movement with the YMCA in India worked with the Y in France during World War I. After the war he joined The Inquiry, a liberal Protestant commission with a flavor both genteel and militant which organized conferences and publications on labor, race relations, business ethics, international peace.
Among Carter's constituents were John D. Rockefeller, III, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, daughter of the Rhode Island U. S. Senator, Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, President of Stanford University. Wilbur argued that a new organization devoted to Pacific affairs would fill a gap not addressed by East Coast foreign policy groups. Meanwhile, in Hawai'i, another group was organizing under the leadership of local business interests. Not everyone approved. Time magazine called Carter and The Inquiry a "strange and motley crew", a "little band of élite and erudite adventurers." Some in the American State Department and Navy opposed discussion of Pacific affairs, fearing that it might interfere with strategic planning at a time when Chinese and Japanese nationalism were on the rise. Carter countered with support from the Carnegie Foundation. Using networks of the International YMCA, independent National Councils were organized in other countries, with an International Secretariat in Honolulu; the first conference was held in Honolulu in the summer of 1925, followed by another in Honolulu conferences in Kyoto and Shanghai, Canada, Yosemite, USA, Virginia Beach, USA.
Each conference published its background papers and roundtable discussions in a volume in the series Problems of the Pacific. Edward Carter took responsibility for the American Council; when he became Secretary General in 1933 he lobbied to have the International Headquarters move to New York. Since 1928 his chief assistant had been Frederick V. Field, who worked with him until 1940; the American Council moved energetically on several fronts. One of Carter's concerns was that public opinion needed to be informed and school curriculum deepened. Another area was to subsidize scholarship on all aspects of Asia. Over the next decades, the IPR imprint appeared on hundreds of books, including most of the important scholarship on China and Southeast Asia. Notable was the Chinese Dynastic History Project, headed by the German refugee scholar Karl Wittfogel, which set out to translate and annotate the official histories compiled by each Chinese dynasty for its predecessor. In 1932, the IPR determined to expand its Bulletin into Pacific Affairs.
At the recommendation of longtime treaty port journalist H. G. E. Woodhead, Carter recruited Owen Lattimore, a multi-sided scholar of Central Asia who, did not have a Ph. D; the IPR aimed to include all of the countries of the Pacific, including colonies, such as the Philippines and Korea, the Soviet Union. As friction between Japan and China became more intense, the IPR became more overtly political. In 1931, the Japanese invasion forced the conference to move from Hangzhou to Shanghai. In 1932, the Japanese delegation withdrew and succeeding conferences were held without Japanese representation. Since the USSR was a longtime rival of Japan and a revolutionary Marxist power, Soviet participation raised many questions and problems. Marxist analysis, such as that brought by Wittfogel, was considered by some to add a powerful tool for understanding Chinese history, but Stalin's interest was scarcely limited to discussions and theories. Carter's sympathy for the Soviet Union led him to defend Stalin's purges and trials, although IPR publications contained both favorable and critical treatments of Soviet policies.
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family; the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world." Rockefeller Foundation's activities have included: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom. Construction of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under Ernst Rüdin over the next several years. Funding an experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron, 751 of which were pills, without their consent.
In a 1969 article published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment. As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied with annual grants of $173 million. On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation, he assumed the position March 1, succeeding Judith Rodin who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy and Public Relations began in 1904, influenced by Ida Tarbell's book published about Standard Oil crimes, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which prompted him to whitewash the Rockefeller image.
His initial idea to set up a large-scale foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". It was in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment, they applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.
However, because of the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation – two years after the Carnegie Corporation – with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes; the total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history." The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work.
On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade on the sciences, public health and medical education, it was located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway shifting to the GE Building, along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public heal
Blanchette Ferry Rockefeller
Blanchette Ferry Hooker was the wife of John D. Rockefeller III and mother of Jay Rockefeller, she was twice president of the Museum of Modern Art. Blanchette Ferry Hooker was born in Manhattan, New York on October 2, 1909, she was the daughter of Elon Huntington Hooker, founder of Hooker Chemical Company, his wife, Blanche Ferry. She graduated from Miss Chapin's School in 1927, she graduated from Vassar College in 1931 with a B. A. in music. On November 11, 1932, she married John D. Rockefeller III, a scion of the prominent Rockefeller family, at Riverside Church in New York City, they had four children: John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV Hope Aldrich Rockefeller Sandra Ferry Rockefeller Alida Ferry RockefellerBlanchette devoted her time to community service and the arts - in particular the collection of Asian and American art. "She had been active in the affairs of the Museum of Modern Art since 1949 and was elected a member of the Board of Trustees in December 1952. In 1958, at a time when many Americans derided modern art or thought it communist and subversive, Rockefeller lent her support to the International Program that helped send The New American Painting, the first major exhibition of Abstract Expressionism, to eight European cities."
In 1948, Blanchette Rockefeller commissioned a guest house by architect Philip Johnson. Located at 242 East 52nd Street next to the Turtle Bay Music School, it was one of the first residential buildings in New York City to reflect the influence of the Modern movement; the 1950 guest house was a place in which she could display her modern art collection and entertain friends. The Rockefellers donated the house to the Museum of Modern Art in 1955."Blanchette Rockefeller provided enlightened leadership to MoMA as president of the museum from 1972 through 1985. Two of her most important gifts were Willem de Kooning’s Woman II and Clyfford Still’s Painting, an Abstract-Expressionist landscape; the Abstract Expressionist galleries on the second floor are named in her honor. In 1979 Rockefeller accepted an Oscar on behalf of MoMA’s work in film."The Rockefellers maintained homes in New York City and at "Fieldwood Farm" in the expansive Rockefeller family estate of Pocantico (see Kykuit in Westchester County, New York.
She died in her home near Briarcliff Manor, New York of pneumonia, a complication of Alzheimer's Disease, on November 29, 1992, at the age of 83. Blanchette was buried at Sleepy Hollow, New York; the Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia is named in her honor. Rockefeller family John D. Rockefeller III Kykuit Blanchette H. Rockefeller Archives
William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth prime minister of Canada in 1921–1926, 1926–1930 and 1935–1948, he is best known for his leadership of Canada throughout the Second World War when he mobilized Canadian money and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining morale on the home front. A Liberal with 21 years and 154 days in office, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history. Trained in law and social work, he was keenly interested in the human condition, played a major role in laying the foundations of the Canadian welfare state. King acceded to the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1919. Taking the helm of a party bitterly torn apart during the First World War, he reconciled factions, unifying the Liberal Party and leading it to victory in the 1921 election, his party was out of office during the harshest days of the Great Depression in Canada, 1930–35.
He handled complex relations with the Prairie Provinces, while his top aides Ernest Lapointe and Louis St. Laurent skillfully met the demands of French Canadians. During the Second World War, he avoided the battles over conscription and ethnicity that had divided Canada so in the First World War. Though few major policy innovations took place during his premiership, he was able to synthesize and pass a number of measures that had reached a level of broad national support. Scholars attribute King's long tenure as party leader to his wide range of skills that were appropriate to Canada's needs, he understood the workings of labour. Keenly sensitive to the nuances of public policy, he was a workaholic with a shrewd and penetrating intelligence and a profound understanding of the complexities of Canadian society. A modernizing technocrat who regarded managerial mediation as essential to an industrial society, he wanted his Liberal Party to represent liberal corporatism to create social harmony. King worked to bring compromise and harmony to many competing and feuding elements, using politics and government action as his instrument.
He led his party for 29 years, established Canada's international reputation as a middle power committed to world order. King's biographers agree on the personal characteristics, he lacked the charisma of such contemporaries as Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, or Charles de Gaulle. He lacked a commanding oratorical skill. Cold and tactless in human relations, he had many political allies but few close personal friends, he never lacked a hostess whose charm could substitute for his chill. He kept secret his beliefs in spiritualism and use of mediums to stay in contact with departed associates and with his mother, allowed his intense spirituality to distort his understanding of Adolf Hitler throughout the late 1930s. A survey of scholars in 1997 by Maclean's magazine ranked King first among all Canada's prime ministers, ahead of Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir Wilfrid Laurier; as historian Jack Granatstein notes, "the scholars expressed little admiration for King the man but offered unbounded admiration for his political skills and attention to Canadian unity."
On the other hand, political scientist Ian Stewart in 2007 found that Liberal activists have but a dim memory of him. King was born in Ontario, to John King and Isabel Grace Mackenzie, his maternal grandfather was William Lyon Mackenzie, first mayor of Toronto and leader of the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837. His father was a lawyer, a professor at Osgoode Hall Law School. King had three siblings, he attended Berlin High School. Tutors were hired to teach him more politics, math and French, his father was a lawyer with a struggling practice in a small city, never enjoyed financial security. His parents lived a life of shabby gentility, employing servants and tutors they could scarcely afford, although their financial situation improved somewhat following a move to Toronto around 1890, where King lived with them for several years in a duplex located on Beverley Street while studying at the University of Toronto. King became a lifelong practising Presbyterian with a dedication to applying Christian virtues to social issues in the style of the Social Gospel.
He never favoured socialism. King earned five university degrees, he obtained three degrees from the University of Toronto: B. A. 1895, LL. B. 1896 and M. A. 1897. B. in 1896 from Osgoode Hall Law School. While studying in Toronto he met a wide circle of friends, he was an early member and officer of the Kappa Alpha Society, which included a number of these individuals. It encouraged debate on political ideas, he met Arthur Meighen, a future political rival. King was concerned with issues of social welfare and was influenced by the settlement house movement pioneered by Toynbee Hall in London, England, he played a central role in fomenting a students' strike at the university in 1895. He was in close touch, behind the scenes, with Vice-Chancellor William Mulock, for whom the strike provided a chance to embarrass his rivals Chancellor Edward Blake and President Jam
Spelman College is a private, liberal arts, women's college in Atlanta, Georgia. The college is part of the Atlanta University Center academic consortium in Atlanta. Founded in 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Spelman was the fourth black female institution of higher education to receive its collegiate charter in 1924. Therefore, Spelman College is America's oldest private black liberal arts college for women. Spelman is ranked among the nation's top liberal arts colleges and #1 among black colleges in the United States by U. S. News & World Report; the college is ranked among the top 50 four-year colleges and universities for producing Fulbright and Truman Scholars, was ranked the second largest producer of African-American college graduates who attend medical school. Spelman ranks #1 among baccalaureate origin institutions of African-American women who earned science and mathematics doctoral degrees. Forbes ranks Spelman among the nation's top ten women's colleges; the Princeton Review ranks Spelman among the Best 373 Universities in America.
Spelman is the alma mater of thousands of notable African descendant women including the first African-American COO of Starbucks and CEO of Sam's Club Rosalind Brewer, Pulitzer Prize winner Alice Walker, former Dean of Harvard College Evelynn M. Hammonds and Children's Defense Fund founder Marian Wright Edelman, activist & historian Bernice Johnson Reagon, political activist Stacy Abrams, writer Pearl Cleage, TV personality Rolanda Watts, Opera star Mattiwilda Dobbs, actresses Cassi Davis, LaTanya Richardson, Adrienne-Joi Johnson, Keshia Knight Pulliam, many other luminaries in the arts, sciences and the armed forces. In 2013, Spelman College decided to drop varsity athletics and leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Using money budgeted to the sports programs, they created wellness programs available for all students; the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary was established on April 11, 1881 in the basement of Friendship Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, by two teachers from the Oread Institute of Worcester, Massachusetts: Harriet E. Giles and Sophia B.
Packard. Giles and Packard had met while Giles was a student, Packard the preceptress, of the New Salem Academy in New Salem and fostered a lifelong friendship there; the two of them traveled to Atlanta to found a school for black freedwomen, found support from Frank Quarles, the pastor of Friendship Baptist Church. Giles and Packard began the school with 11 African-American women and $100 given to them by the First Baptist Church in Medford, Massachusetts, and a promise of further support from the Women's American Baptist Home Missionary Society, a group with which they were both affiliated in Boston. Although their first students were illiterate, they envisioned their school to be a liberal arts institution - the first circular of the college stated that they planned to offer "algebra, essays, rhetoric, political economy, mental philosophy, botany, Constitution of the United States, zoology, moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity". Over time, they attracted more students; the WABHMS made a down payment on a nine-acre site in Atlanta close to the church they began in, which had five buildings left from a Union Civil War encampment, to support classroom and residence hall needs.
In 1882 the two women returned to Massachusetts to bid for more money and were introduced to wealthy Northern Baptist businessman John D. Rockefeller at a church conference in Ohio. Rockefeller was impressed by Packard's vision. In April 1884, Rockefeller visited the school. By this time, the seminary had 16 faculty members, it was surviving on generous donations by the black community in Atlanta, the efforts of volunteer teachers, gifts of supplies. Rockefeller was so impressed. Rockefeller's Laura Spelman Rockefeller; the Spelmans were longtime activists in the abolitionist movement. Thus, in 1884 the name of the school was changed to the Spelman Seminary in honor of Laura Spelman, John D. Rockefeller's wife, her parents, who were longtime activists in the anti-slavery movement. Rockefeller donated the funds for what is the oldest building on campus, Rockefeller Hall, constructed in 1886. Packard was appointed as Spelman's first president in 1888, after the charter for the seminary was granted.
Packard died in 1891, Giles assumed the presidency until her death in 1909. The years 1910 to 1953 saw great transition for the seminary. Upon Giles' death, Lucy Hale Tapley became president. Although the college was a stride in and of itself, at the time, neither the founders nor the current administration had interest in challenging the status quo of young women as responsible for the family and the home. Tapley declared: "Any course of study which fails to cultivate a taste and fitness for practical and efficient work in some part of the field of the world's needs is unpopular at Spelman and finds no place in our curriculum." The nursing curriculum was strengthened.
John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles was an American diplomat. A Republican, he served as United States Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959, he was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world. Born in Washington, D. C. Dulles joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell after graduating from George Washington University Law School, his grandfather, John W. Foster, his uncle, Robert Lansing, both served as United States Secretary of State, while his brother, Allen Dulles, served as the Director of Central Intelligence from 1953 to 1961. John Foster Dulles served on the War Industries Board during World War I and he was a U. S. legal counsel at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. He became a member of the League of Free Nations Association, which supported American membership in the League of Nations. Dulles helped design the Dawes Plan, which sought to stabilize Europe by reducing German war reparations.
Dulles served as the chief foreign policy adviser to Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948, he helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter and served as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. In 1949, Dewey appointed Dulles to fill the Senate vacancy caused by the resignation of Sen. Robert F. Wagner, he served for four months but left office after being defeated in a special election by Herbert H. Lehman. After Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election, he chose Dulles as Secretary of State; as Secretary of State, Dulles concentrated on building and strengthening Cold War alliances, most prominently the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He was the architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, an anti-Communist defensive alliance between the United States and several nations in and near Southeast Asia, he helped instigate the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. He favored a strategy of massive retaliation in response to Soviet aggression.
He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina but rejected the Geneva Accords that France and the communists agreed to, instead supported South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference in 1954. Suffering from colon cancer, Dulles resigned from office in 1959 and died that year. Born in Washington, D. C. he was one of five children and the eldest son born to Presbyterian minister Allen Macy Dulles and his wife, Edith. His paternal grandfather, John Welsh Dulles, had been a Presbyterian missionary in India, his maternal grandfather, John W. Foster, doted on Dulles and his brother Allen, who would become the director of the Central Intelligence Agency; the brothers attended public schools in New York. Dulles attended Princeton University and graduated as a member of Phi Beta Kappa in 1908. At Princeton, Dulles competed on the American Whig-Cliosophic Society debate team, he attended the George Washington University Law School in Washington, D. C. Both his grandfather and his uncle, Robert Lansing, the husband of Eleanor Foster, had held the position of Secretary of State.
His younger brother, Allen Welsh Dulles, served as Director of Central Intelligence under Dwight D. Eisenhower, his younger sister Eleanor Lansing Dulles was noted for her work in the successful reconstruction of the economy of post-war Europe during her twenty years with the State Department. On June 26, 1912, Dulles married a first cousin of David Rockefeller, they had a daughter. Their older son John W. F. Dulles was a professor of history and specialist in Brazil at the University of Texas at Austin, their daughter Lillias. Their son Avery Dulles converted to Roman Catholicism, entered the Jesuit order, became the first American theologian to be appointed a Cardinal. Upon graduating from law school and passing the bar examination, Dulles joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, where he specialized in international law. After the start of World War I, Dulles tried to join the United States Army, but was rejected because of poor eyesight. Instead, Dulles received an Army commission as Major on the War Industries Board.
Dulles returned to Sullivan & Cromwell and became a partner with an international practice. In 1915, Dulles's uncle, Robert Lansing, the then-Secretary of State, recruited him to travel to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, ostensibly on Sullivan & Cromwell company business, but in reality to sound out Latin American heads of state on aiding the US war effort against Germany. Dulles advised Washington to support Costa Rica's dictator, Federico Tinoco, on the grounds that he was anti-German, encouraged Nicaragua's dictator, Emianiano Camorro, to issue a proclamation suspending diplomatic relations with Germany. In Panama, Dulles offered waiver of the tax imposed by the United States on the annual Canal fee, in exchange for a Panamanian declaration of war on Germany. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Dulles as legal counsel to the United States delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference where he served under his uncle, Secretary of State Robert Lansing. Dulles made an early impression as a junior diplomat.
While some recollections indicate he and forcefully argued against imposing crushing reparations on Germany, other recollections indicate he ensured Germany's reparation payments would extend for decades as perceived leverage militating against future German borne hostilities. Afterwards, he served as a member of the War Reparations Committee at Wilson's request, he was an early member, along with future First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, of the League of