John Smeaton was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed "civil engineer", is regarded as the "father of civil engineering", he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using powdered brick as aggregate. Smeaton was associated with the Lunar Society. Smeaton was born in Austhorpe, England. After studying at Leeds Grammar School he joined his father's law firm, but left to become a mathematical instrument maker, among other instruments, a pyrometer to study material expansion and a whirling speculum or horizontal top. In 1750, his premises were in the Great Turnstile in Holborn, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1753, in 1759 won the Copley Medal for his research into the mechanics of waterwheels and windmills. His 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" addressed the relationship between pressure and velocity for objects moving in air, his concepts were subsequently developed to devise the'Smeaton Coefficient'.
Smeaton's water wheel experiments were conducted on a small scale model with which he tested various configurations over a period of seven years. The resulting increasing efficiency in water power contributed to the Industrial Revolution. Over the period 1759–1782 he performed a series of further experiments and measurements on water wheels that led him to support and champion the vis viva theory of German Gottfried Leibniz, an early formulation of conservation of energy; this led him into conflict with members of the academic establishment who rejected Leibniz's theory, believing it inconsistent with Sir Isaac Newton's conservation of momentum. In his 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" Smeaton developed the concepts and data which became the basis for the Smeaton coefficient, the lift equation used by the Wright brothers, it has the form: L = k V 2 A C l where: L is the lift k is the Smeaton coefficient- 0.005 was the value as determined by Smeaton corrected to 0.0033 by the Wright brothers C l is the lift coefficient A is the area in square feetThe Wright brothers determined with wind tunnels that the Smeaton coefficient value of 0.005 was incorrect and should have been 0.0033.
In modern analysis, the lift coefficient is normalised by the dynamic pressure instead of the Smeaton coefficient. Smeaton is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, identifying the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime. Portland cement led to the re-emergence of concrete as a modern building material due to Smeaton's influence. Recommended by the Royal Society, Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse, he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse. His lighthouse remained in use until 1877 when the rock underlying the structure's foundations had begun to erode. Deciding that he wanted to focus on the lucrative field of civil engineering, he commenced an extensive series of commissions, including: the Calder and Hebble Navigation Coldstream Bridge over the River Tweed Improvements to the River Lee Navigation Smeaton's Pier in St Ives, Cornwall Perth Bridge over the River Tay in Perth Ripon Canal Smeaton's Viaduct, which carries the A616 road over the River Trent between Newark and South Muskham in Nottinghamshire the Forth and Clyde Canal from Grangemouth to Glasgow Langley on Tyne smelt mill, with Nicholas Walton, acting as receivers to the Greenwich Hospital, London Banff harbour Aberdeen bridge Peterhead harbour Nent Force Level Harbour works at Ramsgate Hexham bridge the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal St Austell's Charlestown harbour in Cornwall Smeaton is considered to be the first expert witness to appear in an English court.
Because of his expertise in engineering, he was called to testify in court for a case related to the silting-up of the harbour at Wells-next-the-Sea in Norfolk in 1782. He acted as a consultant on the disastrous 63-year-long New Harbour at Rye, designed to combat the silting of the port of Winchelsea; the project is now known informally as "Smeaton's Harbour", but despite the name his involvement was limited and occurred more than 30 years after work on the harbour commenced. It closed in 1839. Employing his skills as a mechanical engineer, he devised a water engine for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in 1761 and a watermill at Alston, C
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom; the trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone". The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907; the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland; the Trust has special powers to prevent land being sold off or mortgaged, although this can be over-ridden by Parliament. The National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests, it owns over 350 heritage properties, which includes many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites.
Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased, on terms; the Trust is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 247,000 hectares of land, including many characteristic sites of natural beauty, most of which are open to the public free of charge. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon. In 2015, the trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure; the review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms. The National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee.
It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971. It is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006, its formal purpose is: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money. From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang.
The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy; the last is a notable asset as it comprises an art collection, Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses.
In response, the council asked Sir Henry Benson to chair an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it did little to slow the growth in its membership numbers. In 2005, the trust moved to a new head office in Wiltshire; the building was constructed on an abandoned railway yard, is intended as a model of brownfield renewal. It is named Heelis, taken from the married name of children's author Beatrix Potter, a huge supporter of, donor to, the trust, which now owns the land she owned in Cumbria; the trust is an independent charity rather than a government institution. Historic England and
Edward Topham was an English journalist and playwright. He was the son of Francis Topham, LL. D. Master of Faculties and judge of the Prerogative Court at York, whose feud with Dean Fountayne was lampooned by Laurence Sterne in The History of a Warm Watch Coat. Edward was educated at Eton College under Dr. John Foster, remained there for eleven years. While at school he dabbled in poetry and was one of the leaders in the rebellion against Foster's rule, he was admitted at Trinity College, Cambridge, as pensioner on 22 April 1767, as fellow-commoner on 23 October 1769, but he left without taking a degree. On leaving the university, Topham travelled on the continent and spent six months in Scotland, publishing upon his return in 1776 a volume of Letters from Edinburgh, 1774 and 1775, containing some Observations on the Diversions, Customs and Laws of the Scotch Nation, he purchased a commission in the First Regiment of Lifeguards. By 1777 he was "cornet of his majesty's second Troop of Horse-guards", for about seven years he was the adjutant.
He brought his regiment to a high state of efficiency, for which he received the thanks of the King and figured in the press as "the tip-top adjutant". Topham soon became known in the fashionable world of London for his original style of dress and the ease and elegance of his manners, his personal and sartorial peculiarities were copied by his friend Frederic Reynolds to enliven the characters in his comedies. Meanwhile, Topham's talent as a writer of prologues and epilogues introduced him to the leading actors of the day, led to his first appearance as a playwright. An epilogue, spoken by Charles Lee Lewes in imitation of a Molière character, filled Drury Lane for several nights. Another, on a recent tragedy, spoken by Miss Farren, was popular, he wrote an epilogue for the benefit of Mary Wells, their friendship soon became intimacy. They lived together for several years, four children resulted from the union; the plays produced by Topham during this period of his life were: Deaf Indeed, acted at Drury Lane in December 1780, but not printed.
The Fool' a farce in two acts, performed at Covent Garden, printed in 1786, with a dedication to Mrs. Wells, owing to whose admirable portrayal of "Laura" it was well received. Small Talk, or the Westminster Boy, a farce, acted at Covent Garden for the benefit of Mrs. Wells on 11 May 1786, but not printed; the Westminster Boys resented this production and came to the theatre in force to prevent it from being heard. Bonds without Judgment, or the Loves of Bengal, acted for four nights at Covent Garden in May 1787, but not printed. A daily paper called The World was started by Topham on 1 January 1787. Two of his principal colleagues in its direction were the Rev. Charles Este. John Bell, the publisher, had a share in the management, its "unqualified and audacious attacks on all private characters" were at the start "smiled at for their quaintness tolerated for their absurdity", repudiated with disgust. In it appeared accounts of "elopements and suicides, tricked out in all the elegancies of Mr. Topham's phraseology".
It was in this paper that the fantastic productions of the Della Cruscans, a small set of English poetasters dwelling for the most part at Florence, made their appearance. Topham contributed articles under the title of The Schools, in which he gave reminiscences of many of his companions at Eton, his Life of the Late John Elwes made its first appearance in its columns; this memoir of the miser passed through six editions during 1790, in 1805 reached a twelfth edition, "corrected and enlarged, with a new appendix". A German translation was published at Danzig in 1791. Horace Walpole considered it "one of the most amusing anecdotal books in the English language", it is said to have raised the sale of The World by a thousand copies a day. When George Nassau Clavering, Third Earl Cowper, died at Florence on 22 December 1789, his character was assailed with virulence in The World. Topham was indicted for libel, the case was tried before Buller, who pronounced the articles to have been published with intent to throw scandal on the peer's family and as tending to a breach of the peace.
The proprietor was found guilty, but counsel moved for an arrest of judgment on the ground of the misdirection of the judge to the jury. It was argued at great length before the Court of King's Bench, after a protracted delay Kenyon delivered on 29 January 1791 the judgment of the court in favour of Topham. By the autumn of 1790 he and Este had separated in anger; the latter had acquired a fourth share in the paper, but had surrendered it from 25 December 1788, conditionally, on the payment of an annuity to him. Topham claimed that its payment was dependent on the existence of the paper, Este thereupon "opened a literary battery against him in the Oracle"; the printed letters are appended to a copy of Este's My Own Life at the British Museum. After five years Topham disposed of his paper, abandoned Mary Wells for someone else, retired with his three surviving daughters to Wold Cottage, about two miles from Thwing, East Riding of Yorkshire, it was rumoured that he intended to spend the rest of his days in farming some hundreds of acres of land and in writing the history of his own life.
His kennels were considered the best in England, his greyhound "Snowball" was praised as "one of the
Groningen is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands. It is the largest city in the north of the Netherlands and has 230,000 inhabitants; the Groningen-Assen metropolitan area has about half a milion inhabitants. Groningen is an old city and was the regional power of the north of the Netherlands, a semi-independent city-state and member of the German Hanseatic League. Groningen is a university city, with an estimated 31,000 students at the University of Groningen, an estimated 29,000 at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences; the city was founded at the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950–3720 BC, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century AD. In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority.
The city made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martinitoren 127 metres tall, was built; the city's independence ended in 1536, when it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord. In 1594, until held by Spain, was captured by a Dutch and English force led by Maurice of Nassau. Soon afterwards the city and the province joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded and a new city wall was built; that same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen. The city walls resisted, an event, still celebrated with music and fireworks on August 28; the city did not escape the devastation of World War II.
In particular, the main square, the Grote Markt, was destroyed in April 1945 in the Battle of Groningen. However, the Martinitoren, its church, the Goudkantoor, the city hall were not damaged; the battle lasted several days. Groningen has an oceanic temperate climate, like all of the Netherlands, although colder in winter than other major cities in the Netherlands due to its northeasterly position. Weather is influenced by the North Sea to the north-west and its prevailing north-western winds and gales. Summers are somewhat humid. Temperatures of 30 °C or higher occur sporadically. Rainy periods are common in spring and summer. Average annual precipitation is about 800 mm. Annual sunshine hours vary, but are below 1600 hours, giving much cloud cover similar to most of the Netherlands. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb".. Winters are cool: on average above freezing, although frosts are common during spells of easterly wind from Germany and Siberia.
Night-time temperatures of −10 °C or lower are not uncommon during cold winter periods. The lowest temperature recorded is −26.8 °C on February 16, 1956. Snow falls, but stays long due to warmer daytime temperatures, although white snowy days happen every winter; the municipality of Groningen has grown rapidly. In 1968 it expanded by mergers with Hoogkerk and Noorddijk, in 2019 it merged with Haren and Ten Boer. All historical data are for the original city limits, excluding Hoogkerk, Noorddijk and Ten Boer; until there were two large sugar refineries within the city boundaries. The Suiker Unie plant was outside Groningen, but it was swallowed by the expansion of the city. After a campaign to close the factory, it was shut down in 2008/2009. Before closing down, its sugar production amounted to 250,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 250 employees; the only remaining sugar factory is CSM Vierverlaten in Hoogkerk, which produces 235,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 283 employees. Well known companies from Groningen are publishing company Noordhoff Uitgevers, tobacco company Royal Theodorus Niemeyer, health insurance company Menzis, distillery Hooghoudt, natural gas companies GasUnie and GasTerra.
There is an increased focus on business services. In addition, the hotel and catering industry forms a significant part of the economy of Groningen; the city is nationally known as the "Metropolis of the North" and as "Martinistad" referring to the tower of the Martinitoren, named after its patron saint Martin of Tours. Although Groningen is not a large city, it does have an important role as the main urban centre of this part of the country in the fields of music and other arts and business; the large number of students living in Groningen contributes to a diverse cultural scene for a city of its size. Since 2016 Groningen is host of the International Cycling Film Festival, an annual film festival for bicycle related films, it takes place in the art house cinema of the old Roman Catholic Hospital. The most famous museum in Groningen is
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Ribston Hall is a owned 17th-century country mansion situated on the banks of the River Nidd, at Great Ribston, near Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England. It is a Grade II* listed building; the two-storey mansion presents an impressive fifteen-bay entrance front to the north east. The adjoining chapel is said to contain traces of 13th-century masonry; the estate at Ribston was granted by Robert de Ros to the Knights Templar in 1217 and passed to the Knights Hospitaller on the demise of the templars in the early 14th century. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries the property reverted to the Crown and was granted to the Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, who sold it to Henry Goodricke in 1542. Henry Goodricke was succeeded by his son Richard, who became High Sheriff of Yorkshire for 1579–80, died in 1581. Richard was succeeded by his own son, High Sheriff of Yorkshire for 1591–92 and died in 1601, he was succeeded in turn by Sir Henry Goodricke whose son John was made Baronet Goodricke in 1641.
As a Royalist Sir John suffered in the Civil War, being fined and imprisoned in the Tower of London, from where he escaped to France. After the Restoration he was elected MP for Yorkshire in 1661, sitting until 1670. In 1674 Sir Henry Goodricke, 2nd Baronet, the son of Sir John, was MP for Boroughbridge from 1673 to 1679 and from 1683 to his death in 1705, he built the existing house on the remains of the old property. The new Hall was the home of the Goodricke family until the death of the seventh Baronet in 1833, unmarried, he bequeathed the estate to Francis Littleton Holyoake of Studley Castle on condition that the latter adopted the Goodricke name. In 1836 Francis Holyoake-Goodricke sold the estate to Joseph Dent, of a well-to-do Lincolnshire family, who laid out the pinetum in the estate c. 1857. He was High Sheriff for 1847; the mansion remains the Dent family home. The estate is believed to have given its name to the Ribston Pippin apple. Historic England. "Details from image database". Images of England
William Lewis (scientist)
William Lewis FRS was a British chemist and physician. He is known for his writings related to pharmacy and medicine, for his research into metals. William Lewis, the son of John Lewis, a brewer, was born in Surrey, he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford on 17 March 1730. He was graduated B. A. in 1734, proceeded M. A. 1737, M. B. 1741, M. D. 1745. He practised as a physician, in 1746 was living in Dover Street, but shortly afterwards moved to Kingston upon Thames. At the opening of the Radcliffe Library in 1749, Lewis delivered the oration, he was buried in Richmond. Fellow of the Royal Society Copley Medal A Course of Practical London, 1746, 8vo. Pharmacopœia Edinburgensis, London, 1748, 8vo; the New Dispensatory, London, 1753, Digital edition 8vo, Edinburgh, 1781 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf, 1791. Experimental History of the Materia Medica, London, 1761 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Willhelm Lewis Materia medica oder Beschreibung der einfachen Arzneymittel.
Orell, Geßner, Füeßlin & Co. Zürich 1771 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Commercium Philosophico-Technicum, London, 1763 Digital edition, 4to. Neues verbessertes Dispensatorium oder Arzneybuch, in welchem alles, was zu der Apothekerkunst gehöret, nach den Londoner und Edinburger Pharmacopeen mit practischen Wahrnehmungen und Bemerkungen vorgetragen wird. Brandt, Hamburg 2 Bände 1768/1772 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf The new dispensatory: containing 1; the elements of pharmacy, 2. The materia medica, or an account of the substances employed in medicine, 3; the preparations and compositions of the new London and Edinburgh pharmacopoeias. F. Wingrave, London 6th ed. 1799 Digital edition by the University and State Library DüsseldorfLewis published translations of Caspar Neumann's chemical works in 1759 Digital edition and 1773, of Hoffman's System of the Practice of Medicine. In 1754 and 1757 he published a series of original papers on platinum: Phil.
Trans. R. Soc. 48 638–689, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 50 148–155 & Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 50 156–166. In 1767 the Society for the Improvement of Arts, Manufactures, &c. of which he was a founder, awarded him a gold medal for an essay upon'potashes'. Jungnickel, Christa. Cavendish. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. P. 150. ISBN 0-87169-220-1