click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Variable star

A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth fluctuates. This variation may be caused by a change in emitted light or by something blocking the light, so variable stars are classified as either: Intrinsic variables, whose luminosity changes. Extrinsic variables, whose apparent changes in brightness are due to changes in the amount of their light that can reach Earth. Many most, stars have at least some variation in luminosity: the energy output of our Sun, for example, varies by about 0.1% over an 11-year solar cycle. An ancient Egyptian calendar of lucky and unlucky days composed some 3,200 years ago may be the oldest preserved historical document of the discovery of a variable star, the eclipsing binary Algol. Of the modern astronomers, the first variable star was identified in 1638 when Johannes Holwarda noticed that Omicron Ceti pulsated in a cycle taking 11 months; this discovery, combined with supernovae observed in 1572 and 1604, proved that the starry sky was not eternally invariable as Aristotle and other ancient philosophers had taught.

In this way, the discovery of variable stars contributed to the astronomical revolution of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The second variable star to be described was the eclipsing variable Algol, by Geminiano Montanari in 1669. Chi Cygni was identified in 1686 by G. Kirch R Hydrae in 1704 by G. D. Maraldi. By 1786 ten variable stars were known. John Goodricke himself discovered Beta Lyrae. Since 1850 the number of known variable stars has increased especially after 1890 when it became possible to identify variable stars by means of photography; the latest edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars lists more than 46,000 variable stars in the Milky Way, as well as 10,000 in other galaxies, over 10,000'suspected' variables. The most common kinds of variability involve changes in brightness, but other types of variability occur, in particular changes in the spectrum. By combining light curve data with observed spectral changes, astronomers are able to explain why a particular star is variable.

Variable stars are analysed using photometry, spectrophotometry and spectroscopy. Measurements of their changes in brightness can be plotted to produce light curves. For regular variables, the period of variation and its amplitude can be well established. Peak brightnesses in the light curve are known as maxima. Amateur astronomers can do useful scientific study of variable stars by visually comparing the star with other stars within the same telescopic field of view of which the magnitudes are known and constant. By estimating the variable's magnitude and noting the time of observation a visual lightcurve can be constructed; the American Association of Variable Star Observers collects such observations from participants around the world and shares the data with the scientific community. From the light curve the following data are derived: are the brightness variations periodical, irregular, or unique? What is the period of the brightness fluctuations? What is the shape of the light curve? From the spectrum the following data are derived: what kind of star is it: what is its temperature, its luminosity class? is it a single star, or a binary? does the spectrum change with time?

Changes in brightness may depend on the part of the spectrum, observed if the wavelengths of spectral lines are shifted this points to movements strong magnetic fields on the star betray themselves in the spectrum abnormal emission or absorption lines may be indication of a hot stellar atmosphere, or gas clouds surrounding the star. In few cases it is possible to make pictures of a stellar disk; these may show darker spots on its surface. Combining light curves with spectral data gives a clue as to the changes that occur in a variable star. For example, evidence for a pulsating star is found in its shifting spectrum because its surface periodically moves toward and away from us, with the same frequency as its changing brightness. About two-thirds of all variable stars appear to be pulsating. In the 1930s astronomer Arthur Stanley Eddington showed that the mathematical equations that describe the interior of a star may lead to instabilities that cause a star to pulsate; the most common type of instability is related to oscillations in the degree of ionization in outer, convective layers of the star.

Suppose the star is in the swelling phase. Its outer layers expand; because of the decreasing temperature the degree of ionization decreases. This makes the gas more transparent, thus makes it easier for the star to radiate its energy; this in turn will make the star start to contract. As the gas is thereby compressed, it is heated and the degree of ionization again increases. Thi

Jules Pasdeloup

Jules Étienne Pasdeloup was a French conductor. Pasdeloup was born in Paris, his father was an assistant conductor at the Opéra Comique. He founded in 1851 a Société des jeunes artistes du conservatoire that gave concerts in the Salle Hertz for a decade, and, as conductor of its concerts, did much to popularize the best new compositions of the time, his popular Concerts Pasdeloup at the Cirque d'hiver, from 1861 till 1884, had a great effect in promoting French taste in music, introducing works by Wagner and Schumann, as well as reviving public interest in the symphonies of Mozart and Beethoven. In 1868 he founded the Société des Oratories to present oratorios, joined the Théâtre Lyrique the same year, though he was disappointed there at his lack of popular success in reviving operas like Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride, he was made a member of the Légion d'Honneur. He died, aged 67, in Fontainebleau; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Pasdeloup, Jules Étienne". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. Grove, George, ed.. "Pasdeloup, Jules". A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan and Company. "Rehearsal of the Pasdeloup orchestra at the Cirque d'hiver" John Singer Sargent

Asterix and Obelix All at Sea

Asterix and Obelix All at Sea is the thirtieth volume of the Asterix comic book series, by Albert Uderzo. The album was dedicated to Uderzo's grandchild, as well as to the American actor Kirk Douglas. A band of slaves led by Spartakis has taken over Julius Caesar's personal galley, prompting Caesar to send his Admiral Crustacius to recover the vessel. After some arguing about a safe place to disembark, the slaves set sail for the only place safe from the Romans: the village of indomitable Gauls; the four outlying Roman camps rehearse a parade to welcome Crustacius, pursuing the slaves. Believing the Romans are about to attack, the Gauls prepare for battle. Obelix is denied Getafix's magic potion; as the Gauls return victorious, they find Obelix has turned to stone after drinking a remaining cauldron of magic potion. The former galley slaves are granted refuge. Obelix returns to life, but as a child and deprived of his usual strength, he is kidnapped by Roman soldiers and put on a ship bound for Rome, where Crustacius intends to use him as a bargaining counter for the return of Caesar's galley.

Asterix, Dogmatix and the former slaves set out in pursuit and rescue Obelix at sea. Crustacius and his adjutant Vice-Admiral Nautilus, as well as Caesar's galley, are handed over to the pirates, who plan to ransom them to Caesar. Spartakis and his crew take the Gauls to Atlantis, but the Atlanteans, despite having the secret of eternal youth, cannot restore Obelix's adulthood; the Gauls head homeward. On Caesar's galley, the pirates unwittingly give Crustacius a dose of magic potion from a barrel inadvertently left behind by Getafix, he expels the plans on using his new strength to usurp Caesar. Nautilus's ambition of obtaining a promotion for bringing back the galley is dashed when he forgets to remove the jolly roger flag upon approaching Rome's harbour and the vessel is attacked and sinks; the statue of Crustacius is installed in the Circus Maximus, while Nautilus and his crew are reduced to sweeping the arena. Asked by Cleopatra why he has erected a statue to commemorate his incompetent admiral, Caesar replies that although lions do not eat granite, things may change some day.

On their way back, the Gauls are intercepted by another Roman galley and Asterix is knocked unconscious by a catapult stone. Seeing his friend about to be thrown to the sharks, Obelix recovers his strength and size, rescues him. Obelix propels the galley into the Roman camp of Aquarium, before returning to the village for a feast; the character Spartakis is based on actor Kirk Douglas and his role in the movie Spartacus. This is the only album; the Atlantean palace in the album has been modeled after the ruins of the Minoan civilization. Connections between Atlantis and Minoan Crete have been explored in Atlantis Mystery, Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis, other fiction; the young Obelix lacks his usual great strength. This means he must be under six years old, as he was about that age when he fell into the potion and gained his strength; this album has the closest thing in the Asterix series to a major character dying, as Admiral Crustacius is left trapped in stone form at the end of the story, without Getafix to revert him to normal.

Cleopatra appears in this album alongside Julius Caesar. The young Obelix here pronounces the name of Asterix properly. Croatian: Gali na galiji Czech: Obelix a Caesarova galéra Danish: Så til søs, Obelix! Dutch: De beproeving van Obelix Finnish: Obelixin kaleeri German: Obelix auf Kreuzfahrt Spanish: El mal trago de Obelix Greek: Η γαλέρα του Οβελίξ Italian: Asterix e la galera di Obelix Indonesian: "Obelix Yang Malang" Latin: "Navis actuaria Obeligis" Norwegian: Obelix på galleien Portuguese: A Galera de Obelix O Pesadelo de Obelix Polish: Galera Obeliksa Serbian: Обеликсова галија Swedish: Obelix på galejan On Goodreads, it has a score of 3.85 out of 5. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas English translations of Asterix Atlantis in comics Official website

Jeff Toyne

Jeffrey William Toyne is a Canadian film composer and recipient of Playback Magazine's 2011 Ten to Watch honor. Born in Sault Ste. Marie, Canada, Toyne earned a bachelor's degree in music composition from the University of Western Ontario, he pursued graduate studies in composition at the University of British Columbia, graduating with a master's degree in 1999. Thereafter, he was selected to hold one of the coveted composer-participant positions at the Henry Mancini Institute in Los Angeles. There, while writing and conducting several new works, he had the opportunity to study with such jazz and film artists as Jerry Goldsmith, Jack Smalley, Manny Albam, Michael Abene, Bob Florence, Jim McNeely, John Clayton, Alf Clausen and Horace Silver; this experience was pivotal in broadening Toyne's compositional scope to encompass not only a classical twentieth century idiom, but jazz and popular music. Toyne enrolled in the Scoring for Motion Pictures and Television post-graduate program at the University of Southern California in August 2000.

Following his graduation from the program in May 2001, he began working alongside respected film composer Edward Shearmur in Los Angeles. Toyne completed the score to his first feature film, Maxwell’s Demon, in 1998; the film premiered at the 1998 Atlantic Film Festival, has subsequently aired on both the SPACE and Bravo!. The soundtrack, available on the No Records label, was released that same year. Among his other film credits he counts the feature film Midnight is Coming, over forty short films in which he has collaborated with some of Los Angeles’ finest young directors, including two student Academy Award nominees: Aina Abiodun on The Beginning of Time and Heather Lenz on Back to Back. In 2011, Toyne scored of his first internationally distributed feature film Dirty Girl, directed by Abe Sylvia and distributed by The Weinstein Company. For television, Toyne has composed music for various programs including the pilot The Daily Blade, which received its premiere at the 1999 Atlantic Film Festival, aired on CTV in January 2000.

Among his many awards and distinctions, Mr. Toyne counts the Godfrey Ridout Award from the SOCAN Young Composer's Competition, he has received numerous commissions for new works by several noted organizations including: the Canadian Armed Forces, for which he composed Splendor Sine Occasu, the Official March of the British Columbia Brigade, the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, for which he composed "No Fanfare" as part of their celebration of the 2010 Winter Olympics. In 2013, Toyne was nominated for a Canadian Screen Award for Best Original Music Score for his work on Magic Beyond Words: The JK Rowling Story Abel's Field Murder on the 13th Floor Blooded co-composed with Ilan Eshkeri Dirty Girl Ten Years Later White Light additional music Box Elder Within The New Twenty Shadow in the Trees I. R. A.: King of Nothing additional music The Third Eye Beyond Honor additional music El Padrino additional music Midnight is Coming Maxwell's Demon Rogue Twist of Faith The Real St. Nick Holiday Spin The Devil You Know Magic Beyond Words: The JK Rowling Story Who Is Clark Rockefeller?

Taken in Broad Daylight Make or Break TV The Egg Factory additional music The Two Coreys Parking Lot Guy Second Sight additional music The Perfect Suspect additional music The First Emperor additional music Ultimate Fighter additional music American Casino additional music The Daily Blade Copenhagen Below the Belt Edge of Allegiance 3 Universal Hall Pass - String arrangements Jeff Toyne Website "Alumni in the News". Archived from the original on 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2009-04-01. "Official Website". "Internet Movie Database"

Jason Minett

Jason Minett is a former professional football defender who began his career with Norwich City. His Carrow Road career was limited by injuries, although he went on to play for Exeter city and Lincoln City in the Football League. In 1998, he dropped into non-league football joining Doncaster Rovers and Boston United, his career at Boston stalled when he suffered a broken leg in the 3–0 FA Trophy victory over Tamworth on 13 January 2001. Regaining fitness, he joined King's Lynn ahead of the 2001–02 season. In January 2002 he joined Stocksbridge Park Steels on loan. In April 2002 he moved on to Grantham Town. In the summer of 2004, Minett joined up with his former Grantham manager John Wilkinson at Lincoln United. Wilkinson moved back to manage Grantham in June 2007 and Minett soon followed him to the Gingerbreads. Minett retired from football in June 2008 following Grantham's unsuccessful bid for promotion. Jason Minett at Soccerbase Career info at ex-canaries.co.uk Lincoln City F. C. Official Archive Profile Doncaster Rovers F.

C. Profile Grantham Town F. C. Profile

Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo was a Roman African, early Christian theologian, doctor of the Church, Neoplatonic philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of the Western Church and Western philosophy, indirectly all of Western Christianity. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of God, De doctrina Christiana, Confessions. According to his contemporary, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith". In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism and to neoplatonism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory.

When the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine imagined the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview; the segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople identified with Augustine's On the Trinity. Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion and as a preeminent Doctor of the Church, he is the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, theologians, a number of cities and dioceses. Many Protestants Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. Protestant Reformers and Martin Luther in particular, held Augustine in preeminence among early Church Fathers.

Luther himself was, from 1505 to 1521, a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, his teachings are more disputed, were notably attacked by John Romanides, but other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant approbation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine associated with him, the filioque, was rejected by the Orthodox Church as Heretic Teaching. Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, predestination. Though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, has had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Gregory Palamas. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 15 June. Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch has written: "Augustine's impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated. Augustine of Hippo known as Saint Augustine, Saint Austin, is known by various cognomens throughout the many denominations of the Christian world, including Blessed Augustine, the Doctor of Grace.

Hippo Regius, where Augustine was the bishop, was in Algeria. Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste in the Roman province of Numidia, his mother, Monica or Monnica, was a devout Christian. Scholars agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, but that they were Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity. In his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage. For example, he refers to Apuleius as "the most notorious of us Africans," to Ponticianus as "a country man of ours, insofar as being African," and to Faustus of Mileve as "an African Gentleman". Augustine's family name, suggests that his father's ancestors were freedmen of the gens Aurelia given full Roman citizenship by the Edict of Caracalla in 212. Augustine's family had been Roman, for at least a century when he was born, it is assumed that his mother, was of Berber origin, on the basis of her name, but as his family were honestiores, an upper class of citizens known as honorable men, Augustine's first language is to have been Latin.

At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Thagaste. There he became familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan practices, his first insight into the nature of sin occurred when he and a number of friends stole fruit they did not want from a neighborhood garden. He tells this story in The Confessions, he remembers that he stole the fruit, not because he was hungry, but because "it was not permitted." His nature, he says, was flawed.'It was foul, I loved it. I loved my own error—not that for which I erred, but the error itself." From this incident he concluded the human person is inclined to sin, in need of the grace of Christ. At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus, Augustine went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric, though it was above the financial means of his family. In spite of the good warnings of his mother, as a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lifestyle for a time, associating with