Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"
Sir James Houblon was an influential merchant and Member of Parliament for the City of London. James was baptised at St Mary Woolchurch Haw Church in London on 26 July 1629, the second son of James Houblon, a prosperous merchant and Mary, the daughter of Jean du Quesne, the Younger of London and Canterbury. Both parents were descended from French Huguenot immigrants, he invested in the East India and Iberian trades, specialising in the import of Port wine. He held appointments in the Levant Company. With his younger brother John, he was instrumental in establishing the Bank of England and was a director from the founding of the bank in 1692, he was elected an Alderman of the City of London in 1692, was knighted shortly afterwards. He was elected as the Member of Parliament for the City in July 1698. James was a friend of Samuel Pepys, through him, John Evelyn
John Hanger (banker)
John Hanger was a merchant of Trinity Minories, Governor of the Bank of England from 1719 to 1721 when the Bank of England was involved in the financing of the South Sea Company. His family were associated with the hundred of Bray in Berkshire and a memorial to the family exists in St Michael's Church there. John Hanger was born around 1656, his family were associated with the hundred of Bray. Hanger married Mary Coles, his eldest daughter, married Henry Hare, 3rd Baron Coleraine, in 1718. She was accompanied by a dowry of nearly £100,000; the couple separated only two years without issue, the barony of Coleraine became extinct upon his death in 1749. The title was revived though in 1762 for Hanger's nephew, Gabriel Hanger, who became the 1st Baron Coleraine of the second creation. John Hanger's second daughter, died in 1739 aged 35 and his youngest daughter Elizabeth in 1744–45 aged 38. Hanger was a merchant of Trinity Minories, just outside the boundaries of the City of London but within the liberties of the Tower of London.
He was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England from 1717 to 1719. He replaced Gerard Conyers as governor in 1719 and served as such until 1721 when he was succeeded by Thomas Scawen, he was governor at the time when the Bank of England was intimately involved in the financing of the South Sea Company. In November 1720, he and a party of bank officials visited the company and after enquiring into the security it could give, Hanger read a letter informing them that the bank would only provide the first £400,000 of its agreed rescue subscription of £3m, the future proceeds of which had underpinned the share price. Afterwards, the company's share price collapsed to a new low, the bank's inaction causing, it was said, more families to be ruined than all the actions of the directors of the South Sea Company. In 1871, Hanger featured as a character in W. Harrison Ainsworth's novelisation of those events. Hanger died in 1733 aged 77. A marble memorial to the family exists in St Michael's Church, the details of which were documented by the architectural historian Peter Spokes in the Berkshire Archaeological Journal in 1939
John Rudge (banker)
John Rudge was a London merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons continuously between 1698 and 1734. He was a Governor of the Bank of England from 1713 to 1715. Rudge was the eldest surviving son of Edward Rudge, merchant of London, his wife Susanna Dethick, daughter of Sir John Dethick of London, his father had purchased the manor of Evesham in 1664, represented the borough in Parliament. Rudge was chosen Mayor of Evesham for 1691. On his father's death in 1696, he succeeded to the estate of Evesham Abbey, he married Susanna Letten, the daughter and heiress of John Letten of London on 10 January 1699. Rudge became a leading figure in the City of London. In 1696 he was appointed an assistant in the Royal African Company and to the committee of the East India Company, he was a director of the New East India Company from 1704 to 1708 and a director of the Bank of England from 1699 to 1711. He was elected Deputy Governor of the Bank of England for 1711 to 1713 and made Governor for 1713 to 1715.
He subsequently resumed his directorship from 1715 to his death. He was Deputy-Governor of the South Sea Company from 1721 to 1730. Rudge was elected Member of Parliament for Evesham at a by-election 11 March 1698, returned again at the first general election on 1701; however at the second general election of that year he lost the seat through lack of family support. He regained the seat at Evesham in 1702 and was returned at contests at the general elections of 1705, 1708, 1710, 1713, 1715, 1722 and 1727, he was defeated in a contest at the 1734 general election. He was classed as a Whig and supported the administration after 1715. Rudge died on 22 March 1740 He had a son Edward, two daughters, he was buried in Oxfordshire where his son lwas living. Chief Cashier of the Bank of England Media related to Governors of the Bank of England at Wikimedia Commons
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
Humphry Morice (Governor of the Bank of England)
Humphry Morice was a British merchant, MP and Governor of the Bank of England. He inherited his father's trading business around the age of eighteen, learned finance and speculation from an uncle. Placed in Parliament through a cousin's interest in 1713, his Whig politics provoked a breach with his Tory cousin, he had to be given another seat in 1722 by Robert Walpole's administration, he rose to be Deputy Governor and Governor of the Bank of England in 1727, but unknown to his contemporaries, his fortune was fictitious and he was embezzling from the Bank and his daughters' trust fund. He died in 1731 having poisoned himself to forestall the discovery of his frauds, left behind enormous debts. Humphry was the only son of Humphry Morice, a London merchant trading extensively in Africa, America and Russia, his wife Alice, the daughter of Sir Thomas Trollope, 1st Baronet; because of the early death of his mother, the young Humphry was raised at Werrington, the seat of his uncle Sir William Morice, 1st Baronet.
He succeeded his father in his mercantile business in 1689. His father's will left him in the guardianship of his two uncles and Nicholas; the latter was a skilled financial speculator, who trained Humphry in that business. On 26 June 1704, Humphry married Judith Sandes, the daughter of a London merchant, by whom he had three daughters who survived him. Morice's mercantile business was extensive: he was one of four creditors for £18,000 of another merchant gone bankrupt in 1707, he owned over £4,000 of Bank of England stock in 1710, making him eligible to become a director of the institution. Morice did, in fact, become a director in 1716, continued to hold that office, He was involved with the launch of the South Sea Company, acting as a commissioner for subscriptions in 1711. Morice several times testified on trade subjects before Parliament: in 1707 on losses in the West Indies trade due to the lack of convoys, in 1710 and 1713 in favour of dismantling the Royal African Company's monopoly on West African trade.
In light of his activity and wealth, he not unnaturally wished to enter Parliament. In 1715, Humphry Morice, named "the foremost London slave merchant of his time" by the 1985 gathering of Atlantic Slave Trade Scholars at the University of Nantes, commissioned the spectacular Whydah Gally merchant ship, the following year appointed Dutch Captain Lawrence Prince as its commander. After transporting and selling nearly 500 Africans into slavery in the Caribbean, the Whydah was captured in the lower Bahamas by the pirate Captain Samuel Bellamy and appointed his flagship. With upwards of five tons of treasure aboard Whydah taken from more than 50 ships in the Caribbean and the North American coast, Bellamy sailed her to Cape Cod where she wrecked on the shoals of Wellfleet 26 April 1717. Massachusetts Bay Colony Governor Samuel Shute commissioned noted cartographer Captain Cyprian Southack to recover anything of value from the Whydah wreck, but, as he expressed with great exasperation in a number of letters to the governor, continuing storms, deadly surf and intense resistance from the local community prevented the recovery of anything valuable.
In 1984, underwater explorer Barry Clifford discovered the Whydah, in 1985 he recovered the ship's bell embossed with the words "The Whydah Gally 1716", making it the world's first authenticated pirate shipwreck discovered. Humphry's cousin Sir Nicholas had succeeded to the Werrington estate baronetcy in 1690, with it a strong electoral interest the boroughs of Launceston and Newport. Humphry asked Nicholas to put him into Parliament in 1710, but as all his seats were promised, Humphry did not enter the House of Commons until 1713, sitting with Nicholas for Newport. Unlike the Tory Nicholas, Humphry leaned towards the Whigs, voted in 1714 against the expulsion of Sir Richard Steele from Parliament for advocating the Hanoverian succession in a pamphlet, his recorded Parliamentary activity shows a continued interest in the African trade. Humphry "appeared in a most splendid manner at court" to celebrate the birthday of the new Prince of Wales in late 1714 irritating his cousin. Nonetheless, Nicholas again put Humphry in for Newport at the 1715 election.
The bond between the two was violently strained in 1716, when Humphry, after giving Nicholas to understand that he opposed the Septennial Act, voted for it instead. Humphry followed Robert Walpole into opposition to the government the following year, for the time being, both he and Nicholas were opponents of the sitting ministry. However, on Walpole's return to the cabinet in 1720, he recruited Humphry to whip the London Whigs for crucial votes. Nicholas ran out of patience, rather brusquely informed Humphry to look to Walpole for a seat, as he would not be returning him for Newport at the next election. Walpole was, in fact, willing to do so, arranged through Lord Falmouth to have Morice returned for Grampound in 1722, again in 1727. Meanwhile, Morice's wife had died in 1720, on 5 June 1722, he married Catherine, daughter of Peter Paggen of Wandsworth and widow of William Hale, they had two sons and Nicholas. Morice served as Deputy Governor of the Bank of England from 1725 to 1726, as Governor from 1727 to 1729.
During this period, he defrauded the bank of £29,000 by presenting fictitious bills of exchange for discounting by the Bank. He died on 16 November 1731 of gout, but he was believed to have poisoned himself to forestall exposure. After his deat
Bank of England £50 note
The Bank of England £50 note is a banknote of the pound sterling. It is the highest denomination of banknote issued for public circulation by the Bank of England; the current cotton note, first issued in 2011, bears the image of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse and the images of engineer and scientist James Watt and industrialist and entrepreneur Matthew Boulton on the reverse. £50 notes were introduced by the Bank of England for the first time in 1725. The earliest notes were issued as needed to individuals; these notes were written on one side only and bore the name of the payee, the date, the signature of the issuing cashier. With the exception of the Restriction Period between 1797 and 1821, when the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars caused a bullion shortage, these notes could be exchanged in full, or in part, for an equivalent amount of gold when presented at the bank. If redeemed in part, the banknote would be signed to indicate the amount, redeemed. From 1853 printed notes replaced handwritten notes, with the declaration "I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of fifty pounds" replacing the name of the payee.
This declaration remains on Bank of England banknotes to this day. A printed signature of one of three cashiers appeared on the printed notes, although this was replaced by the signature of the Chief Cashier from 1870 onwards; the ability to redeem banknotes for gold ceased in 1931 when Britain stopped using the gold standard. The £50 note ceased to be produced by the Bank of England in 1943 and did not reappear until it was reintroduced in 1981; these D series notes were predominantly olive green on both sides, with an image of Queen Elizabeth II on the front and an image of architect Christopher Wren on the back. As a security feature, this note had a metallic thread running through it, upgraded to a "windowed" thread from July 1988 onward; the thread is woven into the paper such that it forms a dashed line, yet appears as a single line when held up to the light. The series D note was replaced by the series E, beginning in 1994; this reddish note replaced Christopher Wren with John Houblon, the first governor of the Bank of England, on the reverse.
As an additional security feature, these notes had a foil patch on the front. The E revision series didn't have a £50 note; the current £50 note was introduced in 2011. It features two portraits on the reverse: engineer and scientist James Watt and industrialist and entrepreneur Matthew Boulton, along with the Whitbread Engine and the Soho Manufactory, Birmingham; the note has a number of security features in addition to the metallic thread, including motion thread, raised print, a watermark, microlettering, a see-through register, a colourful pattern that only appears under ultraviolet light. The current note is the first Bank of England banknote to feature two people on the reverse, the first Bank of England note to feature the motion thread security feature; this is an image in a broken green thread. The Bank of England has issued new £5 and £10 notes in polymer form. In October 2018, the Bank of England announced that the £50 note would be retained, with a new Series G polymer note planned to replace the Series F note at some point after 2020.
The Bank of England has a committee to consider nominations for the face of the new notes via public consultation. Peter Sands, an advisor to the British Government and former Chief Executive of Standard Chartered, has raised concern with the Bank of England over high denomination notes and their role in tax evasion, he claimed that scrapping the £50, other high denomination notes such as the CHF 1000 and $100, would reduce financial crime. Information taken from Bank of England website. Bank of England note issues Bank of England website