click links in text for more info

John Joseph Montgomery

John Joseph Montgomery was an American inventor, physicist and professor at Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California, best known for his invention of controlled heavier-than-air flying machines. In the 1880s Montgomery, a native of Yuba City, California made manned flight experiments in a series of gliders in the United States in Otay Mesa near San Diego, California. Although not publicized in the 1880s, these early flights were first described by Montgomery as part of a lecture delivered at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation at Chicago, 1893; these independent advances came after gliding flights by European pioneers such as George Cayley's coachman in England and Jean-Marie Le Bris in France. Although Montgomery never claimed firsts, his gliding experiments of the 1880s are considered by some historians and organizations to have been the first controlled flights of a heavier-than-air flying machine in America or in the Western Hemisphere, depending on source. Montgomery devised different control methods for his gliders, including weight shifting for roll and an elevator for pitch.

Subsequent designs used hinged, pilot-operated trailing edge flaps on the wings for roll control, full wing warping systems for roll and for both pitch and roll. In the early 1880s Montgomery began studying the anatomy of a variety of large soaring birds to determine their basic characteristics, like wing area, total weight and curved surfaces, he made detailed observations of birds in flight large soaring birds such as eagles, hawks and pelicans which soared on thermals near San Diego Bay. He attempted to achieve manned flight with ornithopters. In 1883, he built and experimented with a series of three ornithopters but found that human strength was insufficient to generate the necessary lift, he abandoned flapping-wing flight, preferring instead to emulate soaring birds with fixed-wing craft. He reasoned that it would be possible to solve the physics of gliding and soaring flight and add a motor. Montgomery first tested his concepts for the design and control of gliders with small-scale, free flight models.

His first glider in 1883-84 had a cambered airfoil based on the curve of the seagull wing. Pitch was controlled by an operable elevator and roll was controlled by pilot weight shift. Yaw was uncontrolled; this aircraft design served as the basis for three gliders over the period 1883-1886. In the spring of 1884, Montgomery made flights of up to 600 feet from the rim of Otay Mesa. During experiments with this craft, Montgomery found that the glider would not respond well to side gusts, he returned to ornithology and noted how turkey vultures had significant dihedral and twisted their wings as a form of lateral balance. Emulating these control methods, in 1884-1885 he incorporated hinged flaps into the trailing edge of a second glider; these were held under spring tension for automatic balance in gusts, but were connected through cables to the pilot's seat so they could be operated mechanically by the pilot for roll control. In essence these flaps were early ailerons; the second glider had a flat plate airfoil, considerable dihedral for stability and an operable elevator for pitch control.

Montgomery devised an inclined rail system so the piloted glider could roll from the top of a hill and attain enough speed for flight. In the winter of 1885-86, Montgomery constructed a third glider, it had a cambered airfoil modeled after the wings of a vulture, though the leading and trailing edges were turned upward slightly. The wing, was "gull" shaped. Controls allowed the pilot to vary the angle of incidence of the left and right wing either in unison or independently. Dihedral and an operable elevator were included. Montgomery concluded that a better understanding of aerodynamics was needed for the design of a proper airfoil. In an 1893 speech, Montgomery said that flights were made in these three craft during the period 1884-1886, with the occasional assistance of at least three friends and two younger brothers. Of the flight trials with the second craft Octave Chanute's account in 1893 noted "several trials were made, but no effective lift could be obtained." Of the third craft Chanute wrote "this last apparatus proved an entire failure, as no effective lifting effect could be obtained from the wind sufficient to carry the 180 lbs. it was designed to bear."Montgomery's own account made clear that he considered the technology of the second and third gliders of 1885 and 1886 as effective, but the airfoil designs were a disappointment in terms of lift-generation as they produced much shorter gliding flights in comparison to the first craft of 1884.

He realized he was getting farther from understanding the mechanism of lift and began controlled laboratory experiments to investigate airfoils. In 1886, he considered filing a patent caveat for lateral balancing, but did not. About 1885 Montgomery began a long series of experiments with a whirling arm device, a smoke chamber, a water current table and large wooden surfaces angled into the wind in order to understand the physics of flow around curved surfaces, he used dried bird wings placed in wind currents to observe the effect. His work in the 1880s confirmed that mechanical systems used by a pilot could preserve lateral balance and some degree of equilibrium in gliding flight, his experiments confirmed the value of a cambered surface for obtaining lift. In 1893 Montgomery visited the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, intending to attend a lecture by electrical expert Nikola Tesla. Upon arrival, he heard of the International Conference on Aerial Navigation to take place the first

USS Kearsarge (1861)

USS Kearsarge, a Mohican-class sloop-of-war, is best known for her defeat of the Confederate commerce raider CSS Alabama during the American Civil War. Kearsarge was the only ship of the United States Navy named for Mount Kearsarge in New Hampshire. Subsequent ships were named Kearsarge in honor of the ship. Kearsarge was built at Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, under the 1861 American Civil War emergency shipbuilding program; the new 1,550 long tons steam sloop-of-war was launched on 11 September 1861. Soon after, she was hunting for Confederate raiders in European waters. Kearsarge departed Portsmouth on 5 February 1862 for the coast of Spain, she sailed to Gibraltar to join the blockade of Confederate raider CSS Sumter, forcing the ship's abandonment there in December of 1862. However, Sumter's commanding Captain, Raphael Semmes, having returned to England for reassignment, was soon recommissioning off the Azores, in international waters, the newly built British sloop Enrica as CSS Alabama.

From there, Alabama went on to become on of the most successful commerce raiders in naval history. From Cádiz in November of 1862 until March 1863 Kearsarge prepared for her engagement with Alabama; the following year, on 14 June 1864, Kearsarge found Alabama in port. The raider had returned there for much needed repairs after a long, multiple ocean cruise at the expense of 65 Union merchant ships. Kearsarge took up station at the harbor's entrance to await Semmes' next move. On 19 June, Alabama stood out of Cherbourg Harbor for her last action. Mindful of French neutrality, Kearsarge's new commanding officer, Capt. John A. Winslow, took the sloop-of-war clear of territorial waters turned to meet the Confederate cruiser. Alabama was the first to open fire, while Kearsarge held her reply until she had closed to less than 1,000 yd. Steaming on opposite courses, the ships moved in seven spiraling circles on a southwesterly course, as each commander tried to cross his opponent's bow to deliver deadly raking fire.

The battle turned against Alabama due to her poor gunnery and the quality of her long-stored and deteriorated powder and shells. Unknown at the time to Captain Semmes aboard the Confederate raider, Kearsarge had been given added protection for her vital machinery by chain cable mounted in three separate, vertical tiers along her port and starboard midsection; this hull armor had been installed in just three days, more than a year before, while Kearsarge was in port at the Azores. It was made using 720 ft of 1.7 in single-link iron chain and covered hull spaces 49 ft 6 in long by 6 ft 2 in deep. It was stopped up and down in three layers to eye-bolts with marlines and secured by iron dogs; this was concealed behind 1 in deal-boards painted black to match the upper hull's color. This chain cladding was placed along Kearsarge's port and starboard midsection down to her waterline, for the purpose of protecting her engines and boilers when the upper portion of the cruiser's coal bunkers were empty.

This armor belt was hit twice during the fight, first in the starboard gangway by one of Alabama's 32-pounder shells which cut the chain armor, denting the hull planking underneath again by a second 32-pounder shell that exploded and broke a link of the chain, tearing away a portion of the deal-board covering. If the shells had been delivered by Alabama's more powerful 100-pounder Blakely pivot rifle, the impacts were more than 5 ft above the waterline and would therefore have missed her vital machinery. One hour after she fired her first salvo, Alabama was reduced to a sinking wreck by Kearsarge's more accurate gunnery and its powerful 11 in Dahlgren smoothbore pivot cannons. Alabama went down by the stern shortly after Semmes struck his colors, threw his sword into the sea to avoid capture, sent one of his two remaining longboats to Kearsarge with a message of surrender and a rescue appeal for his surviving crew. Kearsarge sent ship's boats for the majority of Alabama's survivors, but Semmes and 41 others were rescued instead by the nearby British yacht Deerhound and escaped to the United Kingdom.

The battle between Kearsarge and Alabama is honored by the United States Navy by a battle star on the Civil War campaign streamer. In addition, 17 of Kearsarge's crew received the Medal of Honor for valor during this action: Michael Aheam John F. Bickford William S. Bond James Haley Mark G. Ham George H. Harrison John Hayes James H. Lee Charles Moore Joachim Pease Thomas Perry William B. Poole Charles A. Read George E. Read James Saunders William Smith Robert StrahanThe medals were awarded on 31 December 1864. Kearsarge sailed along the French coast in an unsuccessful search for the commerce raider CSS Florida proceeded to the Caribbean before turning northward for Boston, where she was decommissioned for repairs on 26 November, she was recommissioned four months on 1 April 1865 and sailed for the coast of Spain on 14 April in an attempt to intercept CSS Stonewall. The Confederate ram eluded Federal warships and surrendered to Spanish authorities at Havana, Cuba on 19 May. After cruising the Mediterranean Sea and the English Channel south to Monrovia, Kearsarge was decommissioned on 14 August 1866 in the Boston Navy Yard.

Kearsarge was recommissioned on 16 January 1868 and sailed on 12 February to serve in the South Pacific, operating out of Valparaíso, Chile. On 22 August, she landed prov

Elder Sign: Omens

Elder Sign: Omens is a video game developed by Fantasy Flight Games based on a board game of the same name. It was released on iOS on October 31, 2011, on PC on November 27, 2013; the iOS version has a Metacritic rating of 87% based on 5 critic reviews. GameCritics said "Not only is it a great use of classic horror material with top-notch production, it's a superb portable boardgame that doesn't require the effort and schedule coordination needed to gather a group of friends on the weekend. " Gamezebo said "Rather than porting the classics of their catalogue, Fantasy Flight Games has paired a new print release with a great digital version that should have no problem moving boxed copies of their latest game. It's a far lengthier experience than most mobile gamers will be used to in a single session, but after spending an hour in the world of Elder Sign: Omens, you'll begin to wonder how the world could survive without you. " 148Apps wrote "A fantastic, atmospheric game with gorgeous visuals and tremendous replay value.

You'd have to be insane to pass this up, regardless. " wrote "This is one of the most atmospheric games I have played on the iPad so far though this isn't a RPG with dialogues, quests or plot but a simple turnbased game of dice against the clock that's based on luck as well as rudimentary tactics. " AppSpy said "The Lovecraftian mythos is used and abused as a cheap shortcut for instilling thrills or mystery in to an otherwise bland story or experience. " The PC version earned a score of 85% by CD-Action, which wrote "Computer adaptation of a tabletop game based on Lovecraft’s work crushes players with distinct atmosphere of ancient tomes, sinister incantations, old cults and Elder Gods."

SS Cape Mohican (T-AKR-5065)

The SS Cape Mohican is a steam turbine powered heavy-lift SEABEE barge carrier, one of two ships of her type in the Military Sealift Command's Ready Reserve Force. She was built as the Maritime Administration type hull SS Tillie Lykes, ON 536672, IMO 7223314, under MARAD contract, for commercial use with the Lykes Brothers Steamship Company, she was laid down on 15 July 1971 at the General Dynamics Shipyard in Quincy, hull no. 20. She was launched on 23 September 1972, delivered for service on 16 March 1973; the ship was turned over to MARAD on 20 March 1986, assigned to MSC's RRF as SS Cape Mohican. Cape Mohican was activated for service during Desert Storm, has performed various transportation duties over the years, she is berthed at Port of Oakland, California as part of the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Regular maintenance and sea trials keep her ready to activate on five days' notice; the Cape Mohican was the source of a 1996 spill of 40,000 gallons of heavy fuel oil in San Francisco Bay causing $3.625 million in natural resources damages.

On May 21, 2001, the SS Cape Mohican was participating in an exercise at Chilpo Beach, just north of Pohang, South Korea. While in the harbor, heavy winds caused her to drag anchor 150 feet and run aground on rocks, causing damage to her hull and internal tanks; this damage required salvage work and emergency dry-docking along with 1500 tons of steel to make her seaworthy again SS Cape May sister ship This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Factsheet on the website of the MSC NavSource Online Service Ship Photo Archive: Mohican Maritime Administration Record Detail: Mohican

Right to keep and bear arms

The right to keep and bear arms is the people's right to possess weapons for their own defense. Only a few countries accept that their people have a right to keep and bear arms and protect it on a statutory level, fewer protect such a right on a constitutional level; the Bill of Rights 1689 allowed Protestant citizens of England to "have Arms for their Defence suitable to their Conditions and as allowed by Law" and restricted the ability of the English Crown to have a standing army or to interfere with Protestants' right to bear arms "when Papists were both Armed and Imployed contrary to Law" and established that Parliament, not the Crown, could regulate the right to bear arms. Sir William Blackstone wrote in the 18th century that the right to have arms was auxiliary to the "natural right of resistance and self-preservation" subject to suitability and allowance by law; the term arms as used in the 1600s, the term refers to the process of equipping for war. It is used as a synonym for weapon.

Inclusion of this right in a written constitution is uncommon. In 1875, 17 percent of constitutions included a right to bear arms. Since the early twentieth century, "the proportion has been less than 9 percent and falling". In their historical survey and comparative analysis of constitutions dating back to 1789, Tom Ginsburg and colleagues "identified only 15 constitutions that had included an explicit right to bear arms. All of these constitutions have been in Latin America, most were from the 19th century". Where modern constitutions refer to arms at all, the purpose is "to allow the government to regulate their use or to compel military service, not to provide a right to bear them". Constitutions which guaranteed a right to bear arms are those of Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico and the United States of America. Nearly all of the Latin American examples were modelled on that of the United States. At present, out of the world's nearly 200 constitutions, three still include a right to bear arms: Guatemala and the United States.

Colombians can not bear arms. The 1993 gun law states that "only the government can import, export and market firearms, ammunition and their components, arms making equipment, all activities thereto pertaining"; the state agency in charge of weapons and explosives manufacture, main supplier to the Colombian Armed Forces is Indumil. While protecting the right to keep arms, Guatemalan constitution specifies that this right extends only to "weapons not prohibited by law". Although not explicitly protected by the constitution, the right to keep and bear arms is conditionally guaranteed by Honduran Statute law. Mexican constitution of 1857 first included right to be armed. In its first version, the right was defined in similar terms as it is in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. A new Mexican constitution of 1917 relativized the right, stating that its utilization must be in line with local police regulations. Another change was included in 1971 Constitution. Since Mexicans have the right to be armed only within their home and further utilization of this right is subject to statutory authorization in Federal law.

The Czech lands were at the forefront of the spreading of civilian firearms ownership. In the 1420s and 1430s, firearms became indispensable tools for the peasant Hussite armies, whose amateur combatants, including women, fended off a series of invasions of professional crusader armies of well-armored warriors with cold weapons. Throughout and after the Hussite wars, firearms design underwent fast development and their possession by civilians became a matter of course. First firearms regulation was enacted in 1517 as a part of general accord between the nobles and burghers and in 1524 as a standalone Enactment on Firearms; the 1517 law explicitly stated that "all people of all standing have the right to keep firearms at home" while at the same time enacting a universal carry ban. The 1524 enactment set out a process of issuing of permits for carrying of firearms and detailed enforcement and punishment for carrying without such a permit. Carrying became again permitless until 1852, when Imperial Regulation No. 223 again introduced carry permits.

Since inception through the Hussite revolution, the right to keep firearms endured for over half-millennia until the Nazi gun ban during the German occupation in the 20th century. Firearms possession became subject to government permission during the communist dictatorship with only those deemed loyal to the communist party being able to be armed. After return of liberty, the Czech Republic instated shall issue permitting process, under which all residents can keep and bear arms subject to fulfillment of regulatory conditions. In the Czech Republic, every resident that meets conditions laid down in Act No. 119/2002 Coll. has the right to have firearms license issued and can obtain a firearm. Holders of D and E licenses, which are shall-issue, can carry up to two concealed firearms for protection; the right to be armed is statutorily protected, however it is not listed in the constitution. A proposal to have right to keep and bear arms included in the constitution was entered in the Czech Parliament in December 2016.

The proposal was approved by vote of 139 to 9 on 28 June 2017 by the Chamber of Deputies. It failed to reach necessary support in Senate, where only 28 out of 59 Senators present supported it. A new proposal was en

Mick Donnellan

Mick Donnellan is an Irish playwright, noir novelist, creative writing teacher and journalist. Donnellan completed the MA in Writing at NUI Galway in 2004. Since he has worked as a novelist, travel writer and playwright, he completed his first novel, El Niño, in 2005 and secured a literary agent. He left Ireland soon after and went on to live in Spain and Canada. While traveling he worked as a travel writer and journalist and co-founded the arts paper Urban Pie in Vancouver. Upon returning to Ireland he went on to work with Druid and RTE, he established his own theatre company, Truman Town Theatre. All Truman Town Plays are written and produced by Donnellan; the company exploded on to the theatrical circuit in 2011 with their hit play Sunday Morning Coming Down. Following a national tour, they went on to produce two more hugely successful plays: Shortcut to Hallelujah and Gun Metal Grey; these dramas became known as the Ballinrobe Trilogy. Taking a quick step back into the fiction world, El Niño was published in 2012, Donnellan is in negotiations to sell the film rights.

Moving from rural settings but not themes, the company toured a fourth Play, Velvet Revolution. An intense two hander set in a stark urban landscape, it created interest in Mick's work among the film industry, he followed Velvet Revolution with his fifth Play – Radio Luxembourg and it was optioned by London Film Company Dixon/ Baxi/ Evans and adapted for the screen. While the film was in development, Donnellan's second novel – “Fisherman’s Blues.“ was published to great acclaim. As it rose up the ranks, enjoyed positive reviews, Mick was taken on board as joint screenwriter on the Radio Luxembourg/Tiger Raid project alongside writers Simon Dixon and Gareth Coulam Evans. After some months commuting to and from London, the script was locked down and a shoot organised in the Jordanian desert. Titled Tiger Raid and directed by Simon Dixon, it starred Brian Gleeson, Damian Molony and Sofia Boutella, it was accepted into the Tribeca film festival and was seen at Cannes and Edinburgh, the Irish Premiere was screened at the Galway Film Fleadh.

Tiger Raid was produced by Gareth Coulam Evans and the executive producer was Aporva Baxi. Most Donnellan completed work on the exciting screen adaptation of his play Shortcut to Hallelujah with Florence Films. Hot off the press, the screenplay is titled Sam and is based on the gypsy curse set on the Mayo Football team as they returned home as All Ireland Champions in 1951. Set in the present day, Sam is drenched in modern-day dark humour; the script has been met with keen interest by film actors throughout the industry. In May 2019 his third novel was published, it was called Mokusatsu. Donnellan enjoys lecturing drama and theatre at NUI Galway and adult evening classes in creative writing at the AIT in County Westmeath. El Niño' Buy now Fisherman's Blues 2014 * Mokusatsu published May 2019. Sunday Morning Coming Down Shortcut to Hallelujah Gun Metal Grey Velvet Revolution Radio Luxembourg Nally Tiger Raid Recently completed third novel - "Mokusatsu." Touring writing workshops nationally and abroad Freelance journalist Various screen and playwrighting commissions