Santa Clara, California

Santa Clara is a city in Santa Clara County, California. The city's population was 116,468 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the ninth-most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Located on the southern coast of San Francisco Bay west of San Jose and 45 miles southeast of San Francisco, the city was founded in 1777 with the establishment of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, the eighth of 21 California missions; the city was incorporated in 1852. The mission, the city, the county are all named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara is located in the center of Silicon Valley and is home to the headquarters of several high-tech companies such as Intel, it is home to Santa Clara University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of California, built around Mission Santa Clara de Asís. Levi's Stadium, the home of the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers, is located in the city. Santa Clara is bordered by San Jose on all sides, except for Sunnyvale to the west, Cupertino to the west.

The first European to visit the valley was José Francisco Ortega in 1769. He found the area inhabited by Native Americans, whom the Spanish called the Costanos, "coast people" known as the Ohlone; the Spanish began to colonize California with 21 missions and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis was founded in 1777. In 1846, the American flag was raised over Monterey and symbolized the transfer of the sovereignty of the California Republic over to the United States. In 1851, Santa Clara College was established on the grounds of the original Mission. In 1852, Santa Clara was incorporated as a town. For the next century the economy centered on agriculture since orchards and vegetables were thriving in the fertile soil. By the beginning of the 20th century, the population had reached 5,000 and stayed about the same for many years. In 1905, the first public high-altitude flights by humans were made over Santa Clara in gliders designed by John J. Montgomery; the semiconductor industry, which sprouted around 1960, changed the city and surrounding Valley of Heart's Delight.

Santa Clara's first medical hospital was built in 1963. This structure, on Kiely Boulevard, was replaced in 2007 with the new Kaiser Permanente medical center located on Lawrence Expressway at Homestead Road. Santa Clara was home to a major mental health facility, Agnews State Hospital. According to the National Park Service, more than 100 persons were killed at this site in the 1906 earthquake; the site is the former home to Sun Microsystems and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Downtown Santa Clara: the 1963 City Council voted to knock down the 8 block grid of downtown area next to Santa Clara University bordered by Lafayette, Benton and Homestead to receive federal funding from Urban Renewal in USA. In 2018 there is a parking lot and Franklin Mall on Washington St with the one state historical building is, Santa Clara Post Office, apartment building, county courthouse, strip mall. Santa Clara is drained by three seasonal creeks, all of which empty into the southern portion of San Francisco Bay.

There are some significant biological resources within the city including habitat for the burrowing owl, a species of special concern in California due to reduction in habitat from urban development during the latter 20th century. This owl uses burrows created by ground squirrels and prefers level grasslands and disturbed areas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 18.4 square miles, all of it land. Despite being located only 45 miles from San Francisco, Santa Clara's climate is rather distinct—particularly during the summer, when it is warm and sunny, as opposed to the foggy and cool conditions one finds in San Francisco; the average daily temperatures in July range from 82 °F to 53 °F. Winters are mild, with the mean daily temperatures in January ranging from 58 °F to 38 °F. Most of the annual rainfall comes in the winter months; the 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Clara had a population of 116,468. The population density was 6,327.3 people per square mile.

The ethnic makeup of Santa Clara was 52,359 White, 3,154 African American, 579 Native American, 43,889 Asian, 651 Pacific Islander, 9,624 from other races, 6,212 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22,589 persons; the Census reported that 113,272 people lived in households, 2,860 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 336 were institutionalized. There were 43,021 households, out of which 14,477 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,817 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,081 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,038 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,146 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 312 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,906 households were made up of individuals and 2,945 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63. There were 27,936 families; the age distribution of the population was as follows: 24,774 people were under the age of 18, 12,511 people (10

Sara Josephine Baker

Sara Josephine Baker was an American physician notable for making contributions to public health in the immigrant communities of New York City. Her fight against the damage that widespread urban poverty and ignorance caused to children newborns, is her most lasting legacy. In 1917, she noted that babies born in the United States faced a higher mortality rate than soldiers fighting in World War I, drawing a great deal of attention to her cause, she is known for tracking down Mary Mallon, the infamous index case known as Typhoid Mary. Baker was born in New York in 1873 to a wealthy Quaker family. After her father and brother died of typhoid, Baker felt pressure to support her mother and sister financially. So, at the age of 16, Baker decided on a career in medicine. After studying chemistry and biology at home, she enrolled in the New York Infirmary Medical College, a medical school for women, founded by the sisters and physicians Elizabeth Blackwell and Emily Blackwell; the only class she failed—"The Normal Child", taught by Dr. Anne Daniel—led to her fascination with the future recipient of her attention, "that little pest, the normal child".

Upon graduation as second in her class in 1898, Baker began a year-long internship at the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston. Baker began practicing as a private physician in New York City following her internship. In 1901, Baker passed the civil service exam and qualified to be a medical inspector at the Department of Health. Known as “Dr. Joe,” she wore masculine-tailored suits and joked that colleagues forgot that she was a woman; the way to keep people from dying from disease, it struck me was to keep them from falling ill. Healthy people don’t die, it sounds like a witless remark, but at that time it was a startling idea. Preventative medicine had hardly been had no promotion in public health work. After working diligently in the school system, Baker was offered an opportunity to help lower the mortality rate in Hell's Kitchen, it was considered the worst slum in New York at the turn of the century, with as many as 4,500 people dying every week. Baker decided to focus on the infant mortality rate in particular, as babies accounted for some 1,500 of the weekly deaths.

Most of the infant deaths were caused by dysentery, though parental ignorance and poor hygiene were indirectly to blame. Baker and a group of nurses started to train mothers in how to care for their babies: how to clothe infants to keep them from getting too hot, how to feed them a good diet, how to keep them from suffocating in their sleep, how to keep them clean, she set up a milk station. Commercial milk at that time was contaminated, or mixed with chalky water to improve colour and maximize profit. Baker invented an infant formula made out of water, calcium carbonate and cow milk; this enabled mothers to go to work. Baker aided in the prevention of infant blindness, a scourge caused by gonorrhea bacteria transmitted during birth. To prevent blindness, babies were given drops of silver nitrate in their eyes. Before Baker arrived, the bottles in which the silver nitrate was kept would become unsanitary, or would contain doses that were so concentrated that they would do more harm than good. Baker designed and used small containers made out of antibiotic beeswax that each held a single dose of silver nitrate, so the medication would stay at a known level of concentration and could not be contaminated.

Through Josephine Baker's efforts, infants were much safer. But there was still one area: at birth. Babies were delivered by midwives, who were excluded from the formal training available to doctors. Baker convinced New York City to license midwives to ensure some degree of expertise. While Baker was campaigning to license midwives, treat blindness, encourage breastfeeding, provide safe pasteurized milk, educate mothers, older children were still getting sick and malnourished. Baker worked to make sure each school had its own doctor and nurse, that the children were checked for infestations; this system worked so well that head lice and the eye infection trachoma, diseases once rampant in schools, became non-existent. Early in her career, Baker had twice helped to catch Mary Mallon known as "Typhoid Mary". Mallon was the first known healthy carrier of typhoid, who instigated several separate outbreaks of the disease and is known to have infected more than 50 people through her job as a cook. At least three of the people she infected died.

Mallon was not the only repeat offender nor the only typhoid-contagious cook in New York City at the time, but she was unique in that she did not suffer any ill-effects of the disease and in that she was the only patient placed in isolation for the rest of her life. Josephine Baker was becoming famous, so much so that New York University Medical School asked her to lecture there on children’s health, or "child hygiene", as it was known at the time. Baker said she would if she could enroll in the school; the school turned her down, but acquiesced after looking unsucessfully for a male lecturer to match her knowledge. In 1917, Baker became the first woman to receive a doctorate in public health. After the United States entered World War I, Baker became better known. Most of this publicity was generated from her comment to a New York Times reporter, she told him that it was "six times safer to be soldier in the trenches of France than to be a baby born in the United Stat

McIntyre House (Salt Lake City, Utah)

The McIntyre House is a historic mansion built in 1898 and located at 259 E. 7th Ave. in Salt Lake City, Utah. It was designed by architect Frederick Albert Hale; the home was listed by the National Park Service on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. According to its NRHP nomination, the house was commissioned by Gilbert S. "Gill" Peyton and first called "Peyton Hall."Peyton, a Nebraska pharmacist who perfected and patented a cyanide-based method for extracting gold dust from mud made his way to Utah where he and his partners purchased the abandoned Mercur Mine and became wealthy. The house was sold in 1901 to fellow mining executive William H. McIntyre who founded the McIntyre Ranch, one of the largest working ranches in Canada, his descendants lived in "McIntyre House" until the property was purchased by the president of the LDS Church in 1963 for use by LDS Hospital and Brigham Young University College of Nursing and renamed "Colonial House."Following fifty years of institutional usage, in 2013 the property returned to its previous name and private ownership when a family purchased and restored the residence