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John Knox

John Knox was a Scottish minister and writer, a leader of the country's Reformation. He was the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church, he was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent Mary of Guise. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549. While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain, he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. In England, he married his first wife, Margery Bowes; when Mary I ascended the throne of England and re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox was forced to resign his position and leave the country.

Knox moved to Geneva and to Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity, he created a new order of service, adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He left Geneva to head the English refugee church in Frankfurt but he was forced to leave over differences concerning the liturgy, thus ending his association with the Church of England. On his return to Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility; the movement may be seen as a revolution, since it led to the ousting of Mary of Guise, who governed the country in the name of her young daughter Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk, he continued to serve as the religious leader of the Protestants throughout Mary's reign. In several interviews with the Queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices.

When she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband Lord Darnley and King James VI was enthroned in her stead, Knox called for her execution. He continued to preach until his final days. John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian, his father, William Knox, was a merchant. All, known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child, their eldest son, carried on his father's business, which helped in Knox's international communications. Knox was educated at the grammar school in Haddington. In this time, the priesthood was the only path for those whose inclinations were academic rather than mercantile or agricultural, he proceeded to further studies at the University of St Andrews or at the University of Glasgow. He studied under one of the greatest scholars of the time. Knox was ordained a catholic priest in Edinburgh on Easter Eve of 1536 by William Chisholm, Bishop of Dunblane.

Knox first appears in public records as a priest and a notary in 1540. He was still serving in these capacities as late as 1543 when he described himself as a "minister of the sacred altar in the diocese of St. Andrews, notary by apostolic authority" in a notarial deed dated 27 March. Rather than taking up parochial duties in a parish, he became tutor to two sons of Hugh Douglas of Longniddry, he taught the son of John Cockburn of Ormiston. Both of these lairds had embraced the new religious ideas of the Reformation. Knox did not record when or how he was converted to the Protestant faith, but the key formative influences on Knox were Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart. Wishart was a reformer, he first moved to England. He was forced to make a public recantation and was burned in effigy at the Church of St Nicholas as a sign of his abjuration, he took refuge in Germany and Switzerland. While on the Continent, he translated the First Helvetic Confession into English, he returned to Scotland in 1544.

In December 1543, James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault, the appointed regent for the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, had decided with the Queen Mother, Mary of Guise, Cardinal David Beaton to persecute the Protestant sect that had taken root in Scotland. Wishart travelled throughout Scotland preaching in favour of the reformation and when he arrived in East Lothian, Knox became one of his closest associates. Knox acted as his bodyguard. In December 1545, Wishart was seized on Beaton's orders by the Earl of Bothwell and taken to the Castle of St Andrews. Knox was present on the night of Wishart's arrest and was prepared to follow him into captivity, but Wishart persuaded him against this course saying, "Nay, return to your bairns and God bless you. One is sufficient for a sacrifice." Wishart was subsequently prosecuted by Beaton's Public Accuser of Archdeacon John Lauder. On 1 March 1546, he was burnt at the stake in the presence of Beaton. Knox had avoided being arrested by Lord Bothwell through Wishart's advice to return to tutoring.

He took shelter with Douglas in Longniddry. Several months he was still in charge of the pupils, the sons of Douglas and Cockburn, who wearied of moving from place to place while being pursued, he toyed with the idea of taking his pupils with him. While Knox remained a fugitive, Beaton was murdered on 29 May 1546, within his residence, the Castle of St Andrews, by

Regina Jacobs

Regina Jacobs is an American former middle-distance runner from Los Angeles. She had an extended career that included two IAAF World Championships in Athletics silver medals and an indoor world championship at the age of 39. Three months her career ended after winning what would have been a fifth straight National Championship in the 1500 meters when she was disqualified and banned for doping related to the BALCO scandal. After graduating from Stanford University, Jacobs represented the US in three consecutive Summer Olympics, starting in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. Jacobs took second place in the 1500 m race at the 6th World Championships in Athletics in Athens in 1997, again won the silver medal in the 1500 m at the World Championships in Sevilla in 1999. In her years of running she won 25 national titles. On February 1, 2003, at age 39 Jacobs set a world record in the indoor 1500 m with a time of 3:59.98, becoming the first woman to break 4 minutes in the event. Jacobs remains the only American woman to run under 4 minutes in the indoor 1500 meters and stands as the USATF American Indoor record holder in 2015.

In 2003, she retired after she tested positive for BALCO's'designer' steroid THG and was suspended from competing in track & field for four years by the United States Anti-Doping Agency. Following her ban and subsequent retirement, Jacobs became a real estate agent in the Oakland, California area, she works for The Grubb Co. Realtors. Regina Jacobs at World Athletics Evans, Hilary. "Regina Jacobs". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Jacobs handed ban from BBC Regina Jacobs Sets 1500M World Record from Cool Running Steroid Is Reportedly Found In Top Runner's Urine Test from The New York Times

Cartography of Ukraine

The Cartography of Ukraine is the history of surveying and creation of maps of Ukraine. Maps of Ukraine have been produced since the late mediaeval period. During the Turkish wars, high-quality French maps were kept as state secrets amid diplomatic negotiations, while 20th-century maps have reflected the region's multiple changes of government. Ukraine is absent from the maps of the Turkish manuscript mapping tradition that flourished during the fifteenth-century reign of Mehmed II the Conqueror. Two centuries one of the more prominent cartographers working with Ukraine was Guillaume le Vasseur, sieur de Beauplan, his 1639 descriptive map of the region was the first such map produced, after he published a pair of Ukraine maps of different scale in 1660, his drawings were republished throughout much of Europe. A copy of de Beauplan's maps played a crucial rôle in negotiations between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire in 1640. English-language maps of 1769 depicted the Crimean Khanate as part of its suzerain, the Ottoman Empire, with clear boundaries between the Muslim states in the south and the Christian states to the north.

Another map from the eighteenth century, inscribed in Latin, was careful to depict a small buffer zone between Kiev and the Polish border. In more recent history, maps of the country have reflected the tumultuous state of its political status and relations with Russia. Geography of Ukraine