The Mainau Declaration is either of two socio-political appeals by Nobel laureates who participated in the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, the annual gathering with young scientists at the German town of Lindau. The name denotes that these declarations were presented on Mainau Island in Lake Constance, the traditional venue of the last day of the one-week meeting; the first Mainau Declaration was an appeal against the use of nuclear weapons. Initiated and drafted by German nuclear scientists Otto Hahn and Max Born, it was circulated at the 5th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting and presented on Mainau Island on 15 July 1955; the declaration was signed by 18 Nobel laureates. Within a year, the number of supporters rose to 52 Nobel laureates. We, the undersigned, are scientists of different countries, different creeds, different political persuasions. Outwardly, we are bound together only by the Nobel Prize. With pleasure we have devoted our lives to the service of science, it is. We see with horror that this science is giving mankind the means to destroy itself.
By total military use of weapons feasible today, the earth can be contaminated with radioactivity to such an extent that whole peoples can be annihilated. Neutrals may die thus as well as belligerents. If war broke out among the great powers, who could guarantee that it would not develop into a deadly conflict? A nation that engages in a total war imperils the whole world. We do not deny that peace is being preserved by the fear of these weapons. We think it is a delusion if governments believe that they can avoid war for a long time through the fear of these weapons. Fear and tension have engendered wars, it seems to us a delusion to believe that small conflicts could in the future always be decided by traditional weapons. In extreme danger no nation will deny itself the use of any weapon that scientific technology can produce. All nations must come to the decision to renounce force as a final resort. If they are not prepared to do this, they will cease to exist; the initial 18 signatories were: Kurt Alder Max Born Adolf Butenandt Arthur H. Compton Gerhard Domagk Hans von Euler-Chelpin Otto Hahn Werner Heisenberg George Hevesy Richard Kuhn Fritz Lipmann Hermann Joseph Muller Paul Hermann Müller Leopold Ruzicka Frederick Soddy Wendell M. Stanley Hermann Staudinger Hideki Yukawa The Mainau Declaration 2015 on Climate Change was presented on Mainau Island, Germany, on the occasion of the last day of the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting on Friday 3 July 2015.
It is an urgent warning of the consequences of climate change and was signed by 36 Nobel laureates. In the months thereafter, 35 additional laureates joined the group of supporters of the declaration; as of February 2016, a total of 76 Nobel laureates endorse the Mainau Declaration 2015. The text of the declaration states that although more data needs to be analysed and further research has to be done, the climate report by the IPCC still represents the most reliable scientific assessment on anthropogenic climate change, that it should therefore be used as a foundation upon which policymakers should discuss actions to oppose the global threat of climate change. We undersigned scientists, who have been awarded Nobel Prizes, have come to the shores of Lake Constance in southern Germany, to share insights with promising young researchers, who like us come from around the world. Nearly 60 years ago, here on Mainau, a similar gathering of Nobel Laureates in science issued a declaration of the dangers inherent in the newly found technology of nuclear weapons—a technology derived from advances in basic science.
So far we have avoided nuclear war. We believe. Successive generations of scientists have helped create a more prosperous world; this prosperity has come at the cost of a rapid rise in the consumption of the world’s resources. If left unchecked, our ever-increasing demand for food and energy will overwhelm the Earth’s ability to satisfy humanity’s needs, will lead to wholesale human tragedy. Scientists who study Earth’s climate are observing the impact of human activity. In response to the possibility of human-induced climate change, the United Nations established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to provide the world’s leaders a summary of the current state of relevant scientific knowledge. While by no means perfect, we believe that the efforts that have led to the current IPCC Fifth Assessment Report represent the best source of information regarding the present state of knowledge on climate change. We say this not as experts in the field of climate change, but rather as a diverse group of scientists who have a deep respect for and understanding of the integrity of the scientific process.
Although there remains uncertainty as to the precise extent of climate change, the conclusions of the scientific community contained in the latest IPCC report are alarming in the context of the identified risks of maintaining human prosperity in the face of greater than a 2 °C rise in average global temperature. The report concludes that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are the cause of the current global warming of the Earth. Predictions from the range of climate models indicate that this warming will likely increase the Earth’s temperature over the coming century by more than 2 °C above its pre-industrial level unless dramatic reductions are made in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases over the coming decades. Based on the IPCC assessment, the world must make rapid progress towards lower
A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole; the field includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies; the study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present.
Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture, for example in the work of Euclid, Thales of Miletus and Aristarchus. Roots emerged in ancient Asian culture and in the Islamic medieval period, for example the work of Alhazen in the 11th century; the modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; the experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology; the broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape.
Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. A standard undergraduate physics curriculum consists of classical mechanics and magnetism, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, laboratory experience. Physics students need training in mathematics, in computer science. Any physics-oriented career position requires at least an undergraduate degree in physics or applied physics, while career options widen with a Master's degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. For research-oriented careers, students work toward a doctoral degree specializing in a particular field. Fields of specialization include experimental and theoretical astrophysics, atomic physics, biological physics, chemical physics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, gravitational physics, material science, medical physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, radiophysics, electromagnetic field and microwave physics, particle physics, plasma physics.
The highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. National physics professional societies have many awards for professional recognition. In the case of the American Physical Society, as of 2017, there are 33 separate prizes and 38 separate awards in the field; the three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last. Physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr./Jr. Scientist, or postdocs; as per the American Institute of Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D.s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software and about 11% are in business/education. A majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. Job titles for graduate physicists include Agricultural Scientist, Air Traffic Controller, Computer Programmer, Electrical Engineer, Environmental Analyst, Medical Physicist, Oceanographer, Physics Teacher/Professor/Researcher, Research Scientist, Reactor Physicist, Engineering Physicist, Satellite Missions Analyst, Science Writer, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer, Microelectronics Engineer, Radar Developer, Technical Consultant, etc.
A majority of Physics terminal bachelor's degree holders are employed in the private sector. Other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching. Typical duties of physicists with master's and doctoral degrees working in their domain involve research and analysis, data preparation, instrumentation and development of industrial or medical equipment and software development, etc. Chartered Physicist is a chartered status and a professional qualification awarded by the Institute of Physics, it is denoted by the postnominals "CPhys". Achieving chartered status in any profession denotes to the wider community a high level of specialised subject knowledge and professional competence. According to the Institute of Physics, holders of the award of the Chartered Physicist demonst
F. J. Duarte
Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics. He introduced the generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory, has discovered various multiple-prism grating oscillator laser configurations, pioneered polymer-nanoparticle gain media, his contributions have found applications in a variety of fields including astronomical instrumentation, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, gravitational lensing, laser medicine, laser microscopy, laser pulse compression, laser spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, tunable diode lasers. Duarte's research focuses on physical optics and laser development, his work has taken place at a number of institutions in the academic and defense sectors. Duarte and Piper introduced multiple-prism near-grazing-incidence grating cavities which were disclosed as copper-laser-pumped narrow-linewidth tunable laser oscillators. Subsequently, he developed narrow-linewidth multiple-prism grating configurations for high-power CO2 laser oscillators and solid-state tunable organic laser oscillators.
Duarte conceived the multiple-prism dispersion theories for tunable narrow-linewidth laser oscillators, multiple-prism laser pulse compression, which are summarized in several of his books. The introduction to this theory is the generalized multiple-prism dispersion equation ∇ λ ϕ 2, m = H 2, m ∇ λ n m + − 1 which has found a variety of applications, his tunable narrow-linewidth laser oscillator configurations have been adopted by various research groups working on uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation. This work was supported by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. During the course of this research, Duarte writes that he did approach the federal minister for energy, Sir John Carrick, to advocate for the introduction of an AVLIS facility in Australia. In 2002, he participated in research that led to the isotope separation of lithium using narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers. From the mid-1980s to early 1990s Duarte and scientists from the US Army Missile Command developed ruggedized narrow-linewidth laser oscillators tunable directly in the visible spectrum.
This constituted the first disclosure, in the open literature, of a tunable narrow-linewidth laser tested on a rugged terrain. This research led to experimentation with polymer gain media and in 1994 Duarte reported on the first narrow-linewidth tunable solid state dye laser oscillators; these dispersive oscillator architectures were refined to yield single-longitudinal-mode emission limited only by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Joint research, with R. O. James, on solid-state organic-inorganic materials, led to the discovery of polymer-nanoparticle gain media and to the emission of tunable low-divergence homogeneous laser beams from this class of media. In 2005, Duarte and colleagues were the first to demonstrate directional coherent emission from an electrically excited organic semiconductor; these experiments utilized. Duarte's work in this area began with the demonstration of narrow-linewidth laser emission using coumarin-tetramethyl dyes which offer high conversion efficiency and wide tunability in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In the late 1980s, he invented the digital N-slit laser interferometer for applications in imaging and microscopy. Concurrently, he applied Dirac’s notation to describe quantum mechanically its interferometric and propagation characteristics; this research led to the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, applied to describe classical optics phenomena such as interference, diffraction and reflection, in a generalized and unified quantum approach that includes positive and negative refraction. He derived the cavity linewidth equation, for dispersive laser oscillators, using quantum mechanical principles. Further developments include large N-slit laser interferometers to generate and propagate interferometric characters for secure free-space optical communications. Interferometric characters is a term coined in 2002 to link interefometric signals to alphanumerical characters; these experiments provided the first observation of diffraction patterns superimposed over propagating interference signals, thus demonstrating non-destructive interception of propagating interferograms.
A spin-off of this research, with applications to the aviation industry, resulted from the discovery that N-slit laser interferometers are sensitive detectors of clear air turbulence. Duarte provides a description of quantum optics entirely via Dirac's notation, in his book Quantum Optics for Engineers. In this book he derives the probability amplitude for quantum entanglement, | ψ ⟩ = 1 2 ( | x ⟩ 1 | y ⟩
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism; the concept was expanded to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency, predominantly in the electromagnetic spectrum, though matter waves and acoustic waves can be considered forms of radiative energy. Spectroscopic data are represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopy in the electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental exploratory tool in the fields of physics and astronomy, allowing the composition, physical structure and electronic structure of matter to be investigated at atomic scale, molecular scale, macro scale, over astronomical distances. Important applications arise from biomedical spectroscopy in the areas of tissue analysis and medical imaging. Spectroscopy and spectrography are terms used to refer to the measurement of radiation intensity as a function of wavelength and are used to describe experimental spectroscopic methods.
Spectral measurement devices are referred to as spectrometers, spectrophotometers, spectrographs or spectral analyzers. Daily observations of color can be related to spectroscopy. Neon lighting is a direct application of atomic spectroscopy. Neon and other noble gases have characteristic emission frequencies. Neon lamps use collision of electrons with the gas to excite these emissions. Inks and paints include chemical compounds selected for their spectral characteristics in order to generate specific colors and hues. A encountered molecular spectrum is that of nitrogen dioxide. Gaseous nitrogen dioxide has a characteristic red absorption feature, this gives air polluted with nitrogen dioxide a reddish-brown color. Rayleigh scattering is a spectroscopic scattering phenomenon. Spectroscopic studies were central to the development of quantum mechanics and included Max Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation, Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect and Niels Bohr's explanation of atomic structure and spectra.
Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra. As a result, these spectra can be used to detect and quantify information about the atoms and molecules. Spectroscopy is used in astronomy and remote sensing on Earth. Most research telescopes have spectrographs; the measured spectra are used to determine the chemical composition and physical properties of astronomical objects. One of the central concepts in spectroscopy is its corresponding resonant frequency. Resonances were first characterized in mechanical systems such as pendulums. Mechanical systems that vibrate or oscillate will experience large amplitude oscillations when they are driven at their resonant frequency. A plot of amplitude vs. excitation frequency will have a peak centered at the resonance frequency. This plot is one type of spectrum, with the peak referred to as a spectral line, most spectral lines have a similar appearance. In quantum mechanical systems, the analogous resonance is a coupling of two quantum mechanical stationary states of one system, such as an atom, via an oscillatory source of energy such as a photon.
The coupling of the two states is strongest when the energy of the source matches the energy difference between the two states. The energy of a photon is related to its frequency by E = h ν where h is Planck's constant, so a spectrum of the system response vs. photon frequency will peak at the resonant frequency or energy. Particles such as electrons and neutrons have a comparable relationship, the de Broglie relations, between their kinetic energy and their wavelength and frequency and therefore can excite resonant interactions. Spectra of atoms and molecules consist of a series of spectral lines, each one representing a resonance between two different quantum states; the explanation of these series, the spectral patterns associated with them, were one of the experimental enigmas that drove the development and acceptance of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen spectral series in particular was first explained by the Rutherford-Bohr quantum model of the hydrogen atom. In some cases spectral lines are well separated and distinguishable, but spectral lines can overlap and appear to be a single transition if the density of energy states is high enough.
Named series of lines include the principal, sharp and fundamental series. Spectroscopy is a sufficiently broad field that many sub-disciplines exist, each with numerous implementations of specific spectroscopic techniques; the various implementations and techniques can be classified in several ways. The types of spectroscopy are distinguished by the type of radiative energy involved in the interaction. In many applications, the spectrum is determined by measuring changes in the intensity or frequency of this energy; the types of radiative energy studied include: Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahe
Allen V. Astin
Allen Varley Astin was an American physicist who served as director of the United States National Bureau of Standards from 1951 until 1969. During the Second World War he worked on the proximity fuse, he was an advocate for introduction of metric measures to the United States. Allen Astin was the eldest of three children of a school teacher in Utah. Astin's father died, he graduated from the University of Utah physics program and in 1928 was granted a PhD in physics from New York University. That same year, Astin obtained a two-year fellowship for studies at Johns Hopkins University. Upon completing the fellowship he secured a staff position at the National Bureau of Standards working his way up to his appointment as Director in May, 1952; the National Bureau of Standards began researching electric batteries in 1917 as part of the war effort. In its annual report for 1918, the bureau announced: "The need of the development of specifications and methods of test for electric batteries has long been recognized.
The needs of the military departments have become so urgent that the study of batteries has been undertaken."In addition to testing batteries for other government agencies, the NBS tested battery additives of various kinds purported to improve battery life and performance. Though testing continued until 1957 no additive was found to have beneficial effects; as far back as 1931, in order to respond to an increasing number of requests for battery additive testing, the Bureau issued Letter Circular 302, Battery Compounds and Solutions. The letter stated: "The tests confirm the Bureau's previous conclusions that these materials do not charge storage batteries nor do they materially improve the performance of the batteries." The controversy began when an entrepreneur, Jess M. Ritchie, CEO of Pioneers, a company based in Oakland, CA, began marketing a battery additive AD-X2 under the brand "Protecto-Charge" shortly after the end of World War II. By 1948 sales of Protecto-Charge had started to pick up, but when Ritchie was made aware of LC 302, he became concerned enough that he leveraged his connections with the Oakland Better Business Bureau to put pressure on the NBS to test his product.
Despite its stated position that battery additives were worthless and in response to the mounting political pressure, the NBS went ahead and tested AD-X2 in early 1949, with the expected result that it had no beneficial effect. This wasn't the result that Ritchie wanted, he continued escalating his political campaign. In 1953, a year after Astin was appointed Director of the NBS, the US Post Office, in conjunction with the Federal Trade Commission, issued a postal fraud order banning the use of mailings to promote Ritchie's product. Sinclair Weeks, the appointed Secretary of Commerce, called Astin in and demanded his resignation, which he did immediately; the politically driven circumstances of Astin's dismissal was picked up by the press and political cartoonists. An article by Drew Pearson, a Washington Post syndicated columnist, led to a national uproar in the scientific community; the Federation of American Scientists and the American Physical Society protested the politicization of the NBS with its reputation for unbiased, science-based research.
Over 400 staff members of the NBS threatened to resign. Chastened after weeks of controversy and Congressional testimony by Astin and others, Secretary Weeks reversed his decision and reinstated Astin on August 22, 1953, some five months after demanding he resign. Allen Astin is the father of actor John Astin and educator Dr. Alexander Astin, the grandfather of actors Mackenzie Astin and Sean Astin; the Allen V. Astin Measurement Science Award, first issued in 1984, is presented by the United States Department of Commerce for achievement in metrology; the American National Standards Institute issues the Astin-Polk International Standards Medal for distinguished service in standardization, measurement or certification. NCSL International issues the Allen V. Astin award for best overall conference paper
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, behavior through space and time, that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, chemistry and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics which are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies.
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have transformed modern-day society, such as television, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. Early civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization, had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun and stars; the stars and planets were worshipped, believed to represent gods. While the explanations for the observed positions of the stars were unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for astronomy, as the stars were found to traverse great circles across the sky, which however did not explain the positions of the planets. According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
Egyptian astronomers left monuments showing knowledge of the constellations and the motions of the celestial bodies, while Greek poet Homer wrote of various celestial objects in his Iliad and Odyssey. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period, when pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause, they proposed ideas verified by reason and observation, many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics. In the sixth century Isidore of Miletus created an important compilation of Archimedes' works that are copied in the Archimedes Palimpsest. In sixth century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noting its flaws.
He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until John Philoponus appeared, unlike Aristotle who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote: “But this is erroneous, our view may be corroborated by actual observation more than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a small one, and so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other”John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo cited Philoponus in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed. In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus, it was a step toward the modern ideas of momentum. Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method; the most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn al-Haytham, in which he conclusively disproved the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he presented a study of the phenomenon of the camera obscura (his thousand-year-old
Jun Ye is a Chinese-American physicist at JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Colorado at Boulder, working in the field of atomic and optical physics. Ye was born in Shanghai, shortly after the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, his father was his mother an environmental scientist. He was raised by his grandmother. Ye graduated with a bachelor's degree in physics from Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 1989, he moved to the United States to commence graduate studies, completing a master's degree at the University of New Mexico under Marlan Scully in theoretical quantum optics in 1991. He gained experience in experimental physics under John McInerney working on semiconductor lasers, spent a summer at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ye went to the University of Colorado Boulder to begin a Ph. D. in physics. He was accepted as the last graduate student of eventual Nobel Prize laureate John L. Hall, his thesis was on high-resolution and high-sensitivity molecular spectroscopy, which he completed in 1997.
He moved to California Institute of Technology as a Milikan Postdoctoral Fellow, working under Jeff Kimble. Ye moved back to Boulder and JILA as a JILA Associate Fellow and NIST physicist in 1999. John Hall donated most of his lab space to him, he was promoted to full Fellow in 2001 and has been there since, establishing a research program in AMO physics and precision measurement. Ye's research focuses on ultracold atoms, ultracold molecules, laser-based precision measurement, his group has built record breaking precise experimental optical atomic clocks. In 2017 Ye's JILA group reported an experimental 3D quantum gas strontium optical lattice clock in which strontium-87 atoms are packed into a tiny three-dimensional cube at 1,000 times the density of previous one-dimensional clocks, like the 2015 JILA clock. A synchronous clock comparison between two regions of the 3D lattice yielded a record level of synchronization of 5 × 10−19 in 1 hour of averaging time; the 3D quantum gas strontium optical lattice clock uses an unusual state of matter called a degenerate Fermi gas.
The experimental data showed the 3D quantum gas clock achieved a precision of 3.5 × 10−19 in about two hours. In 2018 JILA reported that the 3D quantum gas clock reached a frequency precision of 2.5 × 10−19 over 6 hours. Such clocks could be used for research into variations in the Earth's gravitational field, searching for particles of dark matter, performing quantum simulations of many-body physics, investigating the fundamental nature of light and matter, he conducts research on strontium for experiments in quantum information science. Ye's other research focuses include ultrastable lasers, frequency combs, molecular spectroscopy. In 2012, his group constructed the world's stablest laser, he pioneered the development of direct frequency comb spectroscopy, collaborates with Eric Cornell on an experiment aiming to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron using trapped ions. Ye has received numerous awards in the field of science AMO physics, he was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society and a Fellow of the Optical Society of America.
He won the Adolph Lomb Medal of OSA in 1999 and the Arthur S. Flemming Award for outstanding federal employees in 2005, the Friedrich Wilhem Bessel Research Award from Germany and the William F. Meggers Award of the Optical Society of America in 2006, the Carl Zeiss Research Award and the I. I. Rabi Prize in AMO Physics from the APS in 2007, he has won three Gold Medals from the US Department of Commerce: for frequency combs, ultracold molecules, atomic clocks. In 2011 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, named a Frew Fellow from the Australian Academy of Science. In 2015, President Obama selected Jun Ye to receive a Presidential Rank Award for “sustained extraordinary accomplishment”, citing his work advancing "the frontier of light-matter interaction and focusing on precision measurement, quantum physics and ultracold matter, optical frequency metrology, ultrafast science." In 2017, Ye was elected as a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Jun Ye was the recipient of the 2019 Norman F. Ramsey Prize in Atomic and Optical Physics, in Precision Tests of Fundamental Laws and Symmetries for his ground-breaking contributions to precision measurements and the quantum control of atomic and molecular systems, including atomic clocks.
He is one of the most cited researchers in experimental atomic physics in the world, having a h-index of 85 and being named as a Thomson-Reuters Highly Cited Researcher