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John Loudon McAdam

John Loudon McAdam was a Scottish civil engineer and road-builder. He was the inventor of an effective and economical method of constructing roads. McAdam was born in Scotland, he was second son of the Baron of Waterhead. He moved to Lagwine at Carsphairn; the family name was traditionally McGregor, but was changed to McAdam for political reasons in James VI's reign. He moved to New York in 1770 and, as a merchant and prize agent during the American Revolution, made his fortune working at his uncle, William McAdam's counting house, he purchased an estate at Sauchrie, Ayrshire. Besides taking part in local Ayrshire affairs, McAdam operated the Kaims Colliery; the colliery supplied coal to the British Tar Company, of Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl of Dundonald, partners in the coal tar trade. He further was involved in the ironworks at Muirkirk, a customer for the coke byproduct of the tar business; this business connection is the only direct relationship of tar. McAdam became a trustee of the Ayrshire Turnpike in 1783 and became involved with day-to-day road construction over the next 10 years.

In 1802 he moved to Bristol, England and he became general surveyor for the Bristol Corporation in 1804. He put forward his ideas in evidence to Parliamentary enquiries in 1810, 1819 and 1823. In two treatises written in 1816 and 1819 he argued that roads needed to be raised above the surrounding ground and constructed from layered rocks and gravel in a systematic manner. McAdam had been appointed surveyor to the Bristol Turnpike Trust in 1816, where he decided to remake the roads under his care with crushed stone bound with gravel on a firm base of large stones. A camber, making the road convex, ensured rainwater drained off the road rather than penetrate and damage the road's foundations; this construction method, the greatest advance in road construction since Roman times, became known as "macadamisation", or, more "macadam". The macadam method spread quickly across the world; the first macadam road in North America, the National Road, was completed in the 1830s and most of the main roads in Europe were subject to the McAdam process by the end of the nineteenth century.

Although McAdam was paid £5,000 for his Bristol Turnpike Trust work and made "Surveyor-General of Metropolitan Roads" in 1820, professional jealousy cut a £5,000 grant for expenses from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to £2,000 in 1827. His efficient road-building and management work had revealed the corruption and abuse of road tolls by unscrupulous turnpike trusts, many of which were run at a deliberate loss despite high toll receipts. McAdam died in Moffat, while returning to his home in Hoddesdon, from his annual summer visit to Scotland, his three sons, in turn four grandsons, followed him into the profession and assisted with the management of turnpike trusts around the country. His second surviving son, James Nicoll McAdam, the "Colossus of Roads", was knighted for managing turnpike trusts: a knighthood, it is said offered to his father but declined. Works by John Loudon McAdam at Open Library Remarks on the Present System of Road Making by John Loudon McAdam, 1821, from Google Book Search Magazine from the Department of Public Works in Puerto Rico indicating, with a map, about a firm called McAdams that built many highways in Puerto Rico

Murder of Fadime ┼×ahindal

Fadime Şahindal was a Kurdish immigrant who moved to Sweden from Turkey at the age of seven. She was murdered by Rahmi, in January 2002 in an honor killing. Fadime Şahindal was opposed to her family's insistence on an arranged marriage, instead selected her own boyfriend. At first she kept the relationship secret. Şahindal left her family and moved to Sundsvall, where her brother found her and threatened her. She went to the police, she turned to the media with her story, after which she turned again to the police and was offered a secret identity. By turning to the media, Şahindal managed to receive support from the Swedish authorities, she filed a lawsuit against her father and brother, accusing them of unlawful threats, won. Şahindal was scheduled to move in with her boyfriend, the following month, in June 1998, when he died in a car accident. He was buried in Uppsala, her father forbade her to visit Uppsala. Nalin Pekgul, a Kurdish-Swedish parliamentarian, negotiated a compromise in which Şahindal agreed to stay away from Uppsala and her father promised not to stalk her.

On 20 November 2001, the Violence Against Women network arranged a seminar on the topic "Integration on whose terms?". During the seminar, Şahindal spoke in front of the Riksdag about her personal story. On 21 January 2002, Şahindal secretly visited her mother and sisters in Uppsala. During the visit, her father arrived and shot her in the head in front of her mother and two sisters. Şahindal was buried in Uppsala. Confronted by police, Rahmi Şahindal said in his defense that he was ill. Despite the confession, one of her cousins tried to convince the police that he had killed her. During the trial, her father said that another man killed Şahindal, but claimed that he could not reveal the killer's identity under threat of death, her father was convicted of murder by a Swedish court and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was released in 2018 after 16 years in prison, her murder sparked a debate in Sweden about immigrant integration and raised questions regarding Patrick's death. In April 2014, Şahindal's brother was shot dead by Swedish police after resisting arrest while armed.

In December 2016, a relative of Şahindal murdered his former wife's new partner. He was sentenced to life in prison. In August 2017, another relative of Şahindal killed another of her male relatives, because the latter refused to kill his two daughters; the victim was hiding from the killer because of the threats, but other family members helped the murderer by arranging a meeting where the murderer showed up. Sahindal's murder occurred only a few months after Melissa Nordell, a model, was killed by her abusive ex-boyfriend; some commentators link the two murders, questioning whether Nordell's murder should be characterized as an honour killing. Dietz, Mayanna.. Kurd murder sparks ethnic debate. CNN.com. Retrieved on March 4, 2007. Williams, Carol J..'Honor killing' shakes up Sweden after man slays daughter who wouldn't wed. Seattle Times.com. Retrieved on March 4, 2007. Wikan, Unni. "The honour culture". Axess Magazine. Translated by Karl-Olov Arnstberg. Archived from the original on 2006-10-09. Fadime's speech to the Swedish parliament Honour killings of people with Kurdish ethnic heritage: Pela Atroshi Banaz Mahmod Hatun Sürücü Honor killings of Turkish people in Turkey: Murder of Ahmet Yıldız Akpinar, Aylin.

"The honour/shame complex revisited: violence against women in the migration context." Women's Studies International Forum. Volume 26, Issue 5, September–October 2003, Pages 425–442. DOI: 10.1016/j.wsif.2003.08.001. Wikan, Unni. In Honor of Fadime: Murder and Shame. Translated by Anna Paterson. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-89686-1. Read an excerpt Fadime's memorial page Murder of Fadime Şahindal at Find a Grave

Ken Barrington

Kenneth Frank Barrington, was an English international cricketer who played for the England cricket team and Surrey County Cricket Club in the 1950s and 1960s. He was a right-handed batsman and occasional leg-spin bowler, known for his jovial good humour and long, defensive innings "batting with bulldog determination and awesome concentration", his batting improved with the quality of the opposition. Only Don Bradman and Steve Smith have made more than Barrington's 6,806 Test runs at a higher average, the seventh highest of batsmen who have made 1,000 Test runs, the highest by a post-war England batsman, his 256 in the Fourth Test at Old Trafford in 1964 is the third highest score for England against Australia and the highest since the Second World War. Barrington twice made centuries in four successive Tests, was the first England batsmen to make hundreds on all six traditional Test grounds: Old Trafford, Headingley, Lord's, Trent Bridge and The Oval, his Test career ended when he had a heart attack in Australia in 1968 though he had several fruitful years ahead of him.

From 1975 to 1981 he was a regular tour manager. He died from a second heart attack on 14 March 1981 during the Third Test at Bridgetown, where he had made his maiden Test century 21 years before. Ken Barrington was the eldest child of Percy and Winifred Barrington and had two brothers and Colin, a sister, Sheila, his father was a career soldier who served in the British Army for 28 years, 24 of them in the Royal Berkshire Regiment. Despite winning a row of medals for service around the world including the First World War Percy Barrington remained a private and when Ken was born was a batman in the officer's mess at Brock Barracks in Reading, Berkshire, his children grew up in the barracks and led a rather Spartan life during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Percy remained at Brock Barracks in the Second World War, left the Army in 1947 and took up work as a watchman for Handley Page; when Ken became a professional cricketer he gave his family tickets for the Oval so they could see him play.

Percy Barrington was a keen cricketer, played for the regimental cricket team as an all-rounder and taught all his children how to play, using a piece of wood as a cricket bat. Ken attended Wilson Central primary school; when he moved to Katesgrove Secondary school at the age of 11 he joined the school cricket team, as a batsman and fast bowler. In one early game he opened the bowling with Ray Reeves and dismissed the opposition for 10 runs in 15 minutes. In 1945 Barrington left school aged 14 and took up work as a motor mechanic in Reading, Fred Titmus saying "he could drive anything from a tank to a scooter". After a year he joined Reading Cricket Club as the assistant groundsman, a job that allowed him unlimited opportunity to practice cricket, it is here. His old boss told him "You will never make a living in cricket". Barrington played for the White Hart Hotel XI on Sundays and the Reading Wednesday XI where he was spotted by the ex-England and Surrey batsman Andy Sandham. Sandham invited him to play for the Surrey Colts at the age of 16.

Barrington took 5/43 and made 4 not out in his first game and became a regular player in their Saturday cricket matches. Here he came under the tutorage of a friend of Sir Jack Hobbs, he batted down the order. In August 1947, Barrington was asked to join the groundstaff of the prestigious Surrey County Cricket Club at the Kennington Oval in South London for the following season. From April 1948, he commuted to London by railway for his training, having yet to see a first-class cricket match; the Chief Coach was Andy Sandham who thought his leg-spin bowling lacked accuracy and made him concentrate on his batting. Alec Bedser predicted that Barrington was a future Test player and Sandham stated that Barrington was his best pupil, he worked on preparing the vast Oval ground for first-class cricket and played for the Surrey Club and Ground cricket team, though still down the order. In the 1949 season he only had time to play one game, making 52 against Kew, before he was called up for National Service.

Barrington served. He grew from 5 ft 4 in to 5 ft 9 in during this time and he was encouraged to pursue sports. Apart from cricket, he represented his battalion at football, won the battalion boxing championship and a small arms competition at the Mons Officer Cadet School, his leg-spin was helped by the matting wickets used by the British Army cricket team. As he was the only NCO in the team, when they played the officers travelled in staff cars and Barrington by himself in an army truck. Barrington had strong army connections and remained in the Territorial Army after his National Service ended in 1950. On his discharge in August 1950 Barrington returned to professional coaching. In May 1951 he made his first century batting against Kenley at number seven and was promoted to the top order. In July he added 64 and 194 not out against the Surrey Colts and Barrington started to play for the Surrey Second XI – a minor county team. In 1952 he became a star batsman, making 1,097 runs at 57.73 including 157 not out and 151 in successive games against Devon County Cricket Club and was mentioned in Wisden.

Stuart Surridge became captain of Surrey in 1952 and led them to their first of a record seven successive County Championships. (They