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Macadam

Macadam is a type of road construction, pioneered by Scottish engineer John Loudon McAdam around 1820, in which single-sized crushed stone layers of small angular stones are placed in shallow lifts and compacted thoroughly. A binding layer of stone dust may form; the method simplified. Pierre-Marie-Jérôme Trésaguet is sometimes considered the first person to bring post-Roman science to road building. A Frenchman from an engineering family, he worked paving roads in Paris from 1757 to 1764; as chief engineer of road construction of Limoges, he had opportunity to develop a better and cheaper method of road construction. In 1775, Tresaguet became engineer-general and presented his answer for road improvement in France, which soon became standard practice there. Trésaguet had recommended a roadway consisting of three layers of stones laid on a crowned subgrade with side ditches for drainage; the first two layers consisted of angular hand-broken aggregate, maximum size 3 inches, to a depth of about 8 inches.

The third layer was about 2 inches thick with a maximum aggregate size of 1 inch. This top level surface permitted a smoother shape and protected the larger stones in the road structure from iron wheels and horse hooves. To keep the running surface level with the countryside, this road was put in a trench, which created drainage problems; these problems were addressed by changes that included digging deep side ditches, making the surface as solid as possible, constructing the road with a difference in elevation between the two edges, that difference being referred to interchangeably as the road's camber or cross slope. Thomas Telford, born in Dumfriesshire Scotland, was a surveyor and engineer who applied Tresaguet's road building theories. In 1801 Telford worked for the Commission of Highland Roads and Bridges, he became director of the Holyhead Road Commission between 1815 and 1830. Telford emphasized high-quality stone, he recognized that some of the road problems of the French could be avoided by using cubical stone blocks.

Telford used 12 in × 10 in × 6 in shaped paving stones, with a slight flat face on the bottom surface. He turned the other faces more vertically than Tresaguet's method; the longest edge was arranged crossways to the traffic direction, the joints were broken in the method of conventional brickwork, but with the smallest faces of the pitcher forming the upper and lower surfaces. Broken stone was wedged into the spaces between the tapered perpendicular faces to provide the layer with good lateral control. Telford used masons to camber the upper surface of the blocks, he placed a 6-inch layer of stone no bigger than 6 cm on top of the rock foundation. To finish the road surface he covered the stones with a mixture of broken stone; this structure came to be known as "Telford pitching." Telford's road depended on a resistant structure to prevent water from collecting and corroding the strength of the pavement. Telford raised the pavement structure above ground level whenever possible. Where the structure could not be raised, Telford drained the area surrounding the roadside.

Previous road builders in Britain ignored drainage problems and Telford's rediscovery of drainage principles was a major contribution to road construction. Notably, around the same time, John Metcalf advocated that drainage was in fact an important factor in road construction, astonished colleagues by building dry roads through marshland, he accomplished this by incorporating a layer of heather. John Loudon McAdam was born in Ayr, Scotland, in 1756. In 1787, he became a trustee of the Ayrshire Turnpike in the Scottish Lowlands and during the next seven years his hobby became an obsession, he moved to Bristol, England, in 1802 and became a Commissioner for Paving in 1806. On 15 January 1816, he was elected surveyor-general of roads for the turnpike trust and was now responsible for 149 miles of road, he put his ideas about road construction into practice, the first'macadamised' stretch of road being Marsh Road at Ashton Gate, Bristol. He began to propagate his ideas in two booklets called Remarks on the Present System of Roadmaking, A Practical Essay on the Scientific Repair and Preservation of Public Roads, published in 1819.

McAdam's method was simpler, yet more effective at protecting roadways: he discovered that massive foundations of rock upon rock were unnecessary, asserted that native soil alone would support the road and traffic upon it, as long as it was covered by a road crust that would protect the soil underneath from water and wear. Unlike Telford and other road builders of the time, McAdam laid his roads as level as possible, his 30-foot-wide road required only a rise of 3 inches from the edges to the centre. Cambering and elevation of the road above the water table enabled rain water to run off into ditches on either side. Size of stones was central to the McAdam's road building theory; the lower 20-centimetre road thickness was restricted to stones no larger than 7.5 centimetres. The upper 5-centimetre layer of stones was limited to 2 centimetres size and stones were checked by supervisors who carried scales. A workman could check the stone size himself by seeing; the importance of the 2 cm stone size was that the stones needed to be much smaller than the 4 in width of the iron carriage tyres t

Sunset Junction, Los Angeles

Sunset Junction is an informal name for a portion of the Silver Lake district of Los Angeles, California. It was home to the Sunset Junction Street Fair from 1980 through 2010, it is located in the southwestern part of the district along Sunset Boulevard. The name refers to the street junction of Sunset Boulevard and Santa Monica Boulevard, two of the largest streets in Los Angeles, both of which travel from Sunset Junction to the Pacific Ocean. For most of their distance, the streets run parallel, but join here where they intersect Sanborn Avenue and where Santa Monica Blvd ends; the junction was formed by the branching of two interurban railway lines and was known as Sanborn or Hollywood Junction. In 1895, the Pasadena and Pacific Railway Company built an interurban rail line from downtown Los Angeles to Santa Monica, whose route ran along Sunset Boulevard as far as Sanborn Avenue, where it turned west along the present alignment of Santa Monica Boulevard. In 1905, the Los Angeles Pacific Railway, successor to the Pasadena and Pacific, built a new branch northwest along Sunset Boulevard from Sanborn Avenue as a shortcut to its existing line on Hollywood Boulevard, forming the junction, still reflected in the existing street configuration.

The Los Angeles Pacific Company was one of the eight rail companies merged in 1911 to form the Pacific Electric Railway. Rail service ceased on the two lines in 1953, respectively. Sunset Junction is the site of one of the first actions in the nation against police activity in gay bars, the Black Cat Tavern protest, which began on February 11, 1967 two and a half years before the more famous protest at the Stonewall Inn in New York’s Greenwich Village; the event is named for the Black Cat Tavern at 3909 Sunset Blvd between Sanborn and Hyperion Avenues, a location, a gay bar periodically since the 1940s. Organized in response to a police raid on the Black Cat on New Year’s Eve 1966, in which several people were hurt, the protest was planned to coincide with similar actions at African-American, Latino and “hippie” establishments around the city, which were regularly patrolled. Of these, the protest at the Black Cat was most successful, with over 200 people marching without any violent confrontation.

The Black Cat protest continued for several days but did not attract the media attention that the protests at the Stonewall Inn did. For many years Silver Lake housed a small, quiet gay and lesbian population, but in the 1970s a combination of affordable housing, a bohemian ambiance and promotion by gay real estate agents caused the gay and lesbian population to swell to more than 20% of the neighborhood total. In 1979, an early literary gay and lesbian bookstores, A Different Light, was founded at 4014 Santa Monica Boulevard; the store functioned as a focal point for the community and was the site of readings by noted authors, including Christopher Isherwood, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs and Larry Kramer. Subsequently, additional branches were opened in West Hollywood, San Francisco, Greenwich Village in Manhattan; the original store closed in 1992, as have the branches in Greenwich Village, West Hollywood, San Francisco. Tensions in the 1970s between the growing gay and lesbian population and working-class Latino families in the Silver Lake neighborhood led the integrated lesbian and gay Sunset Junction Neighborhood Alliance to organize the first Sunset Junction Street Fair in 1980.

Curbed LA: Sunset Junction posts

Crib Point, Victoria

Crib Point is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is part of the urban enclave on Western Port comprising Bittern, Crib Point, Hastings and Somerville, its local government area is the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. Crib Point is served by three railway stations: Morradoo, Crib Point and Stony Point, the latter of, the terminus of the greater-metropolitan Stony Point line. Crib Point Post Office opened on 18 July 1890; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League. It is situated near the HMAS Cerberus naval base, it is opposite a park. The Victorian Maritime Centre is temporarily located at Crib Point, it has a future permanent site announced at Hastings. The museum houses many artefacts of both the Merchant Navy; the Maritime Centre has the HMAS Otama, a former Oberon-class submarine, moored offshore, but it is not in condition suitable for visitor access. In August 2017, Crib Point Import Jetty was announced as the preferred location for a new terminal importing gas from other markets.

The project was expected to cost $250 million, with construction expected to commence in 2019. The reason for this import terminal is that much of the gas produced in Australia is committed to long-term export contracts, is produced from basins that are a long way from Melbourne, with limited or no pipelines connecting them. In June 2019, AGL Energy confirmed that the project was still intended to go ahead, but would be a year than planned, with first gas flowing in the second half of FY22. In part, the delay is related to the timing for the Government of Victoria to consider the Environment Effects Statement; the Hoegh Esperanza will be used as a floating regassification unit. The complete facility will be developed jointly by APA Group, it will include a floating gas storage and regasification unit to convert liquid natural gas back into its gaseous state new jetty facilities a gas receiving station on the shore near the jetty which will add the odorising agent 56 kilometres high pressure gas pipeline to Pakenham connection of the new pipeline to the existing gas transmission network at Pakenham including pressure and quality standardisation Crib Point has an oceanic climate with relative small thermal differences between seasons, but is still prone to temperature extremes upon northerly winds both in summer and winter