John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, PC known as Lord Dunmore, was a Scottish peer and colonial governor in the American colonies and The Bahamas. He was the last royal governor of Virginia. Lord Dunmore was named governor of the Province of New York in 1770, he succeeded to the same position in the Colony of Virginia the following year, after the death of Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt. As Virginia's governor, Dunmore directed a series of campaigns against the trans-Appalachian Indians, known as Lord Dunmore's War, he is noted for issuing a 1775 document offering freedom to any slave who fought for the Crown against the Patriots in Virginia. Dunmore fled to New York after the Burning of Norfolk in 1776, returned to Britain, he was Governor of the Bahama Islands from 1787 to 1796. Murray was born in Taymouth, the eldest son of William Murray, 3rd Earl of Dunmore, by his marriage to Catherine Nairne. In 1745, both Murray only 15, his father joined the ill-fated Rising of "Bonnie Prince Charlie", the young Murray was appointed as a page to Prince Charles.
The second Earl, his uncle, remained loyal to the Hanoverians. After the Jacobite army was defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, William Murray was imprisoned in Tower of London and his family was put under house arrest. By 1750, William Murray had received a conditional pardon. John Murray joined the British Army. In 1756, after the deaths of his uncle and father, he became the fourth Earl of Dunmore. In 1759 Dunmore married a daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway, their daughter Lady Augusta Murray became an unwanted daughter-in-law of King George III, when she married his son Prince Augustus Frederick without the consent of the King. The Dunmores had another daughter close to her age, Lady Catherine Murray, soon after they landed in Virginia they had another child, Lady Virginia Murray, their daughter Lady Susan Murray had three husbands and children by each: first Joseph Tharp, heir to a Jamaica sugar fortune. Dunmore was named the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771.
Soon after his appointment, in 1770, Virginia's governor, Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt died, Dunmore was named to replace him. Dunmore became royal governor of the Colony of Virginia on 25 September 1771. Despite growing issues with Great Britain, his predecessor, Lord Botetourt, had been a popular governor in Virginia though he served only two years before his death; as Virginia's colonial governor, Dunmore directed a series of campaigns against the Indians known as Lord Dunmore's War. The Shawnee were the main target of these attacks, his avowed purpose was to strengthen Virginia's claims in the west in the Ohio Country, but as a byproduct it was known he would increase his own power base; some accused Dunmore of colluding with the Shawnees and arranging the war to deplete the Virginia militia and help safeguard the Loyalist cause, should there be a colonial rebellion. Dunmore, in his history of the Indian Wars, denied these accusations. Lacking in diplomatic skills, Dunmore tried to govern without consulting the House of Burgesses of the Colonial Assembly for more than a year, which exacerbated an tense situation.
When Dunmore convened the Colonial Assembly in March 1773, the only way he could deal with fiscal issues to financially support his war through additional taxation, the burgesses instead first resolved to form a committee of correspondence to communicate their continued concerns about the Townshend Acts and Gaspee Affair to Great Britain. Dunmore postponed the Assembly. Many of burgesses gathered a short distance away at the Raleigh Tavern and continued discussing their problems with the new taxes, perceived corruption and lack of representation in England; when Dunmore reconvened the Assembly in 1774, the burgesses passed a resolution declaring 1 June 1774 a day of fasting and prayer in Virginia. In response, Dunmore dissolved the House; the burgesses again reconvened as the Second Virginia Convention and elected delegates to the Continental Congress. Dunmore issued a proclamation against electing delegates to the Congress, but failed to take serious action. In March 1775, Patrick Henry's "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!"
Speech delivered at St. John's Episcopal Church in Richmond helped convince delegates to approve a resolution calling for armed resistance. In the face of rising unrest in the colony, Dunmore sought to deprive Virginia's militia of military supplies. Dunmore gave the key to the Williamsburg magazine to Lieutenant Henry Colins, commander of HMS Magdalen, ordered him to remove the powder, provoking what became known as the Gunpowder Incident. On the night of 20 April 1775, royal marines loaded fifteen half-barrels of powder into the governor's wagon, intent on transporting it down the Quarterpath Road to the James River and the British warship. Local militia rallied, word of the incident spread across the colony; the Hanover militia, led by Patrick Henry, arrived outside of Williamsburg on 3 May. That same day, Dunmore evacuated his family from the Governor's Palace to his hunting lodge, Porto Bello in nearby York County. On 6 May, Dunmore issued a proclamation against "a certain Patrick Henry... and a Number of deluded Followers" who had organised "an Independent Company... and put themselves in a Posture of War."Dunmore threatened to impose martial law, retreated to Porto Bello to join his family
The Lawrence Soule House is an historic house at 11 Russell Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is a 2 1⁄2-story brick building, with asymmetrical massing typical of the Queen Anne period. Surface texture is varied by different types of brick patterning, there are a variety of gables and irregularly placed chimneys, it was built in 1879 for Lawrence Porter Soule to a design by Frank Maynard Howe, an apprentice at the firm of Ware & Van Brunt. The building received immediate notice in the architectural press, is a rare architect-designed house in North Cambridge; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts
John Robert Risher Jr. was an attorney who served, from 1976 until June 1978, as the first Corporation Counsel for Washington, D. C. appointed. Born in Washington, Risher graduated from John Carroll High School in 1956, Morgan State College in 1960, the University of Southern California law school in 1963. After a short tenure as an Army officer in Korea, he became an attorney with the federal government at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in the criminal fraud section of the Justice Department before being assigned to be a prosecutor in the office of the United States Attorney for the District of Columbia. Upon leaving federal service in 1968, Risher joined Arent Fox in 1968 as a civil litigator. In 1973, he became the second or third African-American to become a partner in one of the 50 largest law firms in the United States, he served as partner of the firm, specializing in civil litigation and dealings with the District government, from 1973 until his death, except for his tenure in government.
Risher taught as an adjunct professor at the Georgetown University Law Center and Howard University Law School and served as a trustee of the Supreme Court Historical Society and as the first president of the newly reconstituted District of Columbia Jewish Community Center. Risher married Sarah Walker and they had two sons, John David and Michael Risher. After their divorce, he married Carol Seeger and they had two sons, Mark Eliot and Conrad Zachary