Temple University is a state-related-public doctoral university located in Philadelphia, United States. It was founded in 1884 by Baptist Minister Russell Conwell, in 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students, dubbed night owls, were taught in the basement of Conwells Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the universitys name, by 1907, the institution revised its institutional status and incorporated as a university. In 2015, Temple received $227.5 million in funding, ranking it 93rd out of 905 institutions in the NSF’s Higher Education Research. Temple is among the nations largest providers of education, preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Conwell came to Pennsylvania in 1882 to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students, dubbed night owls, were taught in the basement of Conwells Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the universitys name, the Grace Baptist Church quickly grew popular within the North Philadelphia area.
A temporary board of trustees was created to handle the rapidly growing formalities associated with the churchs programs, when the board conducted its first meeting they named Russell H. Conwell president of The Temple College. Within the following months, Grace Baptist Church appointed a new board of trustees, printed official admissions files, regardless of whether they had the resources to support the school, Conwell’s desire was “to give education to those who were unable to get it through the usual channels”. Philadelphia granted a charter in 1888 to establish “The Temple College of Philadelphia”, by 1888, the enrollment of the college was nearly 600. It was in 1907 that Temple College revised its institutional status, Legal recognition as a university enhanced Temple in noticeable ways including its reputation and graduate programs, overall enrollment, and financial support. Over time, Temple expanded, Samaritan Hospital was founded, a Medical School was added, after the merger, Temple officially reincorporated as Temple University on December 12,1907.
Today, Temple is a Pennsylvania state-related university, meaning the university receives state funds, subject to state appropriations, but is independently operated. In U. S. News & World Reports 2017 rankings, Temple is tied for 56th among U. S. public universities, tied for 118th among all national universities, Temple undergraduate college is among the top colleges profiled in The Princeton Reviews The Best 379 colleges. Temples Social Science faculty is ranked 76-100 in the world in 2015 by ARWU, Temple is ranked 94th out of 643 US institutions in National Science Foundations 2013 Higher education Research and Development Survey. Tylers graduate programs are highly selective, maintaining their reputation for providing one of the finest programs in the nation, as of 2015, Tyler’s overall ranking is 13th in the nation. Tyler’s individual graduate programs, as of 2015, ranked highly in their fields and drawing, printmaking, ceramics. Temples Fox School of Business, founded in 1918, is one of the largest business schools in the country, the Fox School offers 13 undergraduate majors,10 professional masters programs, two PhD programs, and the school has a variety of international partnerships
Grahams Magazine was a nineteenth-century periodical based in Philadelphia established by George Rex Graham and published from 1841 to 1858. The journal was founded after the merger of Burtons Gentlemans Magazine, publishing short stories, critical reviews, and music as well as information on fashion, Graham intended the journal to reach all audiences including both men and women. He offered the payment of $5 per page, successfully attracting some of the best-known writers of the day. It became known for its engravings and artwork, Grahams may have been the first magazine in the United States to copyright each issue. Edgar Allan Poe became the editor of Grahams in February 1841 and it was where he first published The Murders in the Rue Morgue, now recognized as the first detective story. After Poe left the journal, his successor was Rufus Wilmot Griswold, Grahams began rejecting Poes submissions and passed up the chance to publish The Raven. Graham left his magazine for a time in 1848 and it ceased in 1858.
The Casket, subtitled Flowers of Literature and Sentiment had been in existence since 1826 and, Graham intended his new magazine to be popular amongst both men and women, containing fashion, music, short stories and critical reviews. He hoped to reach out to mainstream audiences and those with more refined tastes. Graham was not a writer himself, other than a section at the back of each issue called Grahams Small Talk, to that end, Graham made sure it was popular amongst writers as a well-paying journal, the $5 standard become known as a Graham page. Other journals at the time were paying the standard rate of $1 per page, Alice, Horace Binney Wallace, and Phoebe Cary. Not all writers, were paid, a notice in the May 1841 issue read, Writers who send articles to this Magazine for publication, must state distinctly at the time of sending them, whether they expect pay. We cannot allow compensation unless by special contract before publication and this rule will hereafter be rigidly enforced. James Fenimore Cooper was reportedly the highest-paid contributor to Grahams, receiving $1,600 for the serial The Islets of the Gulf, or Rose-Budd, published as Jack Tier and he received another $1,000 for a series of biographies on distinguished naval commanders.
Grahams at one point was advertised as having the most distinctive list of contributors ever achieved by any American magazine, Grahams boasted that many issues of his magazine cost $1,500 for authorship alone. Grahams may have been the first magazine in America to copyright each issue, by March 1842, Grahams Magazine was issuing 40,000 copies. This boom was reflective of a market in American readership. John Sartain believed its success was due to the appeal of the engravings he provided for each issue, the Saturday Evening Post reported that the August 1841 issue of Grahams cost $1,300 for these embellishments
A banknote is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by banks, who were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks, national banknotes are generally legal tender, meaning that medium of payment is allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment and this practice of backing notes with something of substance is the basis for the history of central banks backing their currencies in gold or silver. Today, most national currencies have no backing in precious metals or commodities and have value only by fiat, with the exception of non-circulating high-value or precious metal issues, coins are used for lower valued monetary units, while banknotes are used for higher values.
The idea of using a durable light-weight substance as evidence of a promise to pay a bearer on demand originated in China during the Han Dynasty in 118 BC, the first known banknote was first developed in China during the Tang and Song dynasties, starting in the 7th century. Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty, as merchants, during the Yuan Dynasty, banknotes were adopted by the Mongol Empire. In Europe, the concept of banknotes was first introduced during the 13th century by such as Marco Polo. Counterfeiting, the forgery of banknotes, is an inherent challenge in issuing currency and it is countered by anticounterfeiting measures in the printing of banknotes. Fighting the counterfeiting of banknotes and cheques has been a driver of security printing methods development in recent centuries. Paper currency first developed in the Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, the usage of paper currency spread throughout the Mongol Empire.
European explorers like Marco Polo introduced the concept in Europe during the 13th century, napoleon issued paper banknotes in the early 1800s. Paper money originated in two forms, which are receipts for value held on account, and bills, the perception of banknotes as money has evolved over time. Originally, money was based on precious metals, Banknotes were seen as essentially an I. O. U. or promissory note, a promise to pay someone in precious metal on presentation. With the gradual removal of precious metals from the system, banknotes evolved to represent credit money. Notes or bills were referred to in 18th century novels and were often a key part of the plot such as a note drawn by Lord X for £100 which becomes due in 3 months time. Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty, as merchants, before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots, known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley.
After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman.
This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolve
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Line engraving is a term for engraved images printed on paper to be used as prints or illustrations. The term is now less used and when is, it is mainly in connection with 18th or 19th century commercial illustrations for magazines and books. Copperplate engraving is somewhat outdated term for engravings. Engraving for the purpose of printmaking creates plates for intaglio printing, intaglio engravings are made by carving into a plate of a hard substance such as copper, steel, or plastic. Afterward ink is rubbed into the areas and away from the flat surface. Moistened paper is placed over the plate and both are run through the rollers of an intaglio press, the pressure exerted by the press on the paper pushes it into the engraved lines and prints the image made by those lines. In an intaglio print, the lines print black. Wood engraving is a printing technique, with the images made by carving into fine-grained hardwood blocks. In a relief print, the lines show white. The art of engraving has been practiced from the earliest ages and many types of fine metal works frequently are engraved as well as furniture.
Engraving often is used as an embellishment of knives, guns, the important discovery which made line engraving one of the multiplying arts was the accidental discovery of how to print an incised line. This method was known for time before its real utility was realized. The resulting design, called a niello, was higher in contrast and thus. As this enamel was difficult to remove, goldsmiths developed alternate means of viewing their work still in progress. They would take a sulfur cast of the work on a matrix of fine clay and it was discovered that a proof could be taken on damped paper by filling the engraved lines with ink and wiping it off the surface of the plate. Pressure was applied to push the paper into the hollowed lines and this was the beginning of plate printing. This convenient way of proofing a niello saved the effort of producing a cast, although goldsmiths continued to engrave nielli to ornament plates and furniture, it was not until the late 15th century that the new method of printing was implemented.
In early Italian and German prints, the line is used with such perfect simplicity of purpose that the methods of the artists are as obvious as if we saw them actually at work
Rudolph Siemering was a German sculptor known for his works in Germany and the United States. He attended the art academy in Königsberg and became the pupil of Gustav Bläser in Berlin, for the decoration of Königsberg University, he furnished medallion portraits of its learned men. In 1871 he executed the masterly relief “Uprising of the People at the Summons of their King”, and his next work was the statue of Frederick the Great for Marienburg. In 1882, he completed a monument to Albrecht von Graefe and this was followed by a statue of Martin Luther at Eisleben. For the market place at Leipzig, he made a war monument, “Germany and he was the author of the colossal equestrian statue of Washington whose pedestal is enriched with reliefs and accessory sculptures. This impressive monument was unveiled in Fairmount Park, May 1897, siemerings group, “Saint Gertrude Hospitably receiving a Traveling Scholar, ” was finished and set upon the Bridge of Saint Gertrude at Berlin in 1896. Another notable work is the group of “Frederick William I” in the Sieges-Allée.
He was the author of portrait busts. Bison, Berlin This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, George Edwin, ed. Siemering. Thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds
Betsy Ross Bridge
The Betsy Ross Bridge, known as the Ross Memorial Bridge is a continuous steel truss bridge spanning the Delaware River from the City of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania to Pennsauken, New Jersey. Construction began in 1969, and was completed in 1974, the bridge did not open to traffic until April 30,1976 due to numerous problems with the communities where the bridges ramps to and from Richmond Street were located. The problems were related to the highway routes planned extension to the northwest from the Delaware River. Currently, the route serves as a high-level multi-lane bypass of the three-lane Tacony-Palmyra Bridge, construction in 1988 connected the bridge to New Jersey Route 90, allowing drivers to use NJ90 to access Route 73, rather than via U. S. Route 130. The bridge has a length of 8,485 feet. Though originally constructed with eight lanes, the bridge was reduced to six lanes with two shoulders in 2000, the bridge is owned and operated by the Delaware River Port Authority. When approaching the exits from I-95 in Philadelphia for this bridge, drivers see signs referring to NJ Route 90.
Beyond the toll plaza, which is on the New Jersey side, NJ90 continues as an expressway with maximum speed limit of 50 mph, the toll plaza is 12 lanes wide, and since 2000 has been a participating E-ZPass facility. A $5.00 one-way toll is charged entering Pennsylvania for passenger vehicles, an $18 credit was previously given on a per tag basis for DRPA-issued E-ZPass tags that crossed one of the four DRPA bridges 18 times in a calendar month. Trucks, commercial vehicles, mobile homes, and recreational vehicles pay $7 cash per axle, seniors aged 65 and over can use a ticket program to pay $2.00 per trip. Upon approval of the contract by the DRPA Board, the study is expected to take 30 months, no cost estimates or time frame for the actual redecking project have been announced. List of crossings of the Delaware River Delaware River Port Authority, Betsy Ross Bridge Betsy Ross Bridge historic overview Betsy Ross Bridge at Structurae
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
William Sartain was an American artist. Sartain was born in Philadelphia, and his father was John Sartain and his sister, Emily Sartain, was an artist became the director of the Philadelphia School of Design for Women. He went to school with Thomas Eakins, they traveled together in 1868. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and he stayed in Paris until 1875, when he returned to Philadelphia, and moved to New York City. His work is in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, U. S. Capitol, william Sartain engraving of Andrew Johnson
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his verse and for his translation of Homer. He is the second-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare, Alexander Pope was born to Alexander Pope Senior, a linen merchant of Plough Court, Lombard Street and his wife Edith, who were both Catholics. Ediths sister Christiana was the wife of the miniature painter Samuel Cooper. Pope was taught to read by his aunt, and went to Twyford School in about 1698/99 and he went to two Catholic schools in London. Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas, in 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, close to the royal Windsor Forest. This was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Catholics from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster, Pope would describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. He studied languages and read works by English, Italian, Latin.
After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from the London literary society such as William Wycherley, William Congreve, Samuel Garth, William Trumbull, at Binfield, he began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll, was twenty years older than the poet and had many acquaintances in the London literary world. He introduced the young Pope to the ageing playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet and he met the Blount sisters and Martha, both of whom would remain lifelong friends. From the age of 12, he suffered health problems, such as Potts disease. His tuberculosis infection caused other problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes. He grew to a height of only 1.37 m. Pope was already removed from society because he was Catholic, although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters. Allegedly, his lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover, in May,1709, Popes Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonsons Poetical Miscellanies.
This brought Pope instant fame, and was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711, around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club. The aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus and he made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. In March 1713, Windsor Forest was published to great acclaim, during Popes friendship with Joseph Addison, he contributed to Addisons play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator
Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia and the historic name for a group of parks located throughout the city. Fairmount Park consists of two sections named East Park and West Park, divided by the Schuylkill River, with the two sections together totalling 2,052 acres. Fairmount Park, Philadelphias first park, occupies 2,052 acres adjacent to the banks of the Schuylkill River, since 2010, Philadelphia Parks & Recreation divides the original park into East and West Fairmount parks. The South Garden predated the establishment of the Park Commission in 1867, while Lemon Hill, after the Civil War, work progressed on acquiring and laying out West Park. In the 1870s, the Fairmount Park Commission expropriated properties along the Wissahickon Creek to extend Fairmount Park, the Schuylkill River Trail is a modern paved multi-use trail by Kelly Drive in the East Park. The park grew out of the Lemon Hill estate of Henry Pratt, whose land was owned by Robert Morris. Purchased by the city in 1844, the estate was dedicated to the public by city ordinance on September 15,1855. A series of state and local legislative acts over the three years increased the holdings of the city.
In 1858, the city held a competition to re-landscape Lemon Hill. As the site of the 1876 Centennial Exposition and the first zoo in the United States, the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park, located to the immediate northwest, was included in the Fairmount Park NRHP registration document. The Art Association continues to commission and care for a number of sculptures, in coordination with the park. In 2007, the Art Association installed Iroquois by Mark di Suvero near the Philadelphia Museum of Art on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. Mount Pleasant, built in 1761 in what was the countryside outside of the city by a privateer, is administered by the Philadelphia Museum of Art in Fairmount Park. The Art Museum administers Cedar Grove, a house completed in 1750 in the Frankford neighborhood of the city, Sedgeley, a house built in 1799 on Lemon Hill, was abandoned and demolished after being acquired through eminent domain by the city in 1857. The Sedgeley property included a cottage constructed of stone which still exists.
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