Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy. 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade. The latex contains the related opiates codeine and thebaine, non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine; the traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch the immature seed pods by hand. The word "meconium" referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies; the production methods have not changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, to a lesser extent thebaine has been increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum.
For the illegal drug trade, the morphine is extracted from the opium latex, reducing the bulk weight by 88%. It is converted to heroin, two to four times as potent, increases the value by a similar factor; the reduced weight and bulk make it easier to smuggle. The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use. Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, medical poultices, as a combination with hemlock for suicide; the Sumerian, Egyptian, Minoan, Roman and Arab Empires all made widespread use of opium, the most potent form of pain relief available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides and Avicenna. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a controlled dosage.
Opium has been collected since prehistoric times, since 3400 BCE. A common name for males in Afghanistan is "Redey", which in Pashto means "poppy"; this term may be derived from the Sanskrit words rddhi and hrdya, which mean "magical", "a type of medicinal plant", "heart-pleasing", respectively. The upper Asian belt of Afghanistan, northern India, Burma still account for the world's largest supply of opium. At least 17 finds of Papaver somniferum from Neolithic settlements have been reported throughout Switzerland and Spain, including the placement of large numbers of poppy seed capsules at a burial site, which have been carbon-14 dated to 4200 BCE. Numerous finds of P. somniferum or P. setigerum from Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been reported. The first known cultivation of opium poppies was in Mesopotamia 3400 BCE, by Sumerians, who called the plant hul gil, the "joy plant". Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.
Cultivation continued in the Middle East by the Assyrians, who collected poppy juice in the morning after scoring the pods with an iron scoop. Opium production continued under the Egyptians. Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people and painlessly to death, but it was used in medicine. Spongia somnifera, sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery; the Egyptians cultivated opium thebaicum in famous poppy fields around 1300 BCE. Opium was traded from Egypt by the Phoenicians and Minoans to destinations around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece and Europe. By 1100 BCE, opium was cultivated on Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, opium was cultivated and smoked. Opium was mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonian lands in the 6th century BCE. From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power. In Egypt, the use of opium was restricted to priests and warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, it was said to have been given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.
A figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of three opium poppies, c. 1300 BCE, was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi, together with a simple smoking apparatus. The Greek gods Hypnos and Thanatos were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding them. Poppies frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Pluto, Aphrodite and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion; as the power of the Roman Empire declined, the lands to the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea became incorporated into the Islamic Empires. Some Muslims believe hadiths, such as in Sahih Bukhari, prohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been wi
Columbus is a consolidated city-county located on the west central border of the U. S. state of Georgia. Located on the Chattahoochee River directly across from Phenix City, Columbus is the county seat of Muscogee County, with which it merged in 1970. Columbus is the third-largest city in the fourth-largest metropolitan area. According to the 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, Columbus has a population of 194,058 residents, with 303,811 in the Columbus metropolitan area; the metro area joins the nearby Alabama cities of Auburn and Opelika to form the Columbus–Auburn–Opelika Combined Statistical Area, which has a 2017 estimated population of 499,128. Columbus lies 100 miles southwest of Atlanta. Fort Benning, the United States Army's Maneuver Center of Excellence and a major employer, is located south of the city in Chattahoochee County. Columbus is home to museums and tourism sites, including the National Infantry Museum, dedicated to the United States Army's Infantry Branch, it has the longest urban whitewater rafting course in the world constructed on the Chattahoochee River.
This was for centuries and more the traditional territory of the Creek Indians, who became known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast after European contact. Those who lived closest to white-occupied areas conducted considerable trading and adopted some European-American ways. Founded in 1828 by an act of the Georgia Legislature, Columbus was situated at the beginning of the navigable portion of the Chattahoochee River and on the last stretch of the Federal Road before entering Alabama; the city was named for Christopher Columbus, its founders influenced by the writings of Washington Irving. The plan for the city was drawn up by Dr. Edwin L. DeGraffenried, who placed the town on a bluff overlooking the river. Across the river to the west, where Phenix City, Alabama is now located, Creek Indians still lived until they were forcibly removed in 1836 by the federal government to make way for European-American settlers; the river served as Columbus's connection to the world enabling it to ship its commodity cotton crops from the plantations to the international cotton market via New Orleans and Liverpool, England.
The city's commercial importance increased in the 1850s with the arrival of the railroad. In addition, textile mills were developed along the river, bringing industry to an area reliant upon agriculture. By 1860, the city was one of the more important industrial centers of the South, earning it the nickname "the Lowell of the South," referring to an important textile mill town in Massachusetts; when the Civil War broke out in 1861, the industries of Columbus expanded their production. During the war, Columbus ranked second to Richmond in the manufacture of supplies for the Confederate army; the Eagle Manufacturing Company made textiles of various sorts but woolens for Confederate uniforms. The Columbus Iron Works manufactured cannons and machinery and Gray made firearms, Louis and Elias Haimon produced swords and bayonets. Smaller firms provided additional sundries; as the war turned negative, each faced exponentially growing struggled shortages of raw materials and skilled labor, as well as worsenting financial opportunities.
In addition to textiles, the city had an ironworks, a sword factory, a shipyard for the Confederate Navy. Unaware of Lee's surrender to Grant and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and Confederates clashed in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia, on Easter Sunday, April 16, 1865, when a Union detachment of two cavalry divisions under Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson attacked the lightly-defended city and burned many of the industrial buildings. John Stith Pemberton, who developed Coca-Cola in Columbus, was wounded in this battle. Col. Charles Augustus Lafayette Lamar, owner of the last slave ship in America, was killed here. A historic marker has been erected in Columbus, it notes that this was the site of the "Last Land Battle in the War from 1861 to 1865." Reconstruction began immediately and prosperity followed. Factories such as the Eagle and Phenix Mills were revived and the industrialization of the town led to rapid growth; the Springer Opera House was built on 10th Street, attracting such notables as Irish writer Oscar Wilde.
The Springer is now the official State Theater of Georgia. By the time of the Spanish–American War, the city's modernization included the addition of trolleys extending to outlying neighborhoods such as Rose Hill and Lakebottom, a new water works. Mayor Lucius Chappell brought a training camp for soldiers to the area; this training camp named Camp Benning would grow into present-day Fort Benning, named for General Henry L. Benning, a native of the city. In the spring of 1866 the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus passed a resolution to set aside one day annually to memorialize the Confederate dead; the secretary of the association, Mrs. Charles J. Williams, was directed to write a letter inviting the ladies of every Southern state to join them in the observance; the letter was written in March 1866 and sent to representatives of all of the principal cities in the South, including Atlanta, Montgomery, Richmond, St. Louis, Alexandria and New Orleans; this was the beginning of the influential work by ladies' organizations to honor the war dead.
The date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rutherford Ellis. She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's final surrender to Union General Sherman at Bennett Place, North Carolina. For many in the South, that act marked the official end of the Civil War. In
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant is grown as a cash crop in Argentine Northwest, Colombia and Peru in areas where its cultivation is unlawful. There are some reports that the plant is being cultivated in the south of Mexico as a cash crop and an alternative to smuggling its recreational product cocaine, it plays a role in many traditional Andean cultures as well as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Coca is known throughout the world for cocaine; the alkaloid content of coca leaves is low, between 0.25% and 0.77%. The native people use it for like coffee, or an energy source or both. Coca-Cola used coca leaf extract in its products from 1885 and until about 1903. Extraction of cocaine from coca requires several solvents and a chemical process known as an acid-base extraction, which can easily extract the alkaloids from the plant; the coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, grows to a height of 2 to 3 metres. The branches are straight, the leaves are thin, opaque and taper at the extremities.
A marked characteristic of the leaf is an areolated portion bounded by two longitudinal curved lines, one line on each side of the midrib, more conspicuous on the under face of the leaf. The flowers are small, disposed in clusters on short stalks; the flowers mature into red berries. The leaves are sometimes eaten by the larvae of the moth Eloria noyesi. There are two species of cultivated coca, each with two varieties: Erythroxylum coca Erythroxylum coca var. coca – well adapted to the eastern Andes of Peru and Bolivia, an area of humid, montane forest. Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu – cultivated in the lowland Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Erythroxylum novogranatense Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense – a highland variety, utilized in lowland areas. It is cultivated in drier regions found in Colombia. However, E. novogranatense is adaptable to varying ecological conditions. The leaves have parallel lines on either side of the central vein. Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense – grown in Peru and Colombia.
The leaves of E. novogranatense var. truxillense do not have parallel lines on either side of the central vein like all other varieties. All four of the cultivated cocas were domesticated in pre-Columbian times and are more related to each other than to any other species. There are two main theories relating to the evolution of the cultivated cocas; the first suggests that Erythroxylum coca var. coca is ancestral, while Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense is derived from it to be drought tolerant, Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense derived from Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense. Recent research based on genetic evidence does not support this linear evolution and instead suggests a second domestication event as the origin of the Erythroxylum novogranatense varieties. There may be a undiscovered ancestor. Wild populations of Erythroxylum coca var. coca are found in the eastern Andes. The two subspecies of Erythroxylum coca are indistinguishable phenotypically. Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense are phenotypically similar, but morphologically distinguishable.
Under the older Cronquist system of classifying flowering plants, this was placed in an order Linales. Known as supercoca or la millionaria, Boliviana negra is a new form of coca, resistant to a herbicide called glyphosate. Glyphosate is a key ingredient in the multibillion-dollar aerial coca eradication campaign undertaken by the government of Colombia with U. S. financial and military backing known as Plan Colombia. The herbicide resistance of this strain has at least two possible explanations: that a "peer-to-peer" network of coca farmers used selective breeding to enhance this trait through tireless effort, or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory. In 1996, a patented glyphosate-resistant soybean was marketed by Monsanto Company, suggesting that it would be possible to genetically modify coca in an analogous manner. Spraying Boliviana negra with glyphosate would serve to strengthen its growth by eliminating the non-resistant weeds surrounding it. Joshua Davis, in the Wired article cited below, found no evidence of CP4 EPSPS, a protein produced by the glyphosate-resistant soybean, suggesting Bolivana negra was either created in a lab by a different technique or bred in the field.
Coca is traditionally cultivated in the lower altitudes of the eastern slopes of the Andes, or the highlands depending on the species grown. Coca production begins in the valleys and upper jungle regions of the Andean region, where the countries of Colombia and Bolivia are host to more than 98 per cent of the global land area planted with coca. Coca plantations have recently been discovered in Mexico, which could have major implications for the illegal cultivation of the plant; the seeds are sown from December to January in small plots sheltered from the sun, the young plants when at 40 to 60 centimetres in height are placed in final planting holes, or if the ground is level, in furrows in weeded soil. The pl
Futurama is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series follows the adventures of slacker Philip J. Fry, cryonically preserved for 1000 years and is revived in the 31st century. Fry finds work at an interplanetary delivery company; the series was envisioned by Groening in the mid-1990s while working on The Simpsons. In the United States, the series aired on Fox from March 28, 1999, to August 10, 2003, aired in reruns on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim from 2003 to 2007, it was revived in 2007 as four direct-to-video films, the last of, released in early 2009. Comedy Central entered into an agreement with 20th Century Fox Television to syndicate the existing episodes and air the films as 16 new, half-hour episodes, constituting a fifth season. In June 2009, Comedy Central picked up the show for 26 new half-hour episodes, which began airing in 2010 and 2011; the show was renewed for a final, seventh season, with the first half airing in 2012 and the second in 2013.
The series finale aired in September 2013. An audio-only episode featuring the original cast members was released in 2017 as an episode of The Nerdist Podcast. Futurama was nominated for 17 Annie Awards, winning seven, 12 Emmy Awards, winning six, it was nominated four times for a Writers Guild of America Award, winning for the episodes "Godfellas" and "The Prisoner of Benda". It was nominated for a Nebula Award and received Environmental Media Awards for the episodes "The Problem with Popplers" and "The Futurama Holiday Spectacular". Merchandise includes a tie-in comic book series, video games, calendars and figurines. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Futurama one of the top 60 Greatest TV Cartoons of All Time; the television network Fox expressed a strong desire in the mid-1990s for Matt Groening to create a new series, he began conceiving Futurama during this period. In 1996, he enlisted David X. Cohen a writer and producer for The Simpsons, to assist in developing the show; the two spent time researching science fiction books, television shows, films.
When they pitched the series to Fox in April 1998, Groening and Cohen had composed many characters and story lines. Groening described trying to get the show on the air as "by far the worst experience of my grown-up life". Fox ordered thirteen episodes. After, Fox feared the themes of the show were not suitable for the network and Groening and Fox executives argued over whether the network would have any creative input into the show. With The Simpsons, the network has no input. Fox was disturbed by the concept of suicide booths, Doctor Zoidberg, Bender's anti-social behavior. Groening explains, "When they tried to give me notes on Futurama, I just said:'No, we're going to do this just the way we did Simpsons.' And they said,'Well, we don't do business that way anymore.' And I said,'Oh, that's the only way I do business.'" The episode "I, Roommate" was produced to address Fox's concerns, with the script written to their specifications. Fox disliked the episode, but after negotiations, Groening received the same independence with Futurama.
The name Futurama comes from a pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Designed by Norman Bel Geddes, the Futurama pavilion depicted how he imagined the world would look in 1959. Many other titles were considered for the series, including "Aloha, Mars!" and "Doomsville", which Groening notes were "resoundly rejected, by everyone concerned with it". It takes six to nine months to produce an episode of Futurama; the long production time results in several episodes being worked on simultaneously. Groening and Cohen served as executive producers and showrunners during the show's entire run, functioned as creative consultants. Ken Keeler became an executive producer for subsequent seasons; the planning for each episode began with a table meeting of writers, who discussed the plot ideas as a group. The writers are given index cards with plot points that they are required to use as the center of activity in each episode. A single staff writer wrote an outline and produced a script. Once the first draft of a script was finished, the writers and executive producers called in the actors for a table read.
After this script reading, the writers collaborated to rewrite the script as a group before sending it to the animation team. At this point the voice recording was started and the script was out of the writers' hands; the writing staff held three Ph. D.s, seven master's degrees, cumulatively had more than 50 years at Harvard University. Series writer Patric M. Verrone stated, "we were the most overeducated cartoon writers in history". Futurama had eight main cast members. Billy West performed the voices of Philip J. Fry, Professor Farnsworth, Doctor Zoidberg, Zapp Brannigan and many other incidental characters. West auditioned for "just about every part", landing the roles of the Doctor Zoidberg. Although West read for Fry, his friend Charlie Schlatter was given the role of Fry. Due to a casting change, West was given the role. West claims that the voice of Fry is deliberately modeled on his own, so as to make it difficult for another person to replicate the voice. Doctor Zoidberg's voice was based on George Jessel.
The character of Zapp Brannigan was created and intended to be performed by Phil Hartman. Hartman insisted on auditioning for the role, "just nailed it" according to Groening. Due to Hartman's death, West was given the role. West states that his version of Zapp Brannigan was an imitation of Hartm
Carbonated water or soda water is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially injected under pressure or occurring due to natural geological processes. Carbonation causes small bubbles to form. Common forms include sparkling natural mineral water, club soda, commercially produced sparkling water. Club soda, sparkling mineral water and many other sparkling waters contain added or dissolved minerals such as potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, or potassium sulfate; these occur in some mineral waters but are commonly added artificially to man-made waters to mimic a natural flavor profile. Various carbonated waters are sold in bottles and cans, with some produced on demand by commercial carbonation systems in bars and restaurants, or made at home using a carbon dioxide cartridge, it is thought the first person to aerate water with carbon dioxide was William Brownrigg in 1740, although he never published a paper. Carbonated water was independently accidentally invented by Joseph Priestley in 1767 when he discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide after suspending a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery in Leeds, England.
He wrote of the "peculiar satisfaction" he found in drinking it, in 1772 he published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air. Priestley’s apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide, was soon joined by a wide range of others, but it wasn’t until 1781 that carbonated water began being produced on a large scale with the establishment of companies specialized in producing artificial mineral water; the first factory was built by Thomas Henry of England. Henry replaced the bladder in Priestley’s system with large bellows. While Priestley is regarded as “the father of the soft drink,” he did not benefit financially from his invention, he did however receive scientific recognition when the Council of the Royal Society “were moved to reward its discoverer with the Copley Medal” in 1772. Natural and man-made carbonated waters may contain a small amount of sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium sulfate, or disodium phosphate, depending on the product.
These occur in mineral waters but are added artificially to commercially produced waters to mimic a natural flavor profile. Artesian wells in such places as Mihalkovo in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains, Medžitlija in North Macedonia, most notably in Selters in the German Taunus mountains, produce effervescent mineral waters. By itself, carbonated water appears to have little impact on health. While carbonated water is somewhat acidic, this acidity can be neutralized by saliva. A study found that sparkling mineral water is more erosive to teeth than non-carbonated water but is about 100 times less erosive to teeth than are soft drinks. Carbonated water may increase irritable bowel syndrome symptoms of bloating and gas due to the release of carbon dioxide in the digestive tract, it does not appear to have an effect on gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is tentative evidence that carbonated water may help with constipation among people who have had a stroke. Carbonated water such as club soda or sparkling water is defined in US law as a food of minimal nutritional value if minerals, vitamins, or artificial sweeteners have been added to it.
Carbon dioxide gas dissolved in water at a low concentration creates carbonic acid according to the following reaction: H 2 O + CO 2 ↽ − − ⇀ H 2 CO 3 The acid gives carbonated water a tart flavor. The pH level between 3 and 4 is in between apple juice and orange juice in acidity, but much less acidic than the acid in the stomach. A normal, healthy human body maintains pH equilibrium via acid–base homeostasis and will not be materially adversely affected by consumption of plain carbonated water. Alkaline salts, such as sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or potassium citrate, will increase pH; the amount of a gas that can be dissolved in water is described by Henry's Law. In the carbonization process water is chilled, optimally to just above freezing, to maximize the amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in it. Higher gas pressure and lower temperature cause more gas to dissolve in the liquid; when the temperature is raised or the pressure is reduced, carbon dioxide effervesces, thereby escaping from the solution.
Many alcoholic drinks, such as beer and champagne, were carbonated through the fermentation process for centuries. In 1662 Christopher Merret was creating'sparkling wine'. William Brownrigg was the first to produce artificial carbonated water, in the early 1740s, by using carbon dioxide taken from mines. In 1750 the Frenchman Gabriel François Venel produced artificial carbonated water, though he misunderstood the nature of the gas that caused the carbonation. In 1764, Irish chemist Dr. Macbride infused water with carbon dioxide as part of a series of experiments on fermentation and putrefaction. In 1766 Henry Cavendish devised an aerating apparatus that would inspire Joseph Priestley to carry out his own experiments with regards to carbonated waters. Ca