Hardy Krüger is a German actor, who appeared in more than 60 films since 1944. Popular in his own country, Krüger is known for his appearances in international films like Hatari!, Sundays and Cybele, The Flight of the Phoenix, The Battle of Neretva, The Secret of Santa Vittoria, The Red Tent and Barry Lyndon. Hardy Krüger was born in Wedding, Berlin in 1928, his parents were ardent Nazis. "I was raised to love Hitler", he stated in a 2016 interview. From 1941, he went to an elitist Adolf Hitler School at the Ordensburg Sonthofen. At age 15, Hardy made his film début in a German picture, The Young Eagles, but his acting career was interrupted when he was conscripted into the German Wehrmacht in 1944 at age 16. In March 1945, Krüger was conscripted into the 38th SS Division Nibelungen where he was drawn into heavy fighting; the 16-year-old Krüger was ordered to eliminate a group of American soldiers. When he refused, he was sentenced to death for cowardice. Krüger described this experience as his break with Nazism.
He served as a messenger for the SS, but he escaped and hid out in Tyrol until the end of the war. He is today a member of the Amadeu Antonio Foundation and speaks out against right-wing extremism and for democracy citing his own experiences. Krüger continued his acting career after the Second World War with small stage roles because he could not afford an acting school, he established himself as a German film star during the 1950s. He appeared in the German version of The Moon Is Blue, directed by Otto Preminger. Krüger looked for international roles, because he found the German Heimatfilm cinema of the 1950s rather shallow, he first came to the attention of English language audiences in the 1957 British war film The One That Got Away, the story of Franz von Werra, the only German prisoner of war to escape from Allied custody and return to Germany. In 1960, Krüger bought Ngorongoro farm in the Tanganyika Territory, which he owned for 13 years. Ngorongoro and the area around it served as the setting for the 1962 film Hatari!, a Howard Hawks film, in which Krüger appeared with John Wayne.
Fluent in German and French, he has worked in numerous European and American films, including the Oscar-winning Sundays and Cybele, the original 1965 version of The Flight of the Phoenix. Other films include the comedy-drama The Secret of Santa Vittoria, where he played a German officer during the Second World War trying to find hidden wine in a small Italian town; because of his stereotypical Teutonic look, Krüger performed in roles portraying German soldiers. Krüger retired from acting in the late 1980s and is today a writer, he published 16 books since 1970, he directed a number of European television documentaries, showing him travelling around the world. Krüger married his third wife Anita in 1978, they live in Hamburg. He has three children, two of them are actors: Christiane Krüger, with his second wife Malaika Krüger and Hardy Krüger Jr.. 1959 Bravo Otto 1960 Bravo Otto 1983 Deutscher Filmpreis 1986 Goldene Kamera 2001 Bavarian Film Awards Honorary Award 2001 Officier de la Légion d’Honneur 2008 Bambi: Lifetime Achievement Award 2009 Grand Cross of Merit, neck cross List of people from Berlin Biography of Hardy Krüger Hardy Krüger on IMDb Hardy Krüger at the Internet Broadway Database
A photographic studio is a workspace to take, develop and duplicate photographs. Photographic training and the display of finished photographs may be accommodated in a photographic studio; the studio may have a darkroom, storage space, a studio proper where photographs are taken, a display room and space for other related work. A photographic studio is a business owned and represented by one or more photographers accompanied by assistants and pupils, who create and sell their own and sometimes others’ photographs. Since the early years of the 20th century the business functions of a photographic studio have been called a “photographic agency,” leaving the term “photographic studio” to refer exclusively to the workspace; the history of photographic studios and photography dates back to 19th century with the first camera. The earliest photographic studios made use of painters' lighting techniques to create photographic portraits. During that era the nothing was better than the sunlight with open window as the primary source of light of painters.
The first use of a "flash" dates back to 1839 when L. Ibbetson used limelight to photograph small objects. Limelight was produced by placing a piece of lime into a flame fuelled with oxy-hydrogen. Photographic studios started using flashes in 1840 and in 1864 the next technological breakthrough, magnesium wire, became the new artificial light source. However, not everyone could afford it as they were quite dangerous; these flashes were known as'hot lights' and could have exploded. By 1860s they were in common use in professional studios.'Tungsten Lights' or'Hot Lights' were still in use. In around 70s smaller studios got access to flash lights or strobes. People tried many things from time to time when setting up studios to cope up with different hurdles in photography; however lighting was a big hurdle. Flash powder was the first means of artificial lighting that allowed to produce sufficient brightness to capture the action of the film; however this industry developed at a faster rate. With advancement in camera lenses and other techniques and equipment, studio photography gained hold and it became quite easier to produce images within a studio.
The first commercial use of photography was in the production of portraits. Photography replaced painting by 40s. With equipped studios in existence; the photography process was much shorter and simple as compared to painting, in which the subject and the painter used to suffer.'Calotypes' was introduced in 1840s. With the introduction of calotypes the production of negative enabled the photographers to print as many copies as customer required, hence strengthening the base for the studios. In 1850s small portraits called'Ambrotypes' were being produced; the exposure time varied between 2 and 20 seconds in comparison to 8 hr long exposure when the first still portrait photograph was takenin 1826. With the time passing by, saw the advancement in the photography. However, trick photography has always been around from as long as photography is. Trick photography was replaced by Photoshop, it became cheap to set up the photographic studios. Modern studios are equipped with new age lighting and technology.
They are capable of producing high quality images in bulk. From the past 15 years the studio setup has changed drastically and still getting more digital. Art & Architecture Thesaurus, s.v. "studios". Accessed 31 January 2008. Art & Architecture Thesaurus, s.v. "studios". Accessed 31 January 2008. Evolution Of Photographic Studios Modern Photographic Studios History of Studio Photography
Aerial steam carriage
The aerial steam carriage named Ariel, was a flying machine patented in 1842, supposed to carry passengers into the air. It was, in practice, incapable of flight since it had insufficient power from its heavy steam engine to fly. A more successful model was built in 1848, able to fly for small distances within a hangar; the aerial steam carriage was significant because it was a transition from glider experimentation to powered flight experimentation. The Ariel was to be a monoplane with a wing span of 150 feet, weigh 3,000 lb and was to be powered by a specially-designed lightweight steam powered engine producing 50 hp; the wing area was to be 4,500 sq ft. with the tail another 1500, yielding a low wing loading. The inventors hoped that the Ariel would achieve a speed of 50 mph, carry 10–12 passengers up to 1,000 miles; the plan was to launch it from an inclined ramp. The undercarriage was a 3-wheel design. William Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow received British patent 9478 in 1842. In order that the description hereafter given be rendered clear, I will first shortly explain the principle on which the machine is constructed.
If any light and flat or nearly flat article be projected or thrown edgewise in a inclined position, the same will rise on the air till the force exerted is expended, when the article so thrown or projected will descend. Now, the first part of my invention consists of an apparatus so constructed as to offer a extended surface or plane of a light yet strong construction, which will have the same relation to the general machine which the extended wings of a bird have to the body when a bird is skimming in the air. William Samuel Henson, John Stringfellow, Frederick Marriott, D. E. Colombine, incorporated as the "Aerial Transit Company" in 1843 in England, with the intention of raising money to construct the flying machine. Henson built a scale model of his design, which made one tentative steam powered "hop" as it lifted or bounced, off its guide wire. Attempts were made to fly the small model, a larger model with a 20-foot wing span, between 1844 and 1847, without success; the company planned "to convey letters and passengers from place to place through the air", according to the patent.
In an attempt to gain investors and support in Parliament, the company engaged in a major publicity campaign using images of the Ariel in exotic locales, but the company failed to gain the needed investment. There was speculation in the press about whether the Ariel was a fraud. Stringfellow's son wrote the following: My father had constructed another small model, finished early in 1848, having the loan of a long room in a disused lace factory, early in June the small model was moved there for experiments; the room was about 22 yards long and from 10 to 12 feet high. The inclined wire for starting the machine occupied less than half the length of the room and left space at the end for the machine to clear the floor. In the first experiment the tail was set at too high an angle, the machine rose too on leaving the wire. After going a few yards it slid back as if coming down an inclined plane, at such an angle that the point of the tail struck the ground and was broken; the tail was set at a smaller angle.
The steam was again got up, the machine started down the wire, upon reaching the point of self-detachment, it rose until it reached the farther end of the room, striking a hole in the canvas placed to stop it. In experiments the machine flew well; the late Reverend J. Riste, lace manufacturer, Northcote Spicer, Esquire, J. Toms and others witnessed experiments. Mister Marriatt, late of the San Francisco News Letter brought down from London Mister Ellis, the leasee of Cremorne Gardens, Mister Partridge, Lieutenant Gale, the aeronaut, to witness experiments. Mister Ellis offered to construct a covered way at Cremorne for experiments. Mr Stringfellow repaired to Cremorne, but not much better accommodations than he had at ho
A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode; the terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit to the positive terminal. When a battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy reactants to lower-energy products, the free-energy difference is delivered to the external circuit as electrical energy; the term "battery" referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to include devices composed of a single cell. Primary batteries are discarded. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable electronic devices. Secondary batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times using an applied electric current.
Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones. Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to small, thin cells used in smartphones, to large lead acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries in vehicles, at the largest extreme, huge battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby or emergency power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. Batteries have much lower specific energy than common fuels such as gasoline. In automobiles, this is somewhat offset by the higher efficiency of electric motors in converting chemical energy to mechanical work, compared to combustion engines; the usage of "battery" to describe a group of electrical devices dates to Benjamin Franklin, who in 1748 described multiple Leyden jars by analogy to a battery of cannon.
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800. This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, that could produce a steady current for a considerable length of time. Volta did not understand, he thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, that the associated corrosion effects at the electrodes were a mere nuisance, rather than an unavoidable consequence of their operation, as Michael Faraday showed in 1834. Although early batteries were of great value for experimental purposes, in practice their voltages fluctuated and they could not provide a large current for a sustained period; the Daniell cell, invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic Daniell, was the first practical source of electricity, becoming an industry standard and seeing widespread adoption as a power source for electrical telegraph networks. It consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper sulfate solution, in, immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid and a zinc electrode.
These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leakage and spillage if not handled correctly. Many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile and dangerous; these characteristics made. Near the end of the nineteenth century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced the liquid electrolyte with a paste, made portable electrical devices practical. Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. In many cases, the electrical energy released is the difference in the cohesive or bond energies of the metals, oxides, or molecules undergoing the electrochemical reaction. For instance, energy can be stored in Zn or Li, which are high-energy metals because they are not stabilized by d-electron bonding, unlike transition metals. Batteries are designed such that the energetically favorable redox reaction can occur only if electrons move through the external part of the circuit. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells; each cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing metal cations.
One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the electrode to which anions migrate. Cations are reduced at the cathode; some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell. Each half-cell has an electromotive force relative to a standard; the net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. Thus, if the electrodes have emfs E 1 and E 2 the net emf is E 2 − E 1.
Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet was an English engineer and aviator. He is one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many consider him to be the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight. In 1799, he set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control, he was a pioneer of aeronautical engineering and is sometimes referred to as "the father of aviation." He discovered and identified the four forces which act on a heavier-than-air flying vehicle: weight, lift and thrust. Modern aeroplane design is based on those discoveries and on the importance of cambered wings identified by Cayley, he constructed the first flying model aeroplane and diagrammed the elements of vertical flight. He designed, he predicted that sustained flight would not occur until a lightweight engine was developed to provide adequate thrust and lift. The Wright brothers acknowledged his importance to the development of aviation.
Cayley represented the Whig party as Member of Parliament for Scarborough from 1832 to 1835, in 1838, helped found the UK's first Polytechnic Institute, the Royal Polytechnic Institution and served as its chairman for many years. He was a founding member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and was a distant cousin of the mathematician Arthur Cayley. Cayley, from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire, inherited Brompton Hall and Wydale Hall and other estates on the death of his father, the 5th baronet. Captured by the optimism of the times, he engaged in a wide variety of engineering projects. Among the many things that he developed are self-righting lifeboats, tension-spoke wheels, the "Universal Railway", automatic signals for railway crossings, seat belts, small scale helicopters, a kind of prototypical internal combustion engine fuelled by gunpowder, he suggested that a more practical engine might be made using gaseous vapours rather than gunpowder, thus foreseeing the modern internal combustion engine.
He contributed in the fields of prosthetics, air engines, theatre architecture, ballistics and land reclamation, held the belief that these advancements should be available. According to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers George Cayley was the inventor of the hot air engine in 1807: "The first working hot air engine was Cayley's, in which much ingenuity was displayed in overcoming practical difficulties arising from the high working temperature." His second hot air engine of 1837 was a forerunner of the internal combustion engine: "In 1837, Sir George Cayley, Bart. Assoc. Inst. C. E. applied the products of combustion from close furnaces, so that they should act directly upon a piston in a cylinder. Plate No. 9 represents a pair of engines upon this principle, together equal to 8 HP, when the piston travels at the rate of 220 feet per minute." He is remembered for his pioneering studies and experiments with flying machines, including the working, piloted glider that he designed and built.
He wrote a landmark three-part treatise titled "On Aerial Navigation", published in Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy and the Arts. The 2007 discovery of sketches in Cayley's school notebooks revealed that at school Cayley was developing his ideas on the theories of flight, it has been claimed that these images indicate that Cayley identified the principle of a lift-generating inclined plane as early as 1792. To measure the drag on objects at different speeds and angles of attack, he built a "whirling-arm apparatus", a development of earlier work in ballistics and air resistance, he experimented with rotating wing sections of various forms in the stairwells at Brompton Hall. These scientific experiments led him to develop an efficient cambered airfoil and to identify the four vector forces that influence an aircraft: thrust, lift and gravity, he discovered the importance of the dihedral angle for lateral stability in flight, deliberately set the centre of gravity of many of his models well below the wings for this reason.
As a result of his investigations into many other theoretical aspects of flight, many now acknowledge him as the first aeronautical engineer. His emphasis on lightness led him to invent a new method of constructing lightweight wheels, in common use today. For his landing wheels, he shifted the spoke's forces from compression to tension by making them from tightly-stretched string, in effect "reinventing the wheel". Wire soon replaced the string in practical applications and over time the wire wheel came into common use on bicycles, cars and many other vehicles; the model glider flown by Cayley in 1804 had the layout of a modern aircraft, with a kite-shaped wing towards the front and an adjustable tailplane at the back consisting of horizontal stabilisers and a vertical fin. A movable weight allowed adjustment of the model's centre of gravity. Around 1843 he was the first to suggest the idea for a convertiplane, an idea, published in a paper written that same year. At some time before 1849 he built a biplane in which an unknown ten-year-old boy flew.
With the continued assistance of his grandson George John Cayley and his resident engineer Thomas Vick, he developed a larger scale glider which flew across Brompton Dale
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
Fore Street, Chard
Fore Street in Chard, England was built in the late 16th and early 17th century, following a fire which destroyed much of the town in 1577. Fore Street is a main shopping thoroughfare with open water channels on either side. Local folklore claims that one stream flows into the Bristol Channel and the other reaches the English Channel; this situation changed. Numbers 7A,7B,9,11,13 & 13A Waterloo House and Manor Court House have been designated as Grade I listed buildings, they are now on the Heritage at Risk register. The Hamstone Waterloo House and Manor Court House were built in early 17th century; the history of the buildings is complex and not understood, although it is known that it was used as a court house at various periods. Worries about the condition of the buildings, others in the row from 7 to 13 Fore Street, the need for their preservation. Has been expressed throughout the 20th century. In 2010 when the Manor Court House, where Charles I signed a peace declaration during the English Civil War, was added to the Heritage at Risk register one local trader complained that not enough was being done to maintain and conserve the building.
Waterloo Court was built in the 16th century as a house, it has since been converted into a shop with a flat above it. In 1834 the Guildhall was built with a doric portico with a double row of Tuscan columns along the front, it now serves as the town hall. Chard Museum is housed in a 16th-century thatched building, four cottages; the building was converted and restored for use as a museum in 1970, incorporated the building next door, the New Inn public house. It houses collections of exhibits about local history and displays related to the lives of notable local residents; the L shaped school building was built in 1583 as a private house and converted into Chard Grammar School in 1671. It was damaged in the fire if 1727, it is a Grade II* listed building. In 1890 it became a boarding school and in 1972 a preparatory school. Monmouth House, built between 1770 and 1790, the 16th century chapel, are now part of the school. Pubs include the Dolphin Inn, built in 1840 and the George Hotel, constructed in the late 18th century.
The Weslyan Methodist Chapel was built in 1895 from Flemish bond brick. The branch of Lloyds Bank was built as a house on the site of the Chard Arms Hotel in 1849; the branch of National Westminster Bank was two houses when it was constructed around 1820. In 1938 a bomb proof bunker was built behind the branch of the Westminster Bank. During World War II it was used to hold duplicate copies of the bank records in case its headquarters in London was destroyed, it was used to store the emergency bank note supply of the Bank of England. There has been speculation that the Crown Jewels were stored there, however this has never been confirmed. In 1991 the town council commissioned bronze sculpture from Neville Gabie which were erected in Fore Street they are entitled Ball and Whirl. An album detailing the work and its commissioning is held by the Chard Museum. List of Grade I listed buildings in South Somerset