Glamorgan or, Glamorganshire is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales. It was originally a medieval petty kingdom of varying boundaries known as Glywysing until taken over by the Normans as a lordship. Glamorgan is latterly represented by the three preserved counties of Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan and West Glamorgan, the name survives in that of Vale of Glamorgan, a county borough. After falling under English rule in the 16th century, Glamorgan became a more stable county, the county of Glamorgan comprised several distinct regions, the industrial valleys, the agricultural Vale of Glamorgan, and the scenic Gower Peninsula. The county was bounded to the north by Brecknockshire, east by Monmouthshire, south by the Bristol Channel and its total area was 2,100 km2, and the total population of the three preserved counties of Glamorgan in 1991 was 1,288,309. From 1974 Glamorgan contained two cities, the county town and from 1955 the capital city of Wales, the highest point in the county is Craig y Llyn which is situated near the village of Rhigos in the Cynon Valley.
Glamorgans terrain has been inhabited by humankind for over 200,000 years, climate fluctuation caused the formation and reformation of glaciers which, in turn, caused sea levels to rise and fall. At various times life has flourished, at others the area is likely to have been completely uninhabitable, evidence of the presence of Neanderthals has been discovered on the Gower Peninsula. Whether they remained in the area during periods of cold is unclear. Sea levels have been 150 metres lower and 8 metres higher than at present, archaeological evidence shows that humans settled in the area during an interstadial period. The oldest known burial in Great Britain – the Red Lady of Paviland – was discovered in a coastal cave between Port Eynon and Rhossili, on the Gower Peninsula. The lady has been dated to c.29,000 years before present – during the Late Pleistocene – at which time the cave overlooked an area of plain. From the end of the last ice age Mesolithic hunter-gatherers began to migrate to the British Peninsula – through Doggerland – from the European mainland.
Human lifestyles in North-West Europe changed around 6000 BP, from the Mesolithic nomadic lives of hunting and gathering, to the Neolithic agrarian life of agriculture and they cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land and developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production. A tradition of long construction began in continental Europe during the 7th millennium BP – the free standing megalithic structures supporting a sloping capstone. Nineteen Neolithic chambered tombs and five possible henges have been identified in Glamorgan, two major groups of Neolithic architectural traditions are represented in the area, portal dolmens, and Severn-Cotswold chamber tombs, as well as tombs that do not fall easily into either group. Such massive constructions would have needed a large labour force – up to 200 men – suggestive of large communities nearby, archaeological evidence from some Neolithic sites has shown the continued use of cromlechi in the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – has made an impression on the area
Fellow of the Royal Society
As of 2016, there are around 1600 living Fellows and Honorary Members. Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually usually in May, each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS, see Category, Fellows of the Royal Society and Category, Female Fellows of the Royal Society. Every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members, like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science. As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS, see Category, Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters HonFRS.
Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include David Attenborough and John Palmer, prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain, H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category, Fellows of the Royal Society. The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows, Prince of Wales, Princess Royal, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Andrew, Duke of York. Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow. The election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination, each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal.
Previously, nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, the certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April, a candidate is elected if he or she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A further maximum of six can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows, nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with fifteen members and a chair
Edward Wortley Montagu (traveller)
Edward Wortley Montagu was an English author and traveller. He was the son of Edward Wortley Montagu, MP and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, whose talent and eccentricity he seems to have inherited. In 1716 he was taken by his parents to Constantinople, and at Pera in March 1716-17 was inoculated for smallpox, on the return of his parents to England in 1718 he was placed at Westminster School, from which he ran away more than once. On the first occasion in July 1726, he was traced to Oxford and he decamped again in August 1727, and was not recovered for some months. Two similar escapades are mentioned by his tutor, chaplain to the Duchess of Kingston and he was sent to travel with a tutor in the West Indies, and afterwards with a keeper to the Netherlands. He made, however, a study of Arabic at Leiden. His father made him an allowance, and he was heavily encumbered with debt. He served in the British army from 1743-1748, first as a cornet in the 7th Dragoon Guards and he fought at the Battle of Fontenoy.
He left the army in 1748 and he thereafter traveled in various parts for many years, writing brief diary notes of his travels along with occasional sketches, and finally returned to his studies in 1769. He was Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire in 1747, and was one of the secretaries at the conference of Aix-la-Chapelle that closed the War of the Austrian Succession. He was cleared after the first court hearing before the decision was overturned by the Parlement of Paris and he continued to sit in parliament, and wrote Reflections on the Rise and Fall of the Antient Republics. His father left him an annuity of £1000, the bulk of the property going to his sister Lady Bute and he set out for extended travel in the East, and George Romney describes him as living in the Turkish manner at Venice. Fluent in Hebrew, Arabic and Persian he was an excellent orator and his family thought him mad, and his mother left him a single guinea in her will, but her annuity devolved on him at her death. He died at Padua in Italy, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Edward Wortley.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Montagu. Edward Wortley Montagu 1713–1776, The Man in the Iron Wig, isobel Grundy, Edward Wortley Montagu, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Gruber, Ira. Books and the British Army in the Age of the American Revolution, chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press
Parliament of Great Britain
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801. Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, Acts of Union ratifying the Treaty were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain. The Acts dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new parliament, referred to as the Parliament of Great Britain and it was not even considered necessary to hold a new general election. While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, new legislation was thereafter to be enacted by the new parliament, after the Hanoverian King George I ascended the British throne in 1714 through the Act of Settlement of 1701, real power continued to shift away from the monarchy.
George was a German ruler, spoke poor English, and remained interested in governing his dominions in continental Europe rather than in Britain. Reformers and Radicals sought parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the British government became repressive against dissent and progress towards reform was stalled. During the first half of George IIIs reign, the still had considerable influence over Parliament. Most candidates for the House of Commons were identified as Whigs or Tories, reformers like William Beckford and Radicals beginning with John Wilkes called for reform of the system. In 1780 a draft programme of reform was drawn up by Charles James Fox and Thomas Brand Hollis and this included calls for the six points adopted by the Chartists. Pitt had previously called for Parliament to begin to reform itself, proposals Pitt made in April 1785 to redistribute seats from the rotten boroughs to London and the counties were defeated in the House of Commons by 248 votes to 174
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain.
Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, KG, PC was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain under George III. He was arguably the last important favourite in British politics and he was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707. A close relative of the Clan Campbell, Bute succeeded to the Earldom of Bute upon the death of his father, James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, in 1723. He was brought up thereafter by his uncles, the 2nd Duke of Argyll and Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, 1st and only Earl of Ilay, Viscount. Bute studied at Eton College and the University of Leiden, Netherlands, on 24 August 1736, he married Mary Wortley Montagu, bringing the large Wortley estates to his family. In 1737, due to the influence of his uncles, he was elected a Scottish representative peer, for the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany. During the Jacobite Rising of 1745, Bute moved to Westminster, upon the Princes death in 1751, the education of his son, Prince George, the new Prince of Wales, became a priority and in 1755 Bute was appointed as his tutor.
Bute arranged for the Prince and his brother Prince Edward to follow a course of lectures on natural philosophy by the itinerant lecturer Stephen Demainbray. Furthermore, following the death of the Prince Frederick, Bute became close to his widow, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha and it was rumoured that the couple were having an affair, and indeed soon after John Horne published a scandalous pamphlet alluding to a liaison between Bute and the Princess. Rumours of this affair were almost certainly untrue, as Bute was by all indications happily married, in 1780 Bute was elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Because of the influence he had over his pupil, Bute expected to quickly to political power following Georges accession to the throne in 1760. It would first be necessary to both the incumbent Prime Minister and arguably the even more powerful Secretary of State for the Southern Department. Re-elected as a Scottish representative peer in 1760, Bute was indeed appointed the de facto Prime Minister, bute’s premiership was notable for the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris which concluded the Seven Years’ War.
They therefore charged the colonists for the increased military levels, thus catalysing the resistance to taxes which led to the American Revolution, king George began to see through Bute, and turned against him after being criticised for an official speech which the press recognised as Butes own work. Bute proposed a controversial Cider tax which produced enormous hostility in cider-producing areas, the journalist John Wilkes published a newspaper called The North Briton, in which both Bute and the Dowager Princess of Wales were savagely satirised. Bute resigned as prime minister shortly afterwards, though he remained in the House of Lords a Scottish representative peer until 1780 and he remained friendly with the Dowager Princess of Wales, but her attempts to reconcile him with George III proved futile. For the remainder of his life, Bute remained at his estate in Hampshire, from there he continued his pursuit of botany and became a major literary and artistic patron. Among his beneficiaries were Samuel Johnson, Tobias Smollett, Robert Adam, William Robertson and he gave considerably to the Scottish universities
Adam Ferguson, FRSE, known as Ferguson of Raith, was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. Ferguson was sympathetic to traditional societies, such as the Highlands, for producing courage and he criticized commercial society as making men weak and unconcerned for their community. Ferguson has been called the father of sociology for his contributions to the early development of the discipline. His most well known work is his Essay on the History of Civil Society. It remains a matter of debate as to whether, at the Battle of Fontenoy, Ferguson fought in the ranks throughout the day, nevertheless, he certainly did well, becoming principal chaplain in 1746. He continued attached to the regiment till 1754, disappointed at not obtaining a living, he left the clergy, in 1759 Ferguson became professor of natural philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, and in 1764 transferred to the chair of pneumatics and moral philosophy. In 1767, he published his Essay on the History of Civil Society, in the mid-1770s he travelled again to the Continent and met Voltaire.
His membership of The Poker Club is recorded in its book of 1776. In 1778 Ferguson was appointed secretary to the Carlisle Peace Commission which endeavoured, in 1780 he wrote the article History for the second edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica. The article is 40 pages long and replaced the article in the first edition, in 1783 appeared his History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic, it became very popular and went through several editions. Ferguson believed that the history of the Roman Republic during the period of their greatness formed a practical illustration of those ethical and political doctrines which he studied especially, the history reads well and impartially, and displays conscientious use of sources. The influence of the military experience shows itself in certain portions of the narrative. Tired of teaching, he resigned his professorship in 1785, and devoted himself to the revision of his lectures, which he published under the title of Principles of Moral and Political Science.
In his seventieth year, intending to prepare a new edition of the history, visited Italy and some of the cities of Europe. From 1795 he resided successively at Neidpath Castle near Peebles, at Hallyards on Manor Water, and at St Andrews and he is buried in the churchyard of St Andrews Cathedral, against the north wall, just east of the eastmost fragments of the cathedral. The very large monument includes a profile portrait in marble. In his ethical system Ferguson treats man as a social being, illustrating his doctrines by political examples, as a believer in the progression of the human race, he placed the principle of moral approbation in the attainment of perfection. Victor Cousin criticised Fergusons speculations, We find in his method the wisdom and circumspection of the Scottish school, with something more masculine and decisive in the results
House of Commons
In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the respective upper house of parliament. The leader of the majority party in the House of Commons usually becomes the prime minister, since 2010 the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has had 650 elected members, and since 2015 the House of Commons of Canada has had 338 members. The Commons functions are to consider through debate new laws and changes to existing ones, authorise taxes and it has the power to give a Government a vote of no confidence. The House of Commons of the Kingdom of England evolved from an undivided parliament to serve as the voice of the subjects of the counties. Knights of the shire, elected from county, were usually landowners. These members represented subjects of the Crown who were not Lords Temporal or Spiritual, the House of Commons gained its name because it represented communities. After the Reformation, these bishops were those of the Church of England, since the 19th century, the British and Canadian Houses of Commons have become increasingly representative, as suffrage has been extended.
Both bodies are now elected via universal adult suffrage, from the Middle Ages until the 18th century there was a tendency to limit the suffrage in various ways, creating by the 18th century a large number of rotten boroughs. Although it is common to associate the title of House of Commons with the Westminster system in general, in practice, only two states actually use the title
Mary Stuart, Countess of Bute
Mary Stuart, Countess of Bute, 1st Baroness Mount Stuart was the wife of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, who was Prime Minister of Great Britain between 1762 and 1763. Lady Bute was born in 1718, the daughter of Sir Edward Wortley Montagu and Lady Mary Pierrepont. She was born during her fathers tenure as ambassador to Turkey, on 24 August 1736 she married John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, who became Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1762. James Archibald Stuart and author Lady Jane Stuart, married George Macartney, created Earl Macartney, on 1 February 1768. Lady Louisa Stuart, writer who died unmarried In 1761, she was created Baroness Mount Stuart, of Wortley in the county of York, Lady Bute died on 6 November 1794 in Isleworth, Middlesex. Her eldest son, succeeded to her title, miss Mary Wortley Montagu The Rt. The Countess of Bute The Rt
Dudley Ryder, 2nd Earl of Harrowby
Dudley Ryder, 2nd Earl of Harrowby KG, PC, FRS, styled Viscount Sandon between 1809 and 1847, was a British politician. He held office under Lord Palmerston as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1855, Harrowby was born in London, the son of Dudley Ryder, 1st Earl of Harrowby, and Lady Susan, daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford. He was educated at Christ Church, Harrowby was elected Member of Parliament for Tiverton in 1819, a seat he held until 1831 before switching to represent Liverpool until 1847. He served as a Lord of the Admiralty in 1827 and as Secretary to the Board of Control under Lord Grey between 1830 and 1831, in a few months he was transferred to the office of Lord Privy Seal, a position which he resigned in 1857. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1859, Harrowby was three times President of the Royal Statistical Society, chairman of the Maynooth commission and a member of other important royal commissions. He was regarded as among the most stalwart and prominent defenders of the Church of England, Lord Harrowby married Lady Frances, daughter of John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute, in 1823.
Harrowby remained a widower until his death at Sandon Hall on 19 November 1882 and he was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, Dudley. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Harrowby