John Sulston

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John Sulston
CH FRS
John Sulston.jpg
John Sulston portrait from the Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Born John Edward Sulston
(1942-03-27)27 March 1942[1]
Fulmer, Buckinghamshire, England
Died 6 March 2018(2018-03-06) (aged 75)
Nationality English
Citizenship Britain
Education Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood
Alma mater University of Cambridge (BA, PhD)
Known for Genome sequencing of Caenorhabditis elegans and humans[2][3][4][5]
Sulston score[6]
Apoptosis
Spouse(s) Daphne Edith Bate (m. 1966)[1]
Children 1 son, 1 daughter[1]
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
Thesis Aspects of oligoribonucleotide synthesis (1966)
Doctoral advisor Colin Reese[10][11]
Influences
Website sanger.ac.uk/people/faculty/honorary-faculty/john-sulston

Sir John Edward Sulston CH FRS (27 March 1942 – 6 March 2018[13]) was a British biologist and academic who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the cell lineage and genome of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans in 2002 with his colleagues Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz. He was a leader in human genome research and Chair of the Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation at the University of Manchester.[14][15][16] Sulston was in favour of science in the public interest, such as free public access of scientific information and against the patenting of genes and the privatisation of genetic technologies.[17]

Early life and education[edit]

Sulston was born in Fulmer, Buckinghamshire, England[18] to Arthur Edward Aubrey Sulston and Josephine Muriel Frearson, née Blocksidge,[1][19] his father was an Anglican priest and administrator of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. His mother quit her job as an English teacher at Watford Grammar School, to care for him and his sister Madeleine.[20] and home-tutored them until he was five. At age five he entered the local preparatory school, York House School, where he soon developed an aversion to games, he developed an early interest in science, having fun with dissecting animals and sectioning plants to observe their structure and function.[11] Sulston won a scholarship to Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood[1] and then to Pembroke College, Cambridge graduating in 1963 with a Bachelor of Arts[1] degree in Natural Sciences (Chemistry). He joined the Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, after being interviewed by Alexander Todd[11][21] and was awarded his PhD in 1966 for research in nucleotide chemistry.[10]

Career[edit]

Between 1966 and 1969 he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California.[19] His academic advisor Colin Reese[10][11] had arranged for him to work with Leslie Orgel, who would turn his scientific career onto a different pathway. Orgel introduced him to Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner, who worked in Cambridge, he became inclined to biological research.[20]

Although Orgel wanted Sulston to remain with him, Sydney Brenner persuaded Sulston to return to Cambridge[when?] to work on the neurobiology of Caenorhabditis elegans at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB). Sulston soon produced the complete map of the worm's neurons,[22] he continued work on its DNA and subsequently the whole genome sequencing. In 1998, the whole genome sequence was published in collaboration with the Genome Institute at Washington University in St. Louis,[23] [24] so that C. elegans became the first animal to have its complete genome sequenced.[25]

Sulston played a central role in both the C. elegans[3] and human genome[26] sequencing projects. He had argued successfully for the sequencing of C. elegans to show that large-scale genome sequencing projects were feasible. As sequencing of the worm genome proceeded, the Human Genome Project began, at this point he was made director of the newly established Sanger Centre (named after Fred Sanger[27]), located in Cambridgeshire, England.

In 2000, after the 'working draft' of the human genome sequence was completed, Sulston retired from directing the Sanger Centre, with Georgina Ferry, he narrated his research career leading to the human genome sequence in The Common Thread: A Story of Science, Politics, Ethics, and the Human Genome (2002).[28]

Awards and honours[edit]

Sulston was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1986.[8] His certificate of election reads:

John Sulston is distinguished for his work on the molecular and developmental genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans, his initial research was in the field of chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides. Sulston began his work on C. elegans in 1974 characterising its DNA. Since then he has carried out a wide range of genetical and developmental studies on the nematode but his major research has been on the developmental lineage and mutations that affect it; in a series of studies, culminating in a paper published in 1983, Sulston has analysed and described the total cell lineage of the nematode making it the first organism for which the origin of every cell is exactly known. This work is the basis for the study of mutations affecting lineages and is the foundation on which detailed studies of development in this organism will be based. Sulston has now turned his attention to an analysis of the genome of C. elegans and was constructing a total physical map using a novel method of analysing cloned DNA fragments.[29]

He was elected an EMBO Member in 1989[7] and awarded the George W. Beadle Award in 2000.[9] In 2001 Sulston gave the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on The Secrets of Life. In 2002, he won the Dan David Prize and the Robert Burns Humanitarian Award. Later, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine[30] with Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz, both of whom he had collaborated with at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB), for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'.

One of Sulston's most important contributions during his research years at the LMB was to elucidate the precise order in which cells in C. elegans divide. In fact, he and his team succeeded in tracing the nematode's entire embryonic cell lineage.[citation needed]

In 2006, he was awarded the George Dawson Prize in Genetics by Trinity College Dublin;[31] in 2013, Sulston was awarded the Royal Society of New Zealand's Rutherford Memorial Lecture, which he gave on the subject of population pressure.[32]

He was appointed a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH) in the 2017 Birthday Honours for services to science and society.[33]

On 23 October 2017 he was awarded the Cambridge Chemistry Alumni Medal.[34]

Sulston was a leading campaigner against the patenting of human genetic information.

Personal life[edit]

The Sulston Laboratories of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute are named in Sulston's honour.

John Sulston met Daphne Bate, a research assistant in Cambridge,[18] they got married in 1966[18] just before they left for US for postdoctoral research. Together they had two children, their first child, Ingrid, was born in La Jolla in 1967, and their second, Adrian, later in England.[35] The couple lived in Stapleford, Cambridgeshire where they were active members of the local community:[citation needed] John regularly volunteered in the local library and in working parties at Magog Down; he was a Trustee of Cambridge Past, Present and Future.[36][verification needed]

Although brought up in a Christian family, Sulston lost his faith during his student life at Cambridge, and remained an atheist,[11][19] he was a distinguished supporter of Humanists UK.[37] In 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.[38]

Sulston was in favour of free public access of scientific information, he wanted genome information freely available, and he described as "totally immoral and disgusting" the idea of profiteering from such research. He also wanted to change patent law, and argued that restrictions on drugs such as the anti-viral drug Tamiflu by Roche are a hindrance to patients whose lives are dependent on them.[19]

In December 2010, Sulston backed Julian Assange by providing bail sureties for him, according to Assange´s attorney Mark Stephens.[39] Sulston lost the money in June 2012, when a judge ordered it to be forfeited, as Assange had entered the embassy of Ecuador to escape the jurisdiction of the English courts.[40][41]

Sulston died on 6 March 2018 of stomach cancer, aged 75 years.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Anon (2015). Sulston, Sir John (Edward). ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.36669.  closed access publication – behind paywall (subscription required)
  2. ^ Wilson, R.; Ainscough, R.; Anderson, K.; Baynes, C.; Berks, M.; Bonfield, J.; Burton, J.; Connell, M.; Copsey, T.; Cooper, J.; Coulson, A.; Craxton, M.; Dear, S.; Du, Z.; Durbin, R.; Favello, A.; Fraser, A.; Fulton, L.; Gardner, A.; Green, P.; Hawkins, T.; Hillier, L.; Jier, M.; Johnston, L.; Jones, M.; Kershaw, J.; Kirsten, J.; Laisster, N.; Latreille, P.; Lightning, J. (1994). "2.2 Mb of contiguous nucleotide sequence from chromosome III of C. Elegans". Nature. 368 (6466): 32–38. doi:10.1038/368032a0. PMID 7906398. 
  3. ^ a b Sulston, J.; Brenner, S. (1974). "The DNA of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 95–104. PMC 1213121Freely accessible. PMID 4858229. 
  4. ^ Sulston, J. E.; Schierenberg, E.; White, J. G.; Thomson, J. N. (1983). "The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental Biology. 100 (1): 64–119. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(83)90201-4. PMID 6684600. 
  5. ^ Sulston, J. E.; Horvitz, H. R. (1977). "Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental Biology. 56 (1): 110–156. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(77)90158-0. PMID 838129. 
  6. ^ Sulston, J.; Mallett, F.; Staden, R.; Durbin, R.; Horsnell, T.; Coulson, A. (1988). "Software for genome mapping by fingerprinting techniques". Computer Applications in the Biosciences (CABIOS). 4 (1): 125–132. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/4.1.125. PMID 2838135. 
  7. ^ a b "John Sulston EMBO profile". people.embo.org. European Molecular Biology Organization. 
  8. ^ a b Anon (1986). "Sir John Sulston FMedSci FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016.  --"Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Kimble, J. (2001). "The 2000 George W. Beadle Medal. John Sulston and Robert Waterston". Genetics. 157 (2): 467–468. PMC 1461515Freely accessible. PMID 11370623. 
  10. ^ a b c Sulston, John Edward (1966). Aspects of oligoribonucleotide synthesis. repository.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. doi:10.17863/CAM.16307. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.648083.  Free to read
  11. ^ a b c d e f "John E. Sulston - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. 2002. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Dunitz, J. D.; Joyce, G. F. (2013). "Leslie Eleazer Orgel". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 59: 277–289. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2013.0002. 
  13. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/15/obituaries/john-e-sulston-75-dies-found-clues-to-genes-in-a-worm.html
  14. ^ "Professor Sir John Sulston - personal details". The University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 11 October 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  15. ^ Gitschier, Jane (2006). "Knight in Common Armor: An Interview with Sir John Sulston". PLOS Genetics. 2 (12): e225. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020225. PMC 1756915Freely accessible. PMID 17196043.  open access publication – free to read
  16. ^ Sulston, J. (2002). "A conversation with John Sulston". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 75 (5–6): 299–306. PMC 2588810Freely accessible. PMID 14580111. 
  17. ^ a b Ivan Oransky, Adam Marcus John Sulston. obituary 7 April 2018, The Lancet
  18. ^ a b c https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/mar/11/sir-john-sulston-obituary
  19. ^ a b c d "John E. Sulston". NNDB. Soylent Communications. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  20. ^ a b "John Sulston Biography Nobel Prize in Medicine". American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  21. ^ Brown, D. M.; Kornberg, H. (2000). "Alexander Robertus Todd, O.M., Baron Todd of Trumpington. 2 October 1907 -- 10 January 1997: Elected F.R.S. 1942". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 46: 515–532. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1999.0099. 
  22. ^ Sulston, J.E.; Horvitz, H.R. (1977). "Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental Biology. 56 (1): 110–156. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(77)90158-0. PMID 838129. 
  23. ^ Wilson, Richard K. (1999). "How the worm was won: the C. elegans genome sequencing project". Trends in Genetics. 15 (2): 51–58. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(98)01666-7. ISSN 0168-9525. 
  24. ^ The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome Sequence of the Nematode C. elegans: A Platform for Investigating Biology". Science. 282 (5396): 2012–2018. doi:10.1126/science.282.5396.2012. PMID 9851916. 
  25. ^ "Caenorhabditis genome sequencing". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  26. ^ Lander, E. S.; Linton, M.; Birren, B.; Nusbaum, C.; Zody, C.; Baldwin, J.; Devon, K.; Dewar, K.; Doyle, M.; Fitzhugh, W.; Funke, R.; Gage, D.; Harris, K.; Heaford, A.; Howland, J.; Kann, L.; Lehoczky, J.; Levine, R.; McEwan, P.; McKernan, K.; Meldrim, J.; Mesirov, J. P.; Miranda, C.; Morris, W.; Naylor, J.; Raymond, C.; Rosetti, M.; Santos, R.; Sheridan, A.; et al. (Feb 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature. 409 (6822): 860–921. doi:10.1038/35057062. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 11237011. 
  27. ^ Brownlee, George G. (2015). "Frederick Sanger CBE CH OM. 13 August 1918 — 19 November 2013". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society publishing. 61: 437–466. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2015.0013. ISSN 0080-4606. 
  28. ^ Sulston,, John; Ferry, Georgina (2002). The Common Thread a Story of Science, Politics, Ethics, and the Human Genome (1 ed.). Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 978-0-309-08409-3. 
  29. ^ "Certificate of Election EC/1986/35: John Edward Sulston". London: The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. 
  30. ^ John Sulston: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
  31. ^ "Nobel Laureate, Dr John Sulston, Receives the TCD Dawson Prize in Genetics". 
  32. ^ "Rutherford Memorial Lecturer". Royal Society of New Zealand. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  33. ^ "No. 61962". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 June 2017. p. B26. 
  34. ^ "Nobel Laureate awarded our Alumni Medal". Retrieved 10 March 2018. 
  35. ^ Sulston, John (2002). The Common Thread. Bantam. p. 22. ISBN 978-0309084093. 
  36. ^ https://www.cambridgeppf.org/about/#meettheteam
  37. ^ "Distinguished Supporters". British Humanist Association. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  38. ^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  39. ^ "Wikileaks' Julian Assange tells of 'smear campaign'". BBC. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  40. ^ Booth, Robert (8 October 2012). "Julian Assange supporters ordered to forfeit £93,500 bail money". The Guardian. 
  41. ^ "Julian Assange's backers lose £200,000 bail money". 4 September 2012. 

External links[edit]

Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Director of the Sanger Institute
1993–2000
Succeeded by
Allan Bradley